In Celtic polytheism, Sirona was a goddess worshipped predominantly in East Central Gaul and along the Danubian limes. A healing deity, she was associated with healing springs, she was sometimes depicted with Apollo Borvo. She was worshipped by the Treveri in the Moselle Valley; the name of the goddess was written in various ways: Sirona, Đirona, indicating some difficulty in capturing the initial sound in the Latin alphabet. The symbol Đ is used here to represent the Tau Gallicum, an additional letter used in Gaulish representing the cluster ts, interchangeable with st- in word-initial position and it is not a form of the letter "D"; the root is a long vowel Gaulish variant of proto-Celtic *ster- meaning ‘star’. The same root is found in Old Irish as Welsh seren, Middle Cornish sterenn and Breton steren; the name Đirona consists of a long-vowel, o-grade stem tsīro- derived from the root *ster- and a -no- suffix forming adjectives of appurtenance in many Indo-European languages. Alternatively it may be an augmentative - on - suffix found in many Celtic divine epithets.
To this is suffixed the Gaulish feminine singular -a, the usual feminine variant of o-stem adjectives and nouns. So *Tsīrona would seem to have meant ‘stellar’ or ‘astral’. Due to her association with Apollo Grannus, the Interpretatio Romana has sometimes identified Sirona with the Roman goddess Diana; the evidence for Sirona is both representational. As the map shows, it is concentrated in east-central Gaul, up to the Germanic lines, along the Danubian limes as far east as Budapest. A few outliers are seen in Aquitaine and one in Italy. There are no Sirona finds in any of the other Roman provinces; some inscriptions, such as those at Bordeaux CIL XIII, 00582, Corseul CIL XIII, 03143, the three from Ihn in Saarland, Germany AE 1994, 1256, AE 1994, 1257, AE 1991, 1248, Mainz CIL XIII, 06753, Mühlburg in Baden-Württemberg CIL XIII, 06327 and Trier are to the goddess Sirona alone, deae Đironae. More Sirona is paired with Apollo, as in this inscription from Graux CIL XIII, 04661 in the Vosges mountains: Apollini et Si/ronae / Biturix Iulii f / dor this inscription from Luxeuil-les-Bains in Franche-Comté CIL XIII, 05424: Apollini / et Sironae / idem / TaurusWhen paired with Sirona, Apollo is assimilated with a Gaulish deity, such as Apollo Borvo or Apollo Grannus.
An example from Sarmizegetusa in Dacia AE 1983, 00828: Apollini / Granno et / Sironae / C Sempronius / Urbanus / proc Augand another from Augsburg AE 1992, 01304 where Sirona is given the epithet sancta and is identified with Diana: Apollini / Granno / Dianae / ancte Sirone / ro sal sua / suorumq / omn / Iulia MatronaA dedication from Großbottwar in Baden-Württemberg CIL XIII, 06458 can be dated to the year 201 CE by mention of the two consuls, L. Annius Fabianus and M. Nonius Arrius Mucianus: In h d d Aponi et Sironae / aedem cum signis C Longinius / Speratus vet leg XXII Pr P F et Iunia Deva coniunx et Lon/gini Pacatus Martinula Hila/ritas Speratianus fili in / suo posuerunt v s l l m / Muciano et Fabiano cos At the sulphur springs of Alzey in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, a stone bas-relief shows Sirona wearing a long gown and carrying a patera in her right hand and a sceptre in her left; the identification as Sirona is assured by a dedication to Sirona. The richly furnished spring sanctuary of Hochscheid was decorated with statues of Sirona and Apollo, again confirmed by an inscription AE 1941, 00089 Deo Apolli/ni et sanc/te Sirone....
