Pool (cue sports)
Pool is a classification of cue sports played on a table with six pockets along the rails, into which balls are deposited. Each specific pool game has its own name; the generic term pocket billiards is sometimes used, favored by some pool-industry bodies, but is technically a broader classification, including games such as snooker, Russian pyramid, kaisa, which are not referred to as pool games. There are hybrid games combining aspects of both pool and carom billiards, such as American four-ball billiards, bottle pool, cowboy pool, English billiards; the etymology of "pool" is uncertain. The Oxford English Dictionary speculates that "pool" and other games with collective stakes is derived from the French poule, in which the poule is the collected prize; the oldest use of the word "pool" to describe a billiards-like game was made in 1797 in a Virginia newspaper. The OED defines it as "any of various types of billiards for two or more players" but goes on to note that the first specific meaning of "a game in which each player uses a cue ball of a distinctive colour to pocket the balls of the other player in a certain order, the winner taking all the stakes submitted at the start of the contest" is now obsolete, its other specific definitions are all for games that originate in the United States.
In the United States, although the original "pool" game, skittle pool, was played on a pocketless carom billiards table, the term stuck to all new games of pocket billiards as the sport gained in popularity, so outside the cue sports industry, which has long favored the more formal term pocket billiards, the common name for the sport has remained pool. The OxfordDictionaries.com definition no longer provides the obsolete meaning found in the print edition, refers only to the typical game "using two sets of seven coloured and numbered balls... with one black ball and a white cue ball" on a table with pockets. With the exception of one-pocket, games called "pool" today are descended from two English games imported to the United States at the beginning of the 19th century; the first was English billiards which became American four-ball billiards the same game but with an extra red object ball to increase scoring opportunities. It was the most popular billiards game in the mid-19th century until dethroned by the carom game straight rail.
American four-ball tournaments tried switching to carom tables in the 1870s but this did not save it from being doomed to obscurity, the last professional tournament was held in 1876. Cowboy pool is a surviving member of this group of games; the second and more influential game was pyramid pool. In the late 1830s, a variant called. Both games were supplanted by the immediate forerunner of straight pool. New games introduced at the turn of the 20th century include Kelly eight-ball; the distinctive appearance of pool balls with their many colors and division between solid and striped balls came about by 1889. Prior to this, object balls differentiated only by numbers. English pyramid pool and life pool players were the first to adopt balls with different colors; the stripes were the last addition. Pool is played on a six pocket table. Modern pool tables range in size from 3.5 feet by 7 feet, to 4.5 feet by 9 feet. The balls range from 2.25 inches in diameter to 2.375 inches in diameter. Under the WPA/BCA equipment specifications, the weight may be from 5.5 to 6 oz. with a diameter of 2.25 in.
Plus or minus 0.005 in.. Modern coin-operated pool tables use one of three methods to distinguish and return the cue ball to the front of the table while the numbered balls return to an inaccessible receptacle until paid for again: the cue ball is larger and heavier than the other balls, or denser and heavier, or has a magnetic core. Modern cue sticks are 58.5 inches long for pool while cues prior to 1980 were designed for straight pool and had an average length of 57.5 inches. By comparison, carom billiards cues are shorter with larger tips, snooker cues longer with smaller tips. In the United States, the most played game is eight-ball; the goal of eight-ball, played with a full rack of fifteen balls and the cue ball, is to claim a suit, pocket all of them legally pocket the 8 ball, while denying one's opponent opportunities to do the same with their suit, without sinking the 8 ball early by accident. In the United Kingdom the game is played in pubs, it is competitively played in leagues on both sides of the Atlantic.
The most prestigious tournaments including the World Open are sponsored and sanctioned by the International Pool Tour. Rules vary from place to place. Pool halls in North America are settling upon the World Pool-Billiard Association International Standardized Rules, but tavern eight-ball played on smaller, coin-operated tables and in a "winner keeps the table" manner, can differ even between two venues in the same city. The growth of local and national amateur leagues may alleviate this confusi
Cribbage, sometimes called cribbage pocket billiards, cribbage pool, fifteen points and pair pool, is a two-player pocket billiards game that, like its namesake card game, has a scoring system which awards points for pairing groups of balls that total 15. Played on a standard pool table, participants who pocket a ball of a particular number are required to pocket the companion ball that tallies to 15 when added to the prior ball's number; the goal is to score 5 paired cribbages out of a possible 8, with the exception that the last ball, required to be the 15 ball, is not paired but alone counts as 1 cribbage. At the start of cribbage, a standard set of fifteen pool balls are racked at the foot end of a pool table, with the apex ball of the rack centered over the foot spot and the 15 ball placed at the rack's center. All other balls are placed randomly except that no two of the three corner balls may total to fifteen; such an open-ended racking rule is unusual in that most pool games require particular balls to be placed at the corners of the rack and sometimes in fixed positions inside the rack as well.
