Gemelli DiVersi is an Italian hip hop group, best known for their hit single "Mary". Gemelli DiVersi formed in 1997 in Milan when two Italian rap crews, La Cricca and Rima Nel Cuore, merged, their first single was 1998's "Un attimo ancora", rapped over a sample of Pooh's "Dammi solo un minuto". The song and the accompanying album were hits in Italy, the group subsequently made an appearance in a Coca-Cola commercial. 4x4, their sophomore release, followed in 2000, the group toured with Eros Ramazzotti. In 2002, they returned with the album Fuego and the single "Mary", which became a massive hit in Italy, charting for eight months. In 2003, the group was named Best Italian Act at the MTV Europe Music Awards, they appeared at Live 8 in Italy in 2005 and starred in their own MTV Italy show called Pimp My Wheels, based on Pimp My Ride. In 2007 they released the album Boom! and in 2009 they released Senza Fine: Greatest Hits 98-09, featuring all their singles along with four new songs. Francesco Stranges - vocals Emanuele Busnaghi - rapping Luca Paolo Aleotti Alessandro Merli Gemelli DiVersi 4x4 Come piace a me Fuego Fuego Special Edition Reality Show Boom!
Senza fine'98 -'09 Tutto da capo Uppercut Gemelli Diversi at Allmusic
Censorship in the Republic of Ireland
In Ireland, the state retains laws that allow for censorship, including specific laws covering films, advertisements and magazines, as well as terrorism and pornography. In the early years of the state, censorship was enforced in areas that were perceived to be in contradiction of Catholic dogma, including abortion and homosexuality; the Republic of Ireland's Film Censors Office, renamed in 2008 as the Irish Film Classification Office cut films and videos for rental release, or placed high age ratings on them. In 2000 The Cider House Rules received an 18 certificate in the Republic of Ireland due to its themes of abortion and incest, although in other countries, such as the UK, the film received a 12 certificate. Advertisements are regulated by the Advertising Standards Authority for Ireland, must be truthful and factually accurate. In addition, adverts for illegal services are not allowed; the ASAI is a voluntary industry body which has no statutory powers and has no power to remove a publication from circulation.
This power is vested in the Censorship of Publications Board. Given the status of the ASAI some advertisers choose to continually ignore its rulings by running controversial advertisements purely to draw attention to their products and services. Whilst still theoretically censorable and magazines are free to publish anything which does not break Ireland's tough libel laws; the Censorship of Publications Board reviews newspapers and magazines referred to it by the Customs and Excise and by members of the public. Until the late 1980s a large number of newspaper and magazines were banned in Ireland including Playboy and the News of the World, the British edition of, still, banned when it ceased publication; the listing of periodicals under permanent banning orders as of 2007 includes many publications which have ceased to be published, as well as ones which are now sold without any realistic chance of prosecution, such as Health and Efficiency and The Weekly News. A large proportion of the banning orders date before.
In 2011, Paul Raymond Publications made an appeal against the ban on 5 of their publications, one of, banned for nearly 80 years. The appeal was upheld, meaning that these publications can be sold. Pornography that includes any participants being beneath the Irish age of consent is illegal; this includes videos, DVD, photographs, digital files and text descriptions. There are no other laws banning specific types of pornography in Ireland. However, distribution of obscene material by phone can be prosecuted under the Post Office Act of 1951, the Director of Film Classification at the Irish Film Classification Office may ban public display of films considered to be obscene, the Censorship of Publications Board may prohibit the sale and distribution of books and periodicals if they are found to be obscene; the magazine Playboy was illegal in Ireland until 1995. In the 1960s, the Roman Catholic Church via Archbishop John Charles McQuaid lobbied the Irish government to have pornography banned outright.