The statue of Sirona shows her carrying a bowl of eggs and holding a long snake coiled around her lower arm. She has a star-shaped diadem on her head. A bronze statue from Mâlain in the Côte d'Or and dating to around 280 CE shows Sirona naked to the waist and holding a snake draped over her left arm, together with a classical Apollo with lyre; the inscription is Thiron et Apollo. A stone with an engraved bust of Sirona from Saint-Avold, now in the Musée de Metz, bears an inscription: Deae Đironae/ Maior Ma/giati filius / v s l m. At Vienne-en-Val in the Loiret, a square stone pillar depicts Sirona, Apollo and Hercules. Sirona wears a diadem, from which falls a veil, her left hand holds a cornucopia and in her right is a patera which she is offering to a coiled snake. Again there is a similarity with Hygeia, who carries a snake. Indeed, when a statue has no inscription, it is not clear whether Sirona or Hygeia is depicted, a syncretism demonstrated by the inscription at Wein which includes Sirona and Aesculapius, the Roman form of Asklepios: O M / Apollini / et Sirona / sculap / P Ael Luciu/s | leg X v s / l l mA different aspect of Sirona is shown at Sainte-Fontaine, where Sirona holds fruit and corn.
Several temples to Sirona are known. These were of the Gallo-Roman fanum type, an inner with an outer walkway or pronaos, were constructed around thermal springs or wells, as at Augst and Oppenheim-Nierste
Brigantia was a goddess in Celtic religion of Late Antiquity. Through interpretatio Romana, she was equated with Victoria; the tales connected to the characters of Brigid and Saint Brigid in Irish mythology and legend have been argued to be connected to Brigantia although the figures themselves remain distinct. The name is derived from Proto-Celtic *Brigantī and means "The High One", cognate with the Old Irish name Brigit, the Old High German personal name Burgunt, the Sanskrit word Bṛhatī "high", an epithet of the Hindu dawn goddess Ushas, Avestan bǝrǝzaitī; the ultimate source is Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥ǵʰéntih₂, derived from the root *bʰerǵʰ-. Seven inscriptions to Brigantia are known, all from Britain. At Birrens and Galloway, in Scotland, is an inscription: Brigantiae s Amandus / arcitectus ex imperio imp. Brigantia is assimilated to Victoria in two inscriptions, one from Castleford in Yorkshire and one from Greetland near Halifax in Yorkshire; the may be dated to 208 AD by mention of the consuls: D Vict Brig / et num Aauugg / T Aur Aurelian/us d d pro se / et suis s mag s // Antonin / III et Geta / cossAt Corbridge on Hadrians Wall - in antiquity, Coria - Brigantia has the divine epithet Caelestis and is paired with Jupiter Dolichenus: Iovi aeterno / Dolicheno / et caelesti / Brigantiae / et Saluti / C Iulius Ap/olinaris / | leg VI iuss deiThere is an inscription at Irthington, Yorkshire DEAE NYMPHAE BRIGANTIAE—"divine nymph Brigantia".
Garret Olmstead noted numismatic legends in Iberian script, BRIGANT_N inscribed on a Celtiberian coin, suggesting a cognate Celtiberian goddess. At Birrens, archaeologists have found a Roman-era stone bas-relief of a female figure; the inscription mentioned above assures the identification of the statue as Brigantia rather than Minerva. A statue found in Brittany seems to depict Brigantia with the attributes of Minerva. There are several placenames deriving from'Brigantium', the neuter form of the same adjective of which the feminine became the name of the goddess. Association of these with the goddess is however dubious, since the placenames are explained as referring to a "high fort" or "high place" in the literal sense. Lisa Bitel noted a wide spread through toponymy: The town of Bregenz, at the eastern end of Lake Constance in Austria, retains the older name of Brigantion, a tribal capital of a people called the Brigantii after a goddess Brigant; the rivers Brent in England, Braint in Wales, Brigid in Ireland are all related linguistically and maybe religiously to the root Brig/Brigant...