The arrangement thus results in 134,120,448,000 possible racking patterns. An open break is required in cribbage, meaning that on the break either a ball must be pocketed or at least four balls must be driven to rails; the object of the game is to score 5 cribbages out of a possible 8 in a full rack of 15 balls. A cribbage is a pair of numbered balls. A cribbage only lies where the two partner balls forming the cribbage are each made, i.e. where no foul is committed on the same strokes that pocket the balls, or the shot is otherwise deemed illegal. The one exception to pairing is the 15 ball, which itself becomes a cribbage but only once all other object balls of the rack have been pocketed. Thus, not including the 15 ball, the available cribbages are the 1-14, 2-13, 3-12, 4-11, 5-10, 6-9 and 7-8. A cribbage only counts. Where a player pockets a first paired ball and is thus on a cribbage, if the companion ball is not pocketed on the next stroke, the shot is a foul and the unpaired balls of any cribbages not completed are spotted to the foot spot.
If the foot spot is occupied, balls are spotted as close as possible to the foot spot on the long string stretching back from the foot spot to the foot rail. The penalty for all fouls is the ending of the player's inning. In older rules a foul was a loss of one point. Three successive fouls in cribbage is a loss of game. Pocketing the 15 ball when it is not the last ball on the table is not a foul. Instead it is spotted and play continues without penalty; when players pocket more than one ball on a single stroke at any time, a situation arising on the break shot, they may shoot at any companion balls, but must pocket each in succession in any order. If incidental balls are pocketed on the same stroke that a cribbage is completed, they add to the succession of cribbages the player is "on"; when a player fouls by failing to pocket an unpaired cribbage while on a succession of unpaired balls, only unpaired balls are spotted. Normal ball and rail foul rules apply in cribbage; this is a requirement present in most pool games that a player must contact an object ball with the cue ball and after that contact, either pocket an object ball, or some ball including the cue ball must contact a rail.
When a foul results from scratching the cue ball into a pocket or jumping it off the table, the player has cue ball in hand from the kitchen. When a player has cue ball in hand from the kitchen and all object balls are behind the head string in the kitchen, a player has the option of having the object ball nearest the head string relocated to the foot spot. If in this situation two or more object balls are equidistantly closest to the head string, the player may designate which ball is to be relocated
Eight-ball is a pool game popular in much of the world, the subject of international professional and amateur competition. Played on a pool table with six pockets, the game is so universally known in some countries that beginners are unaware of other pool games and believe the word "pool" itself refers to eight-ball; the game has numerous variations regional. Standard eight-ball is the second most competitive professional pool game, after nine-ball, for the last several decades ahead of straight pool. Eight-ball is played with cue sticks and sixteen balls: a cue ball, fifteen object balls consisting of seven striped balls, seven solid-colored balls and the black 8 ball. After the balls are scattered with a break shot, the players are assigned either the group of solid balls or the stripes once a ball from a particular group is pocketed; the ultimate object of the game is to pocket the eight ball in a called pocket, which can only be done after all of the balls from a player's assigned group have been cleared from the table.
The game of eight-ball is derived from an earlier game invented around 1900 in the United States and popularized under the name "B. B. C. Co. Pool" by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company; this forerunner game was played with seven yellow and seven red balls, a black ball, the cue ball. Today, numbered stripes and solids are preferred in most of the world, though the British-style offshoot, uses the traditional colors; the game had simple rules compared to today and was not added to an official rule book until 1940. American-style eight-ball rules are played around the world by professionals, in many amateur leagues; the rules for eight-ball may be the most contested of any billiard game. There are several competing sets of "official" rules; the non-profit World Pool-Billiard Association – with national affiliates around the world, some of which long pre-date the WPA, such as the Billiard Congress of America – promulgates standardized rules as Pool Billiards – The Rules of Play for amateur and professional play.