The government-controlled IE Domain Registry has a ban on all domain names it considers "offensive or contrary to public policy or accepted principles of morality". In particular, the domains Pornography.ie and Porn.ie are known to be banned. In July 2009, the Central Bank of Ireland blocked insurers and banks from making any critical statements containing "any references" to them by means either of "public press statements" or un-approved public references, whether "written or oral." This Act was passed by 78–71 in December 2010 in partial response to the 2008–2010 Irish banking crisis. Section 60 provides that the Irish government may apply to the courts for an order made under the Act to be heard in private. Section 59 prohibits anyone from publishing the fact that the minister has made an order or direction under the Act. Days after the Act was passed, an order was sought by minister Brian Lenihan Jnr and approved allowing a transfer of over €3,700,000,000 into Allied Irish Bank an insolvent bank.
Two Irish Times reporters were expelled from the court by judge Maureen Clark just before the hearing. Blasphemy is required to be prohibited by Article 40.6.1.i. of the 1937 Constitution. The common law offence of blasphemous libel, applicable only to Christianity and last prosecuted in 1855, was ruled in 1999 to be incompatible with the Constitution's guarantee of religious equality. Since banning blasphemy is mandated by the Constitution, abolishing the offence would require a referendum. Since it was deemed by the government of the time that a referendum for that purpose "would rightly be seen as a time wasting and expensive exercise", the lacuna was filled in 2009 by a new offence of "publication or utterance of blasphemous matter", against any religion, under the Defamation Act 2009, section 36; the law includes the offence of blasphemous libel. It has yet to be enforced; the continued existence of a blasphemy offence is controversial, with proponents of freedom of speech and freedom of religion arguing it should be removed.
The government formed in 2016 has committed to holding a referendum on abolishing the constitutional offence. The advocacy group Atheist Ireland responded to the enactment by announcing the formation of the "Church of Dermotology". On the date on which the law came into effect, it published a series of
Constitution of Ireland
The Constitution of Ireland is the fundamental law of the Republic of Ireland. It asserts the national sovereignty of the Irish people; the constitution falls broadly within the tradition of liberal democracy, being based on a system of representative democracy. It guarantees certain fundamental rights, along with a popularly elected non-executive president, a bicameral parliament based on the Westminster system, a separation of powers and judicial review, it is the second constitution of the Irish state since independence, replacing the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State. It came into force on 29 December 1937 following a statewide plebiscite held on 1 July 1937; the Constitution may be amended by a national referendum. The Constitution of Ireland replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State, in effect since the independence, as a dominion, of the Irish state from the United Kingdom on 6 December 1922. There were two main motivations for replacing the constitution in 1937. Firstly, the Statute of Westminster 1931 granted parliamentary autonomy to the six British Dominions within a British Commonwealth of Nations.
This had the effect of making the dominions sovereign nations in their own right. The Irish Free State constitution of 1922 was, in the eyes of many, associated with the controversial Anglo-Irish Treaty; the anti-treaty faction, who opposed the treaty by force of arms, was so opposed to the institutions of the new Irish Free State that it took an abstentionist line toward them, boycotting them altogether. However, the largest element of this faction became convinced that abstentionism could not be maintained forever; this element, led by Éamon de Valera, formed the Fianna Fáil party in 1926, which entered into government following the 1932 general election. After 1932, under the provisions of the Statute of Westminster, some of the articles of the original Constitution which were required by the Anglo-Irish Treaty were dismantled by acts of the Oireachtas of the Irish Free State; such amendments removed references to the Oath of Allegiance, appeals to the United Kingdom's Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, the British Crown and the Governor-General.
The sudden abdication of Edward VIII in December 1936 was used to redefine the Royal connection. The Fianna Fáil government still desired to replace the constitutional document they saw as having been imposed by the British government in 1922; the second motive for replacing the original constitution was symbolic. De Valera wanted to put an Irish stamp on the institutions of government, chose to do this in particular through the use of Irish Gaelic nomenclature. De Valera supervised the writing of the Constitution, it was drafted by John Hearne, legal adviser to the Department of External Affairs. It was translated into Irish over a number of drafts by a group headed by Micheál Ó Gríobhtha, who worked in the Irish Department of Education. De Valera served as his own External Affairs Minister, hence the use of the Department's Legal Advisor, with whom he had worked as opposed to the Attorney General or someone from the Department of the President of the Executive Council, he received significant input from The Rt Rev. John Charles Monsignor McQuaid, the President of Blackrock College, on religious, educational and social welfare issues.