Ptolemy, a second-century geographer, did mention a tribe calling itself the Brigantes in Leinster. But nothing remains of the Irish Brigantes except this single tribal name on a Greek's map, the river Brigid, much literary references to saints and supernatural figures named Brigit. Other towns which may preserve this theonym include Brigetio in Hungary Brianconnet and Briançon, both in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France. In antiquity, Briançon was the first town on the Via Domitia, it is attested by an inscriptions mentioning munic Bri/gantione geniti. At Brianconnet, an inscription mentions ord Brig. There, oak trees were venerated; the ancient name of Bragança in Trás-os-Montes, was Brigantia. The inhabitants today are still called brigantinos. Braga is another town in Portugal, it is the capital of the district of the same name in the province of Minho. A short distance up the coast, the cities of A Coruña and Betanzos in present-day Galicia were named Brigantia and Brigantium. According to the Lebor Gabála Érenn Breogán found the city called Brigantia, built a tower there from the top of which his son Íth glimpses Ireland and sets sail across the Celtic Sea to invade and settle it.
Brigantes, Celtic tribe associated with Northern England Isurium Brigantum Breton language Breton people Année Epigraphique, yearly volumes. Bitel, Lisa M. "St. Brigit of Ireland: From Virgin Saint to Fertility Goddess" on-line) Claus, Manfredd. Online epigraphic search tool Ellis, Peter Berresford Dictionary of Celtic Mythology Oxford Paperback Reference, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-508961-8 Gree, Miranda The Gods of the Celts. Stroud, Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1581-1 Green, Miranda Celtic Goddesses: Warriors and Mothers New York, pp 195–202. MacKillop, James Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280120-1. Olmstead, Garret The Gods of the Celts and Indo-Europeans Budapest, pp 354–361 Roman Inscriptions of Britain. Wood, Juliette The Celts: Life and Art. Thorsons. ISBN 0-00-76
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions. It forms an authoritative source for documenting the surviving epigraphy of classical antiquity. Public and personal inscriptions throw light on all aspects of Roman history; the Corpus continues to be updated in new supplements. CIL refers to the organization within the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities responsible for collecting data on and publishing the Latin inscriptions, it was founded in 1853 by Theodor Mommsen and is the first and major organization aiming at a comprehensive survey. The CIL collects all Latin inscriptions from the whole territory of the Roman Empire, ordering them geographically and systematically; the earlier volumes collected and published authoritative versions of all inscriptions known at the time—most of these had been published in a wide range of publications. The descriptions include images of the original inscription if available, drawings showing the letters in their original size and position, an interpretation reconstructing abbreviations and missing words, along with discussion of issues and problems.
The language of the CIL is Latin. In 1847 a committee was created in Berlin with the aim of publishing an organized collection of Latin inscriptions, described piecemeal by hundreds of scholars over the preceding centuries; the leading figure of this committee was Theodor Mommsen. Much of the work involved personal inspections of sites and monuments in an attempt to replicate the original as much as possible. In those cases where a cited inscription could no longer be found, the authors tried to get an accurate reading by comparing the versions of the published inscription in the works of previous authors who had seen the original; the first volume appeared in 1853. The CIL presently consists of 17 volumes in about 70 parts, recording 180,000 inscriptions. Thirteen supplementary volumes have special indices; the first volume, in two sections, covered the oldest inscriptions, to the end of the Roman Republic. The other volumes cover other topics. Volume XVII, for instance, is devoted to milestones.