Meanwhile, many amateur leagues – such as the American Poolplayers Association / Canadian Poolplayers Association, the Valley National Eight-ball Association and the BCA Pool League – use their own rulesets. Millions of individuals play informally, using informal house rules which vary not only from area to area but from venue to venue; the regulation size of the table's playing surface is 9 by 4.5 ft, though exact dimensions may vary by manufacturer. Some leagues and tournaments using the World Standardized Rules may allow smaller sizes, down to 7 by 3.5 ft. Early 20th-century 10 by 5 ft models are also still used. WPA professional competition employs regulation tables, while the amateur league championships of various leagues, including ACS, BCAPL, VNEA, APA, use the seven-foot tables in order to fit more of them into the hosting venue. There are seven solid-colored balls numbered 1 through 7, seven striped balls numbered 9 through 15, an 8 ball, a cue ball; the balls are colored as follows: 1 and 9: yellow 2 and 10: blue 3 and 11: red 4 and 12: dark blue 1 5 and 13: orange 6 and 14: green 7 and 15: maroon 1 8: black Cue: white1Special sets designed to be more discernible on television substitute a rather light tan shade for the darker brown of the 7 and 15 balls, pink for the dark purple of the 4 and 12.
To start the game, the object balls are placed in a triangular rack. The base of the rack is parallel to the end rail and positioned so the apex ball of the rack is located on the foot spot; the balls in the rack are ideally placed. The order of the balls should be random, with the exceptions of the 8 ball, which must be placed in the center of the rack, the two back corner balls, one of which must be a stripe and the other a solid; the cue ball is placed anywhere the breaker desires behind the head string. One person is chosen by some predetermined method to shoot first, using the cue ball to break the object-ball rack apart. In most leagues it is the breaker's opponent who racks the balls, but in some, players break their own racks. If the breaker fails to make a successful break—usually defined as at least four balls hitting cushions or an object ball being pocketed—then the opponent can opt either to play from the current position or to call for a re-rack and either re-break or have the original breaker repeat the break.
If the 8 ball is pocketed on the break the breaker can choose either to re-spot the 8 ball and play from the current position or to re-rack and re-break. (For regional amateur
Straight pool called 14.1 continuous or 14.1, is a type of pool game. It was the common sport of championship competition until it was overtaken by faster-playing games like nine-ball. In straight pool, the shooter may attempt to shoot at any object ball on the table; the goal is to reach a set number of points determined by agreement before the game. One point is scored for each object ball pocketed. A typical game might require a player to score 100 points to win. In professional competition, straight pool is played to 125 points. Straight pool is a call-pocket game, meaning the player must indicate the intended object ball and pocket on every shot; the game was the popular pool game in the United States, immortalized in the 1961 film The Hustler. The game remains well known in the United States, Europe and Japan, but is more obscure elsewhere; the first WPA-sanctioned World Straight Pool Championship was held in 2006. As a consequence of this renewed professional competitive attention, public interest in the game has undergone a resurgence, as reflected in the amount of coverage 14.1 now receives in the billiards press.
Straight pool is derived from an earlier pool game called continuous pool. Like its successor, in continuous pool a player has to score a certain number of points to win the match, a point is earned for every object ball pocketed. However, a new rack does not start; when the new rack begins, the object balls are racked at the foot spot, the player has to break from behind the head string. As players become skilled in scoring dozens of points in a single turn, they would employ defensive shots in breaks to avoid risk of giving their opponents runout opportunities; because of this, Jerome Keogh, a winner of numerous tournaments, came up with the idea in 1910 of reracking the balls while there's still an object ball on the table, therefore encouraging players to be more offensive. This new game became 14.1 continuous and would a few years be called straight pool. The name 14.1 continuous comes from the fact that 14 balls are shot with one remaining to continue the shot and break the new rack. In the initial rack in straight pool, the fifteen object balls are racked in a triangular rack, with the center of the apex ball placed over the foot spot.
Traditionally, the 1 ball is placed at the rack's right corner, the 5 ball placed at the rack's left corner, although this is not an official rule. Other balls must touch their neighbors. Unlike in most pool games, where pocketing a ball and spreading the balls is the aim on the break, the object in straight pool's standard initial break shot is to leave the opponent with a safety; this is. On the break, either a ball must be pocketed in a designated pocket or the cue ball and at least two additional balls must touch a rail; the failure to accomplish one of these two options results in a foul. Fouling on the initial break results in a special penalty of a loss of 2 points. In addition, the opponent has the choice either of accepting the table in position, or alternatively of having the balls re-racked and requiring the offending player to repeat the opening break. All other fouls during the game result in a one-point deduction, including fouling on an intragame rack. However, a third foul in a row at any time in a straight pool game results in a loss of 15 points.