Monsignor McQuaid became, in 1940, the Catholic Archbishop of Dublin. Other religious leaders who were consulted were: Archbishop Edward Byrne, Archbishop John Gregg, Rev. William Massey and Dr James Irwin. There are a number of instances where the texts in English and Irish clash, a potential dilemma which the Constitution resolves by favouring the Irish text though English is more used in the official sphere. A draft of the constitution was presented to the Vatican for review and comment on two occasions by the Department Head at External Relations, Joseph P. Walsh. Prior to its tabling in Dáil Éireann and presentation to the Irish electorate in a plebiscite, Vatican Secretary of State Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, the future Pope Pius XII, said of the final amended draft: "We do not approve, neither do we disapprove; the quid pro quo for this indulgence of the Catholic Church's interests in Ireland was the degree of respectability which it conferred on De Valera's denounced republican faction and its reputation as the'semi-constitutional' political wing of the'irregular' anti-treaty forces.
The text of the draft constitution, with minor amendments, was approved on 14 June by Dáil Éireann. The draft constitution was put to a plebiscite on 1 July 1937, when it was passed by a plurality. 56 % of voters were in favour. The constitution formally came into force on 29 December 1937. Among the groups who opposed the constitution were supporters of Fine Gael and the Labour Party and some independents and feminists; the question put to voters was "Do you approve of the Draft Constitution, the subject of this plebiscite?". When the draft new constitution was published, the Irish Independent described it as one of Mr. de Valera's "finest tributes to his predecessors". The Irish Times criticised the constitution's assertion of a territorial claim on Northern Ireland, the absence in its text of any reference to the British Commonwealth. The
Kurtis Walker, professionally known by his stage name Kurtis Blow, is an American rapper, songwriter, record/film producer, b-boy, DJ, public speaker and minister. He is the first to sign with a major record label. "The Breaks", a single from his 1980 self-titled debut album, is the first certified gold record rap song for Hip Hop. Throughout his career he has released 15 albums and is an ordained minister. Walker was raised in Harlem, New York City, he attended Nyack College, studying communications/film and ministry. In 1979, at the age of twenty, Kurtis Blow became the first rapper to be signed by a major label, which released "Christmas Rappin'", it sold over 400,000 copies. Its follow-up, "The Breaks" sold over half a million copies, he released ten albums over the next eleven years. His first album was Kurtis Blow. Party Time featured a fusion of go-go. Ego Trip included the hits: "8 Million Stories", "AJ Scratch", "Basketball", his 1985 album, garnered praise for its title track's music video.
From this album, the song "If I Ruled the World" a Top 5 hit on Billboard's R&B chart. By 1983, he moved into production. Besides his own work, Kurtis has been responsible for hits by The Fat Boys and Run DMC. Run began his career billed as'The Son of Kurtis Blow'. Lovebug Starski, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Full Force, Russell Simmons and Wyclef Jean all have been produced by, or collaborated with, Walker. Former label mates René & Angela had their R&B chart topping debut "Save Your Love" was gift rapped by Kurtis. Along with Dexter Scott King, Walker produced his most meaningful production "King Holiday", a song to celebrate Martin Luther King’s birthday, released in January 1986, he performed as an actor and in music coordination in several feature films including Leon Kennedy’s ”Knights of the City” and the hip hop film ”Krush Groove”. He was host and co-producer for ”Das Leben Amerikanischer Gangs”, an international film production focusing on the West Coast gang scene; as host and associate producer for Miramax’s ”Rhyme and Reason”, he gave an informative account of the status of hip hop, while he participated in the three volume record release ”The History Of Rap” for Rhino Records in 1998.
Kurtis co produced “Slippin, Ten Years With The Bloods” and won praises from Showtime for being the most viewed documentary in 2003. Kurtis was a producer for the Netflix Show “The Get Down”. Kurtis has spoken out emphatically against racism, he was an active participant in the Artists Against Apartheid record “Sun City”. He worked with Rev. Jesse Jackson's Operation Push and National Rainbow Coalition in Chicago and with Rev. Al Sharpton's Action Network in New York City. In 1995, he started working on-air in radio, Power 106, the #1 CHR radio station in Southern California, he hosted The Old School Show on Sunday nights. He worked for Sirius Satellite Radio on the Classic Old School Hip Hop station Backspin from 2000-2004. Beginning in 1996, Kurtis Blow was featured in a hip hop display at the Roll Hall of Fame. In the same year, rapper Nas debuted at #53 on the Billboard Hot 100 with his version of Blow's "If I Ruled The World"; the song went on to double platinum. In 1998, the group Next released "Too Close", in.
ASCAP honored Kurt and Next at a gala affair on May 26, 1999 for having the number one song for 8 months. In 2002, he traveled to the Middle East to tour the Armed Forces bases performing seventeen shows for the troops. In December 2014, Kurt was the Guest MC for the world premiere of The Hip Hop Nutcracker at New Jersey Performing Arts Center, a well received update of Tchaikovsky's holiday classic. A national tour of the show was scheduled to launch in November 2015 with Kurtis Blow reprising his role as Guest MC opening the show; the show has presently been up and running with 50-60 sold out performances during the holidays. In 2016 Kurtis was unanimously elected as Chairman of The Universal Hip Hop Museum; the museum is slated to open in 2022 in the Bronx point section of NYC. In 2017, Kurtis formed "The Bboy Committee", a group of 1st generation Bboys/Girls, who created the style of dance called Bboying and Break Dancing; the members of the Bboy Committee are as follows: Trixie, Dancing Doug, A1 Bboy Sasa, DJ Clark Kent, The Legendary Smith Twins, Cholly Rock, OG BGirl - Darlene Rivers, "Puppet", Lil Cesar Rivas, Shabba-Doo.
The committee is dedicated to the facilitation of the Universal Hip Hop Museum. Kurtis received his salvation "born again" in 1994, he became an ordained minister on August 16, 2009. As the founder of The Hip Hop Church in Harlem, Kurtis serves as rapper, DJ, worship leader and licensed minister. Kurtis Blow Deuce Tough The Best Rapper on the Scene Ego Trip America Kingdom Blow Back by Popular Demand Kurtis Blow Presents: Hip Hop Ministry Just Do It Father and Holy Ghost 30th Anniversary of The Breaks CD The Breaks The Best of Kurtis Blow Best of... Rappin' 20th Century Masters - The Millennium Collection: The Best of Kurtis Blow "Christmas Rappin'" "The Breaks" (1980, Mercury MDS
Without filter is a 2001 Italian film directed by Mimmo Raimondi starring J-Ax, DJ Jad and Luciano Federico. The film stars the hip hop duo Articolo 31 in their acting debut. Alessandro Aleotti: Nico Vito Perrini: Ray Albertino: Duca Conte Anna Melato: Nico's mother Chiara De Bonis: Betty Cochi Ponzoni: Nico's father Gino Mosna: Attilio Kay Rush: Angie Luciano Federico: Manu Paolo Sassanelli: Vanni Luca Aleotti: Grido Articolo 31: Fatti un giro Strada di città 2000 Fino in fondo Perché sì! Tranqi Funky Un'altra cosa che ho perso Guapa Loca Raptuz rock Domani Volume Con le buoneGemelli DiVersi: Ciò che poteva essere Funky lobby Musica Un attimo ancora TunaizdanaizSpace One: Latin lover Nuda Provo per te Profumi di stradaPooglia Tribe: Senza problemi Cime di rap MalatiLe iene: PauraXsense: Poche cose nuoveThe Individuals: I don't wanna be loveReggae National Tickets: Cose che succedono Senza filtro on IMDb
Recess is a general term for a period in which a group of people are temporarily dismissed from their duties. In education, recess is the scheduled time children get to experience physical and social, emotional benefits, engage with peers on playgroup equipment, monitored by teachers and staff. Many middle schools offer a recess to provide students with a sufficient opportunity to consume quick snacks, communicate with their peers, visit the restroom and various other activities. During recess, children play, learning through play has been long known as a vital aspect of childhood development; some of the earliest studies of play began in the 1890s. These studies sparked an interest in the developmental and behavioral tendencies of babies and children. Current research emphasizes recess as a place for children to “role-play essential social skills” and as an important time in the academic day that “counterbalances the sedentary life at school.” Play has been associated with the healthy development of parent-child bonds, establishing social and cognitive developmental achievements that assist them in relating with others, managing stress.