A volume XVIII is planned. A two-volume "Index of Numbers", correlating inscription numbers with volume numbers, was published in 2003; the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften continues to update and reprint the CIL. Epigraphy Inscriptiones Graecae Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae Corpus Inscriptionum et Monumentorum Religionis Mithriacae Prosopographia Imperii Romani "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum". Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 13 November 2009. "CIL volumes". Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Retrieved 19 December 2009. "English translations of selected inscriptions from CIL". Attalus.org. Retrieved 8 October 2012
In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, ponies and mules. She was a goddess of fertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures, she and her horses might have been leaders of the soul in the after-life ride, with parallels in Rhiannon of the Mabinogion. The worship of Epona, "the sole Celtic divinity worshipped in Rome itself", was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries AD. Although known only from Roman contexts, the name Epona is from the Gaulish language. In an episode preserved in a remark of Pausanias, an archaic Demeter Erinys too had been a Great Mare, mounted by Poseidon in the form of a stallion and foaled Arion and the Daughter, unnamed outside the Arcadian mysteries. Demeter was venerated as a mare in Lycosoura in Arcadia into historical times. Fernand Benoît found the earliest attestations of a cult of Epona in the Danubian provinces and asserted that she had been introduced in the limes of Gaul by horsemen from the east.
That suggestion has not been taken up. Although the name is Gaulish, dedicatory inscriptions to Epona are in Latin or Greek, they were made not only by Celts, but by Germans and other inhabitants of the Roman Empire. An inscription to Epona from Mainz, identifies the dedicator as Syrian. A long Latin inscription of the first century BC, engraved in a lead sheet and accompanying the sacrifice of a filly and the votive gift of a cauldron, was found in 1887 at Rom, Deux-Sèvres, the Roman Rauranum. Olmsted reads the inscription as invoking the goddess with an archaic profusion of epithets: Eponina'dear little Epona', Atanta'horse-goddess', Potia'powerful Mistress', Dibonia", Catona'of battle', noble and good Vovesia. However, Olmsted's interpretation has not been accepted by other scholars. Epona's feast day in the Roman calendar was given as December 18 on a rustic calendar from Guidizzolo, although this may have been only a local celebration, she was incorporated into the imperial cult by being invoked on behalf of the Emperor, as Epona Augusta or Epona Regina.
The supposed autonomy of Celtic civilization in Gaul suffered a further setback with Fernand Benoît's study of the funereal symbolism of the horseman with the serpent-tailed daemon, which he established as a theme of victory over death, Epona. Benoît compared the rider with most of the riders imaged around the Mediterranean shores. Perceptions of native Celtic goddesses had changed under Roman hegemony: only the names remained the same; as Gaul was Romanized under the early Empire, Epona’s sovereign role evolved into a protector of cavalry. The cult of Epona was spread over much of the Roman Empire by the auxiliary cavalry, alae the Imperial Horse Guard or equites singulares augustii recruited from Gaul, Lower Germany, Pannonia. A series of their dedications to Epona and other Celtic and German deities was found in Rome, at the Lateran; as Epane she is attested in Cantabria, northern Spain, on Mount Bernorio, Palencia, as Iccona Loiminna in Portugal on the Lusitanian inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas.
A euhemeristic account of Epona's origin occurs in the Parallela Minora, which were traditionally attributed to Plutarch: Fulvius Stellus hated women and used to consort with a mare and in due time the mare gave birth to a beautiful girl and they named her Epona. She is the goddess, concerned with the protection of horses. So Agesilaüs in the third book of his Italian History; the tale was passed along in the context of unseemly man-beast coupling in Giambattista Della Porta's edition of Magia naturalis, a potpourri of the sensible and questionable, erroneously citing Plutarch's Life of Solon. It may represent some recollection of Indo-European horse sacrifice, such as the Vedic ashvamedha and the Irish ritual described by Giraldus Cambrensis, both of which have to do with kingship. In the Celtic ritual, the king mates with a white mare thought to embody the goddess of sovereignty. Sculptures of Epona fall into five types, as distinguished by Benoît: riding, standing or seated before a horse, standing or seated between two horses, a tamer of horses in the manner of potnia theron and the symbolic mare and foal.
In the Equestrian type, common in Gaul, she is depicted sitting side-saddle on a horse or lying on one. In distant Dacia, she is represented on a stela in the format of Cybele, seated frontally on a throne with her hands on the necks of her paired animals: her horses are substitutions for Cybele's lions. Epona is mentioned in The Golden Ass by Apuleius, where an aedicular niche with her image on a pillar in a stable has been garlanded with freshly picked roses. In his Satires, the Roman poet Juvenal links the worship and iconography of Epona to the area of a stable. Small images of Epona have been f
In the Celtic polytheism of classical antiquity, Grannus was a deity associated with spas, healing thermal and mineral springs, the sun. He was identified with Apollo as Apollo Grannus, he was worshipped in conjunction with Sirona, sometimes with Mars and other deities. In the early twentieth century, the name was connected with the Irish grian, ‘sun’. Along these lines, the god was linked to the Deò-ghrèine and the character Mac Gréine of Irish mythology. However, the Irish grian, ‘sun’ is thought to be derived from Proto-Celtic *greinā ‘sun’ and the Proto-Celtic *greinā is unlikely to have developed into Grannos in Gaulish and other Continental Celtic languages. Derivation from a Proto-Celtic root *granno- ‘beard’ has enjoyed some scholarly support, from which Jürgen Zeidler dissents, proposing a different root *granno- with "probable reference to the sun's heat and healing properties". Ranko Matasović, in his Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic, has tentatively proposed that the root of this theonym comes from Proto-Celtic *gwrenso-, which means "heat".
At Monthelon, Grannus is called Deus Apollo Grannus Amarcolitanus, at Horbourg-Wihr Apollo Grannus Mogounus. In all of his centres of worship where he is assimilated to a Roman god, Grannus was identified with Apollo in Apollo’s role as a healing or solar deity. In Trier, he is identified more with Phoebus as Apollo Grannus Phoebus. One of the god’s most famous cult centres was at Aquae Granni. Aachen means ‘water’ in Old High German, a calque of the Roman name of "Aquae Granni"; the town’s hot springs with temperatures between 45 °C and 75 °C lay in the somewhat inhospitably marshy area around Aachen's basin-shaped valley region. Aachen first became a curative centre in Hallstatt times. According to Cassius Dio, the Roman Emperor Caracalla unsuccessfully sought help from Apollo Grannus—as well as Aesculapius and Serapis—during a bout of physical and mental illness, visiting the god's shrine and making many votive offerings. Caracalla's visit to the shrine of ‘the Celtic healing-god’ Grannus was during the war with Germany in about 215.
In the early twentieth century, the god was said to have still been remembered in a chant sung round bonfires in Auvergne, in which a grain sheaf is set on fire, called Granno mio, while the people sing, “Granno, my friend. However, granno may be a derivative of an Occitan word of Latin origin meaning "grain". A 1st century AD Latin inscription from a public fountain in Limoges mentions a Gaulish ten-night festival of Grannus: POSTVMVS DV NORIGIS F VERG AQV AM MARTIAM DECAM NOCTIACIS GRANNI D S P DTranslation: "The vergobretus Postumus son of Dumnorix gave from his own money the Aqua Martia for the ten-night festival of Grannus"; the name Grannus is sometimes accompanied by those of other deities in the inscriptions. In Augsburg, he is found with both Sirona. At Ennetach he is with Nymphs, at Faimingen with Hygieia and the Mother of the Gods, at Grand with Sol. A votive altar at Astorga invokes him after "holy Serapis" and "the many-named Isis", before "the unvanquished Core and Mars Sagatus".
Media related to Grannus at Wikimedia Commons
Gallaecia known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province in the north-west of Hispania present-day Galicia, northern Portugal and Leon and the Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia. The Roman cities included the port Cale, the governing centers Bracara Augusta, Lucus Augusti and Asturica Augusta and their administrative areas Conventus bracarensis, Conventus lucensis and Conventus asturicensis; the Romans gave the name Gallaecia to the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula after the tribes of the area, the Gallaeci or Gallaecians. The Gallaic Celts make their entry in written history in the first-century epic Punica of Silius Italicus on the First Punic War: Fibrarum et pennae divinarumque sagacem flammarum misit dives Callaecia pubem, barbara nunc patriis ululantem carmina linguis, nunc pedis alterno percussa verbere terra, ad numerum resonas gaudentem plaudere caetras."Rich Gallaecia sent its youths, wise in the knowledge of divination by the entrails of beasts, by feathers and flames— who, now crying out the barbarian song of their native tongue, now alternately stamping the ground in their rhythmic dances until the ground rang, accompanying the playing with sonorous caetrae".