The 15-point deduction is in addition to the one-point loss for each foul. Thus, the first two fouls are a loss of one point each, the third foul in a row is a loss of 16 points. A player can pocket any object ball on the table. However, the player has to call which object ball he/she will try to sink, the pocket he/she will send it in. Shots like caroms and combinations do not have to be called. If an object ball other than the one called gets pocketed or if the called object ball goes into another pocket it returns to the table which therefore ends the player's inning, but if a player manages to pocket an object ball on the same shot with the one he/she calls properly and makes that other pocketed ball counts as a bonus point. Because straight pool is played to a specific number of points far in excess of the 15 points available in the initial rack, multiple intragame racks are necessary. Intragame racking employs a separate set of rules from those in place at the game's start. To reach the point where an intragame rack becomes necessary, the balls are played until only the cue ball and one object ball remain on the table's surface.
At that time, if neither the cue ball nor the fifteenth object ball remain in the rack area, the fourteen pocketed object balls are racked with no apex ball, the rack is placed so that if the apex ball were in the rack, its center would rest directly over the table's foot spot. Play continues with the cue ball shot from where it rested and the fifteenth, non-racked, object ball from where it rested prior to racking; the "14.1 continuous" appellation derives from this racking practice, i.e. that fourteen racked object balls and one remaining object ball left in position is presented to the players at the conclusion of each intragame rack. The shooter will then
A cue stick, is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball the cue ball. Cues are tapered sticks about 57–59 inches long and between 16 and 21 ounces, with professionals gravitating toward a 19-ounce average. Cues for carom tend toward the shorter range, though cue length is a factor of player height and arm length. Most cues are made of wood, but the wood is covered or bonded with other materials including graphite, carbon fiber or fiberglass. An obsolete term for a cue, used from the 16th to early 19th centuries, is billiard stick; the forerunner of the cue was the mace, an implement similar to a light-weight golf club, with a foot, used to shove rather than strike the cue ball. When the ball was frozen against a rail cushion, use of the mace was difficult, by 1670 experienced players used the tail or butt end of the mace instead; the term "cue" comes from queue, the French word for "tail", in reference to this practice, a style of shooting that led to the development of separate, footless cue sticks by about 1800, used as adjuncts to the mace, which remained in use until well into the 19th century.
In public billiard rooms only skilled players were allowed to use the cue, because the fragile cloth could be torn by novices. The introduction of the cue, the new game possibilities it engendered, led to the development of cushions with more rebound stuffed with linen or cotton flocking, but replaced by rubber; the idea of the cue was to try to strike the cue-ball as centrally as possible to avoid a miscue. The concept of spin on the cue ball was discovered. François Mingaud was studying the game of billiards while being held in Paris as a political prisoner, experimented with a leather cue tip. In 1807, he was demonstrated his invention. Mingaud is credited with the discovery that by raising the cue vertically, to the position adopted by the mace, he could perform what is now known as a massé shot. In pre-tip days, it was common for players to twist the ends of their cue into a plaster wall or ceiling so that a chalk-like deposit would form on the end to reduce the chance of a miscue, thus giving rise to the modern billiard chalk.
The first systematic marketing of chalk was by John Carr, a marker in John Bartley's billiard rooms in Bath. Between Carr and Bartley, it was discovered how "side" could be used to the advantage of players, Carr began selling chalk in small boxes, he called it "twisting powder", the magical impression this gave the public enabled him to sell it for a higher price than if they realized it was chalk in a small box. "English", an American term for sidespin, derives from the British discovery of sidespin's effects, as "massé" comes from the French word for "mace". Pool and snooker cues are of three major types; the simplest type is a one-piece cue. They have a uniform taper, meaning they butt to the tip. A second type is the two-piece cue, divided in the middle for ease of transport in a cue case or pouch. A third variety is another two-piece cue, but with a joint located three-quarters down the cue, known as a "three-quarter two-piece", used by snooker players. A typical two piece cue for pocket billiards is made of hard or rock maple, with a fiberglass or phenolic resin ferrule 0.75 to 1 inch long, steel joint collars and pin.
Pool cues average around 59 inches long, are available in 17–21 ounces weights, with 19 ounces being the most common, have a tip diameter in the range of 12 to 14 mm. A conical taper, with the shaft shrinking in diameter from joint to ferrule, is favored by some, but the "pro" taper is popular, straight for most of the length of the shaft from ferrule back, flaring to joint diameter only in the last 1⁄4 to 1⁄3 of the shaft. While there are many custom cuemakers, a large number of quality pool cues are manufactured in bulk. In recent years, modern materials such as fiberglass, carbon fiber, etc. have been used more and more for shafts and butts. A trend toward experimentation has developed with rubber, memory foam and other soft wraps. Carom billiards cues tend to be shorter and lighter than pool cues, with a shorter ferrule, a thicker butt and joint, a wooden joint pin and collarless wood-to-wood joint, a conical taper, a smaller tip diameter. Typical dimensions are 54–56 inches long, 16.5–18.5 ounces in weight, with an 11–12 mm diameter tip.