Although no formal education exists during recess and psychologists consider recess an integral portion of child development, to teach them the importance of social skills and physical education. Play is essential for children to develop not only their physical abilities, but their intellectual and moral capabilities. Via play, children can learn about the world around them; some of the known benefits of recess are that students are more on task during academic activities, have improved memory, are more focused, develop a greater number of neural connections, that it leads to more physical activity outside of the school setting. Psychomotor learning gives children clues on how the world around them works as they can physically demonstrate such skills. Children need the freedom to play to learn skills necessary to become competent adults such as coping with stress and problem solving. Through the means of caregiver's observations of children’s play, one can identify deficiencies in children’s development.
While there are many types of play children engage in that all contribute to development, it has been emphasized that free, spontaneous play—the kind that occurs on playgrounds—is the most beneficial type of play. Recess is key in the development of children. Studies have shown. During recess, children play games involving teamwork. On the playground, children use many leadership skills - they educate other children about games to play, take turns, learn to resolve conflicts while playing these games; the leadership skills promoted throughout recess are how children are able to continue to play the games. Along with developing social skills, recess helps with the development of children's brains. Recess gives the children’s brains a chance to “regroup” after a long day of class; the physical activity leads to the development of the brain. Brain research has shown a relationship between physical activity and the development of the human brain. Another study supports these findings from the brain research.
A school system that dedicated one third of their school day to nonacademic activities such as recess, physical education, etc. led to improved attitudes and fitness, improved test scores despite spending less time in the classroom. Problem solving is an integral part in child development and free play allows for children to learn to problem solve on their own. Teachers and caregivers can scaffold problem solving through modeling or assisting when a confrontation occurs. Although play should involve adults, adults or caregivers should not control the play because when adults control the play, the children can lose their creativity and group skills. Adults should let children create and follow agreed upon rules and only intervene if a serious conflict arises. Problem solving encourages children to cooperate with each other; the conflict resolution process helps children to attain a vast range of social and emotional skills such as empathy, self-awareness, self-regulation. This vast range or capabilities is referred to as "emotional intelligence" and is essential to building and maintaining relationships in adult life.
Teachers can view recess as a time to observe children's social and cognitive development skills and be able to develop different activities in the classroom that reflect the children's interests and development. Recess at its core is a social experience for children and as such, plays a significant part in the development of language. Children’s intentionality with language during recess is tied to navigating the social landscape of the playground; as early as preschool, children use language to make group decisions and establish authority or a standing in the social setting of the playground. One researcher states that children use language to “invoke play ideas as their own possessions to manage and control the unfolding play,” which engages a bidding war for group leadership; when viewing recess through a language perspective, the individual experience of the playground can vary depending on a willingness to follow other’s ideas, the development of language to modify play as it unfolds.
Depending on the weather, recess may be held indoors. Therefore should include creative activities that promote movement of moderate-to-vigorous intensity, whether in a gym or a classroom. Allowing the students to finish work, play board games or other activitie
Funk is a music genre that originated in African-American communities in the mid-1960s when African-American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music and rhythm and blues. Funk de-emphasizes melody and chord progressions and focuses on a strong rhythmic groove of a bass line played by an electric bassist and a drum part played by a drummer. Like much of African-inspired music, funk consists of a complex groove with rhythm instruments playing interlocking grooves. Funk uses the same richly colored extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with added sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths and thirteenths. Funk originated in the mid-1960s, with James Brown's development of a signature groove that emphasized the downbeat—with heavy emphasis on the first beat of every measure, the application of swung 16th notes and syncopation on all bass lines, drum patterns, guitar riffs. Other musical groups, including Sly and the Family Stone, the Meters, Parliament-Funkadelic, soon began to adopt and develop Brown's innovations.
While much of the written history of funk focuses on men, there have been notable funk women, including Chaka Khan, Lyn Collins, Brides of Funkenstein, Mother's Finest, Betty Davis. Funk derivatives include the psychedelic funk of George Clinton. Funk samples and breakbeats have been used extensively in hip hop and various forms of electronic dance music, such as house music, old-school rave and drum and bass, it is the main influence of go-go, a subgenre associated with funk. The word funk referred to a strong odor, it is derived from Latin "fumigare" via Old French "fungiere" and, in this sense, it was first documented in English in 1620. In 1784 "funky" meaning "musty" was first documented, which, in turn, led to a sense of "earthy", taken up around 1900 in early jazz slang for something "deeply or felt". In early jam sessions, musicians would encourage one another to "get down" by telling one another, "Now, put some stank on it!". At least as early as 1907, jazz songs carried titles such as Funky.
The first example is an unrecorded number by Buddy Bolden, remembered as either "Funky Butt" or "Buddy Bolden's Blues" with improvised lyrics that were, according to Donald M. Marquis, either "comical and light" or "crude and downright obscene" but, in one way or another, referring to the sweaty atmosphere at dances where Bolden's band played; as late as the 1950s and early 1960s, when "funk" and "funky" were used in the context of jazz music, the terms still were considered indelicate and inappropriate for use in polite company. According to one source, New Orleans-born drummer Earl Palmer "was the first to use the word'funky' to explain to other musicians that their music should be made more syncopated and danceable." The style evolved into a rather hard-driving, insistent rhythm, implying a more carnal quality. This early form of the music set the pattern for musicians; the music was identified as slow, loose, riff-oriented and danceable. A great deal of funk is rhythmically based on a two-celled onbeat/offbeat structure, which originated in sub-Saharan African music traditions.
New Orleans appropriated the bifurcated structure from the Afro-Cuban mambo and conga in the late 1940s, made it its own. New Orleans funk, as it was called, gained international acclaim because James Brown's rhythm section used it to great effect. Funk uses the same richly coloured extended chords found in bebop jazz, such as minor chords with added sevenths and elevenths, or dominant seventh chords with altered ninths. However, unlike bebop jazz, with its complex, rapid-fire chord changes, funk abandoned chord changes, creating static single chord vamps with melodo-harmonic movement and a complex, driving rhythmic feel; some of the best known and most skilful soloists in funk have jazz backgrounds. Trombonist Fred Wesley and saxophonist Pee Wee Ellis and Maceo Parker are among the most notable musicians in the funk music genre, with both of them working with James Brown, George Clinton and Prince; the chords used in funk songs imply a dorian or mixolydian mode, as opposed to the major or natural minor tonalities of most popular music.
Melodic content was derived by mixing these modes with the blues scale. In the 1970s, jazz music drew upon funk to create a new subgenre of jazz-funk, which can be heard in recordings by Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock. Funk creates an intense groove by using strong guitar riffs and bass lines played on electric bass. Like Motown recordings, funk songs use bass lines as the centerpiece of songs. Indeed, funk has been called the style in which the bass line is most prominent in the songs, with the bass playing the "hook" of the song. Early funk basslines used syncopation, but with the addition of more of a "driving feel" than in New Orleans funk, they used blues scale notes along with the major third above the root. Funk basslines use sixteenth note syncopation, blues scales, repetitive patterns with leaps of an octave or a larger interval. Funk bass lines emphasize repetitive patterns, locked-in grooves, continuous playing, slap and popping bass. Slapping and popping uses a mixture of thumb-slapped low notes (also