Gallaecia, as a region, was thus marked for the Romans as much for its Celtic culture, the culture of the castros—hillforts of Celtic origin—as it was for the lure of its gold mines. This civilization extended over present day Galicia, the north of Portugal, the western part of Asturias, the Berço, Sanabria and was distinctive from the neighbouring Lusitanian civilization to the south, according to the classical authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder. At a far date, the mythic history, encapsulated in Lebor Gabála Érenn credited Gallaecia as the point from which the Gaels sailed to conquer Ireland, as they had Gallaecia, by force of arms. Strabo in his Geography lists the people of the northwestern Atlantic coast of Iberia as follows:...then the Vettonians and the Vaccaeans, through whose territory the Durius River flows, which affords a crossing at Acutia, a city of the Vaccaeans. For this reason, since they were hard to fight with, the Callaicans themselves have not only furnished the surname for the man who defeated the Lusitanians but they have brought it about that now the most of the Lusitanians are called Callaicans.
After the Punic Wars, the Romans turned their attention to conquering Hispania. The tribe of the Gallaeci 60,000 strong, according to Paulus Orosius, faced the Roman forces in 137 BC in a battle at the river Douro, which resulted in a great Roman victory, by virtue of which the Roman proconsul Decimus Junius Brutus returned a hero, receiving the agnomen Gallaicus. From this time, Gallaic fighters joined the Roman legions, to serve as far away as Dacia and Britain; the final extinction of Celtic resistance was the aim of the violent and ruthless Cantabrian Wars fought under the Emperor Augustus from 26 to 19 BC. The resistance was appalling: collective suicide rather than surrender, mothers who killed their children before committing suicide, crucified prisoners of war who sang triumphant hymns, rebellions of captives who killed their guards and returned home from Gaul. For Rome Gallaecia was a region formed by two conventus—the Lucensis and the Bracarensis—and was distinguished from other zones like the Asturica, according to written sources: Legatus iuridici to per ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE.
Procurator ASTURIAE ET GALLAECIAE. Cohors ASTURUM ET GALLAECORUM. Pliny: ASTURIA ET GALLAECIAIn the 3rd century, Diocletian created an administrative division which included the conventus of Gallaecia and Cluniense; this province took the name of Gallaecia since Gallaecia was the most populous and important zone within the province. In 409, as Roman control collapsed, the Suebi conquests transformed Roman Gallaecia into the kingdom of Galicia. Fabius Aconius Catullinus Philomathius, praeses before 338 On the night of 31 December 406 AD, several Germanic barbarian tribes, the Vandals and Suebi, swept over the Roman frontier on the Rhine, they advanced south, pillaging Gaul, crossed the Pyrenees. They set about dividing up the Roman provinces of Carthaginiensis, Tarraconensis and Baetica; the Suebi took part of Gallaecia, where they established a kingdom. After the Vandals and Alans left for North Africa, the Suevi took control of much of the Iberian Peninsula. However, Visigothic campaigns took much of this territory back.
The Visigoths emerged victorious in the wars that followed, annexed Gallaecia. After the Visigothic defeat and the annexation of much of Hispania by the Moors, a group of Visigothic states survived in the northern mountains, including Gallaecia. In Beatus of Liébana, Gallaecia became used to refer to the Christian part of the Iberian peninsula, whereas Hispania was used for the Muslim one; the emirs found it not worth their while to conquer these mountains filled with warlike tribes and lacking oil or wine. In Charlemagne's time, bishops of Gallaecia attended the Council of Frankfurt in 794. During his residence in Aachen, he received embassies from Alfonso II of Asturias, according to the Frankish chronicles. Sancho III of Navarre in 1029 refers to Vermudo III. Gallaecian lang
Erecura or Aerecura was a goddess worshipped in ancient times thought to be Celtic in origin represented with the attributes of Proserpina and associated with the Roman underworld god Dis Pater, as on an altar from Sulzbach. She appears with Dis Pater in a statue found at Oberseebach, in several magical texts from Austria, once in the company of Cerberus and once with Ogmios. A further inscription to her has been found near Germany. Besides her chthonic symbols, she is depicted with such attributes of fertility as the cornucopia and apple baskets, she is believed to be similar to Greek Hecate. She is depicted in a seated posture, wearing a full robe and bearing trays or baskets of fruit, in depictions from Cannstatt and Sulzbach. Miranda Green calls Aericura a "Gaulish Hecuba", while Noémie Beck characterizes her as a "land-goddess" sharing both underworld and fertility aspects with Dis Pater. Representations of Erecura are most found in the Danubian area of Southern Germany and Slovenia, but they occur in Italy, Great Britain, France.
Her inscriptions are concentrated along the Rhine. Several monuments in honour of Erecura occur in other funereal contexts. Jona Lendering notes the similarity between her iconography and that of Nehalennia, worshipped in Germania Inferior, while Beck sees no significant difference between her attributes and those of the Matres and Matronae. Geographically, the areas in which Erecura and Dis Pater were worshipped appear to be in complementary distribution with those where the cult of Sucellus and Nantosuelta is attested, Beck suggests that these cults were functionally similar although iconographically distinct. A male deity called Arecurius or Aericurus is named on an altar-stone in Northumberland, although Beck cautions that "this inscription is quite uncertain, it might be a misreading of Mercurio"; the theonym is of unclear origin. It has been connected with Latin aes, aeris'copper, money, wealth', era'mistress' and the name of the Greek goddess Hera. Many different Latinised forms of this goddess’s name occur: Aeraecura at Perugia.
The alternation between the initial H and A may be due to the letters' similar shape in the classical Latin capitals ordinarily used in epigraphic inscriptions in the Roman Empire since less literate members of the Roman Empire’s community sometimes misinterpreted the phonemic value of a given letter. A name of the form */aireˈkura/ or */eːreˈkura/ appears to underlie the alternations Aeraecura ~ Aerecura ~ Aericura ~ Eracura ~ Ercura ~ Erecura ~ Heracura ~ Herecura ~ Herequra. Though the goddess herself may be Celtic, it is open to question whether the name is of Celtic origin or Indo-European. Lendering considers her cult to be of Illyrian origin, spreading from Aquileia and only reaching the Danubian and Rhenish border regions through the Roman troops deployed there. Beck considers the name to be of Germanic origin. Beck, Noémie. Goddesses in Celtic Religion—Cult and Mythology: A Comparative Study of Ancient Ireland and Gaul. Université Lumière Lyon 2, University College of Dublin. Ellis, Peter Berresford, Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, Oxford University Press,: ISBN 0-19-508961-8 Egger, Rudolf.
Römische Antike und frühes Christentum: Ausgewählte Schriften von Rudolf Egger. Lebensjahres, ed. Artur Betz and Gotbert Moro. 2 vols. Klagenfurt: Verlag des Geschichtsvereines für Kärnten, 1962-63. Green, Miranda; the gods of the Celts. Sparkford, UK: Sutton Publishing. MacKillop, James. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. ISBN 0-19-280120-1. Wood, The Celts: Life and Art, Thorsons Publishers: ISBN 0-00-764059-5 Proto-Celtic — English lexicon Ogmios Ogma and Heracles Livius.org: Herecura