The specialization makes the cue stiffer, for handling the heavier billiard balls and acting to reduce deflection. The wood used in carom cues can vary and most quality carom cues are handmade. At 57–58 inches, a cue designed for snooker is shorter than the typical 59 inch pool cue and has detachable butt extensions for making the cue 6 inches longer or more. Many snooker cues are jointed with brass fittings, 2⁄3 or 3⁄4 of the way back toward the butt bumper, providing an unusually long shaft, rather than at the half-way point, where pool and carom cues are jointed; this necessitates
Glossary of cue sports terms
The following is a glossary of traditional English-language terms used in the three overarching cue sports disciplines: carom billiards referring to the various carom games played on a billiard table without pockets. There are hybrid pocket/carom games such as English billiards; the term "billiards" is sometimes used to refer to all of the cue sports, to a specific class of them, or to specific ones such as English billiards. The labels "British" and "UK" as applied to entries in this glossary refer to terms originating in the UK and used in countries that were recently part of the British Empire and/or are part of the Commonwealth of Nations, as opposed to US terminology; the terms "American" or "US" as applied here refer to North American usage. However, due to the predominance of US-originating terminology in most internationally competitive pool, US terms are common in the pool context in other countries in which English is at least a minority language, US terms predominate in carom billiards.
British terms predominate in the world of snooker, English billiards and blackball, regardless of the players' nationalities. The term "blackball" is used in this glossary to refer to both blackball and eight-ball pool as played in the Commonwealth, as a shorthand. Blackball was chosen because it is less ambiguous, blackball is globally standardized by an International Olympic Committee-recognized governing body, the World Pool-Billiard Association. Foreign-language terms are not within the scope of this list, unless they have become an integral part of billiards terminology in English, or they are crucial to meaningful discussion of a game not known in the English-speaking world. 1-cushion See the Straight rail billiards main article for the game sometimes called "one-cushion". 1-pocket See the One-pocket main article for the game. 3-ball See the Three-ball main article for the game. 3-cushion See the Three-cushion billiards main article for the game. 4-ball See the Yotsudama main article for the modern Asian game called "four-ball".
See the American four-ball billiards main article for the nineteenth-century game. 5-pins See the Five-pin billiards main article for the Italian, now internationally standardized game, or Danish pin billiards for the five-pin traditional game of Denmark. 6-ball See the Nine-ball#Six-ball sub-article for the game. 8-ball See the Eight-ball main article for the game. See the 8 ball entry, under the "E" section below, for the ball. See 8 ball for derivative uses. 9-ball See the Nine-ball main article for the game. See the 9 ball entry, under the "N" section below, for the ball. 9-pins See the Goriziana main article for the game sometimes called nine-pins. 10-ball See the Ten-ball main article for the game. Above Used in snooker in reference to the position of the cue ball, it is above the object ball if it is off-straight on the baulk cushion side of the imaginary line for a straight pot. It is common to use the term high instead. Action 1. Gambling or the potential for gambling. 2. Lively results on a ball the cue ball, from the application of spin.
3. Short for cue action. Added Used with an amount to signify money added to a tournament prize fund in addition to the amount accumulated from entry fees. Ahead race Also ahead session. A match format in which a player has to establish a lead of an agreed number of frames in order to win. Contrast race. Aiming line An imaginary line drawn from the desired path an object ball is to be sent and the center of the object ball. Anchor To freeze a ball to a cushion; this term is obsolete balkline billiards jargon. Anchor nurse A type of nurse shot used in carom billiards games. With one object ball being anchored to a cushion and the second object ball just away from the cushion, the cue ball is grazed across the face of both balls, freezing the away ball to the rail and moving the frozen ball away the same distance its partner was in an identical but reversed configuration, in position to be struck again by the cue ball from the opposite side to repeat this pattern and forth. Compare cradle cannon. Anchor space A 7-inch square box drawn on the table in balkline billiards, from the termination of a balkline with the cushion, thus defining a restricted space in which only 3 points may be scored before one ball must be driven from the area.
It developed to curtail the effectiveness of the chuck nurse, which in turn had been invented to thwart the effectiveness of Parker's box in stopping lo
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea