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Artois

Artois is a region of northern France. Its territory covers an area of about 4,000 km² and it has a population of about one million, its principal cities are Arras, Saint-Omer, Béthune. Artois occupies the interior of the Pas-de-Calais département, the western part of which constitutes the former Boulonnais. Artois corresponds to the arrondissements of Arras, Béthune, Saint Omer, Lens, the eastern part of the arrondissement of Montreuil, it occupies the western end of the coalfield which stretches eastward through the neighbouring Nord département and across central Belgium. A feudal county itself, Artois was annexed by the county of Flanders, it came to France in 1180 as a dowry of a Flemish princess, Isabelle of Hainaut, was again made a separate county in 1237 for Robert, a grandson of Isabelle. Through inheritance, Artois came under the rule of the dukes of Burgundy in 1384. At the death of the fourth duke, Charles the Bold, Artois was inherited by the Habsburgs and passed to the dynasty's Spanish line.

After the religious revolts of 1566 in the Netherlands, Artois entered the Dutch Revolt in 1576, participating in the Pacification of Ghent until it formed the Union of Atrecht in 1579. After the Union of Atrecht and Hainaut reached a separate agreement with Philip II. Artois remained with the Spanish Netherlands until it was conquered by the French during the Thirty Years War; the annexation was acknowledged during the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, it became a French province. Artois had been French-speaking, but it was part of the Southern Netherlands until the French annexation. Artois experienced rapid industrial development during the second half of the 19th century, fueled by its rich coal resources. During World War I, the front line between the opposing Central Powers and Allied armies in France ran through the province, resulting in enormous physical damage. Since the second half of the 20th century, Artois has suffered along with nearby areas because of the decline of the coal industry.

Pierre-Charles Le Sueur, born in Artois, noted trader. Maximilien Robespierre, French revolutionary leader, born in Arras Carolus Clusius, early botanist Robert-François Damiens, failed regicide, born in La Thieuloye Artesian aquifer Battle of Artois Communauté d'agglomération de l'Artois Countess of Artois Counts of Artois County of Artois List of World War I memorials and cemeteries in Artois Weald-Artois Anticline, a ridge that connected continental Europe and Britain until 225,000 years ago Media related to Artois at Wikimedia Commons

Stocklake Park Community School

Stocklake Park Community School, is a co-educational special school in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire. It is a community school, which takes children from the age of 11 through to the age of 19; the school has 65 pupils. The school caters for children with multiple learning difficulties. Prior to 2007 the school catered for children of primary school age. Park School is notable in that in 1983 it received a donation of a minibus, raised from funds from a golf match; the organisers of this golf match were English rugby supporters who had watched England win the Wooden Spoon in the 1983 Five Nations Championship. They went on to found the Wooden Spoon Society which in 2007 is now a major charity in the UK and Ireland, raising funds for disadvantaged children and young people. School website Ofsted Reports Department for Education Performance Tables 2011

2/1st Field Regiment (Australia)

The 2/1st Field Regiment was an Australian Army artillery regiment raised as part of the all volunteer Second Australian Imperial Force during World War II. Formed in October 1939, the regiment was assigned to the 6th Division. Shortly after it was raised, the regiment was deployed to the Middle East, where it was re-roled as an anti-aircraft regiment before returning to the field artillery role. In 1941, the regiment served in North Africa and in Greece, before being withdrawn back to Australian in early 1942, following Japan's entry into the war. In late 1942, early 1943, the regiment took part in the defence of Port Moresby during the fighting along the Kokoda Track, before taking part in the Battle of Buna–Gona and the defence of Wau, remaining in New Guinea on garrison duties until August 1943. Withdrawn to Australia, a long period of training followed before the regiment took part in its final campaign of the war Aitape–Wewak campaign in 1945; the 2/1st Field Regiment was raised in October 1940, as part of the all volunteer Second Australian Imperial Force.

Assigned to the 6th Division, its headquarters opened at Ingleburn, New South Wales, the majority of its personnel were recruited from New South Wales. At the outset, the regiment consisted of two batteries, designated as the 2nd Batteries. After training in Australia, the regiment embarked for the Middle East in January 1940, arriving in Palestine the following month. After several months, part of the regiment's personnel – the regimental headquarters and the 1st Battery – were used to form an anti-aircraft regiment, designated as "Y Anti-Aircraft Regiment", along with elements of the 2/4th Infantry Battalion, to provide light air defence around Haifa; the infantrymen returned to their battalion and the regiment was redesignated as the "2/1st Field Regiment", with three AA batteries designated "A", "B" and "C". These batteries occupied Aboukir, Sidi Bisr, Port Fuad and Helwan. At Helwan, in September 1940, the regiment was re-roled once again as a field regiment, re-equipped; the following month, the 6th Division began large scale exercises in preparation for its commitment to the Western Desert campaign.

In January 1941, the Australians went into action against the Italians for the first time, attacking Bardia. The 2/1st supported the 16th Brigade at this time, before switching to support the 19th Brigade's advance towards Tobruk; the regiment's headquarters assumed control of a number of Australian and British artillery units as they pushed towards Derna and Benghazi. Following this, the 6th Division was deployed to Greece to defend against a German invasion; the regiment deployed in support. By the time the regiment arrived, the invasion had begun and Allied forces were in retreat; the regiment's personnel were evacuated. The regiment concentrated in Palestine, where they were joined by the 2nd Battery in May. A third battery was raised for the regiment in September, designated as the 51st Battery; the regiment remained in the Middle East until February 1942 when the 6th Division was recalled back to Australia in response to the growing threat posed by Japan's entry into the war. En route to Australia, the 16th and 17th Brigades, including the 2/3rd Field Regiment, were diverted to Ceylon where they formed a defensive garrison amidst concerns about a possible Japanese invasion.

As there were no artillery staff within the divisional headquarters on Ceylon, the regiment came directly under the command of the 16th Brigade at this time, was based around Horana where they undertook defensive duties in the south of the island. The 2nd Battery relieved them in May; the regiment remained on Ceylon until July 1942, when the 16th and 17th Brigades completed their return to Australia. Arriving in August, the regiment was reconstituted at New South Wales. By this time, in New Guinea, the Japanese were advancing towards Port Moresby; the Militia troops that had delayed the advance had been reinforced by the 21st and 25th Brigade, together these troops halted the Japanese advance. The 16th Brigade was subsequently deployed as the Australians began a counter offensive to push the Japanese back to their beachheads around Buna–Gona; the 2/1st Field Regiment was assigned to the defence of Port Moresby but in November detached elements of the 51st Battery to support the US 32nd Infantry Division's attack on Buna, while the remainder of the battery was assigned to support the 7th Division's attack on Gona.

In January 1943, the 2nd Battery, regimental headquarters, moved forward to Buna, the 1st Battery was moved to Wau where they supported Kanga Force during the Battle of Wau. Meanwhile, the main part of the regiment was used to raise X Field Battery around Pari, to crew 18-pounder field guns near the newly established port facilities at Buna, before being sent to Oro Bay. By February 1943, they were relieved by the 2/6th Field Regiment and moved back to Port Moresby, while the 1st Battery remained at Wau throughout the Salamaua–Lae campaign, they returned to Australia in August 1943, after leave, the unit was reconstituted at Narellan, New South Wales. The 1st Battery arrived a month later. After this, the regiment was detached from the 6th Division, reorganised for jungle warfare; this resulted in a reduction of the division's artillery regiments to just one. The regiment was reassigned to the 1st Division at this time and undertook labouring duties on the Sydney wharves before moving to Ravenshoe, Queensland