New media art
New media art refers to artworks created with new media technologies, including digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, Internet art, interactive art, video games, computer robotics, 3D printing, cyborg art and art as biotechnology. The term differentiates itself by its resulting cultural objects and social events, which can be seen in opposition to those deriving from old visual arts; this concern with medium is a key feature of much contemporary art and indeed many art schools and major universities now offer majors in "New Genres" or "New Media" and a growing number of graduate programs have emerged internationally. New media art involves interaction between artist and observer or between observers and the artwork, which responds to them. Yet, as several theorists and curators have noted, such forms of interaction, social exchange and transformation do not distinguish new media art but rather serve as a common ground that has parallels in other strands of contemporary art practice.
Such insights emphasize the forms of cultural practice that arise concurrently with emerging technological platforms, question the focus on technological media, per se. New Media concerns are derived from the telecommunications, mass media and digital electronic modes of delivering the artworks involve, with practices ranging from conceptual to virtual art, performance to installation; the origins of new media art can be traced to the moving photographic inventions of the late 19th century such as the zoetrope, the praxinoscope and Eadweard Muybridge's zoopraxiscope. From the 1920s through the 1950s, various forms of kinetic and light art, from Thomas Wilfred's'Lumia' and'Clavilux' light organs to Jean Tinguely's self-destructing sculpture'Homage to New York' can be seen as progenitors of new media art. In 1958 Wolf Vostell becomes the first artist who incorporates a television set into one of his works; the Black Room Cycle. This installation is part of the collection of the Berlinische Galerie.
During the 1960s the development of new technologies of video produced the new media art experiments of Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell with the installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age in 1963 at the Smolin Gallery in New York. A. Michael Noll, multimedia performances of E. A. T. Fluxus and Happening. In 1983, Roy Ascott introduced the concept of "distributed authorship" in his worldwide telematic project La Plissure du Texte for Frank Popper's "Electra" at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; the development of computer graphics at the end of the 1980s and real time technologies in the 1990s combined with the spreading of the Web and the Internet favored the emergence of new and various forms of interactive art by Ken Feingold, Lynn Hershman Leeson, David Rokeby, Ken Rinaldo, Perry Hoberman, Tamas Waliczky. In Geneva, the Centre pour l'Image Contemporaine or CIC coproduced with Centre Georges Pompidou from Paris and the Museum Ludwig in Cologne the first internet video archive of new media art. Advances in biotechnology have allowed artists like Eduardo Kac to begin exploring DNA and genetics as a new art medium.
Influences on new media art have been the theories developed around interaction, hypertext and networks. Important thinkers in this regard have been Vannevar Bush and Theodor Nelson, whereas comparable ideas can be found in the literary works of Jorge Luis Borges, Italo Calvino, Julio Cortázar. In the book New Media Art, Mark Tribe and Reena Jana named several themes that contemporary new media art addresses, including computer art, identity, open sourcing, surveillance, corporate parody, as well as intervention and hacktivism. In the book Postdigitale, Maurizio Bolognini suggested that new media artists have one common denominator, a self-referential relationship with the new technologies, the result of finding oneself inside an epoch-making transformation determined by technological development. New media art does not appear as a set of homogeneous practices, but as a complex field converging around three main elements: 1) the art system, 2) scientific and industrial research, 3) political-cultural media activism.
There are significant differences between scientist-artists, activist-artists and technological artists closer to the art system, who not only have different training and technocultures, but have different artistic production. This should be taken into account in examining the several themes addressed by new media art. Non-linearity can be seen as an important topic to new media art by artists developing interactive, collaborative, immersive artworks like Jeffrey Shaw or Maurice Benayoun who explored the term as an approach to looking at varying forms of digital projects where the content relays on the user's experience; this is a key concept since people acquired the notion that they were conditioned to view everything in a linear and clear-cut fashion. Now, art is stepping out of that form and allowing for people to build their own experiences with the piece. Non-linearity describes a project that escape from the conventional linear narrative coming from novels, theater plays and movies. Non-linear art requires audience participation or at least, the fact that the "visitor" is taken into consideration by the representation, altering the displayed content.
The participatory aspect of new media art, which for some artists has become integral, emerged from Allan Kaprow's
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices, bodies or inanimate objects to convey artistic expression. It is different from visual arts, when artists use paint, canvas or various materials to create physical or static art objects. Performing arts include a range of disciplines. Theatre, music and object manipulation, other kinds of performances are present in all human cultures; the history of music and dance date to pre-historic times whereas circus skills date to at least Ancient Egypt. Many performing arts are performed professionally. Performance can be in purpose built buildings, such as theatres and opera houses, on open air stages at festivals, on stages in tents such as circuses and on the street. Live performances before an audience are a form of entertainment; the development of audio and video recording has allowed for private consumption of the performing arts. The performing arts aim to express one's emotions and feelings. Artists who participate in performing arts in front of an audience are called performers.
Examples of these include actors, dancers, circus artists and singers. Performing arts are supported by workers in related fields, such as songwriting and stagecraft. A performer who excels in acting and dancing is referred to as a triple threat. Well-known examples of historical triple threat artists include Gene Kelly, Fred Astaire, Judy Garland. Performers adapt their appearance, such as with costumes and stage makeup, stage lighting, sound. Performing arts may include dance, opera and musical theatre, illusion, spoken word, circus arts, performance art. There is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists perform their work live to an audience; this is called performance art. Most performance art involves some form of plastic art in the creation of props. Dance was referred to as a plastic art during the Modern dance era. Theatre is the branch of performing arts. Any one or more of these elements is performing arts. In addition to the standard narrative dialogue style of plays. Theater takes such forms as plays, opera, illusion, classical Indian dance, mummers' plays, improvisational theatre, stand-up comedy and non-conventional or contemporary forms like postmodern theatre, postdramatic theatre, or performance art.
In the context of performing arts, dance refers to human movement rhythmic and to music, used as a form of audience entertainment in a performance setting. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. There is one another modern form of dance that emerged in 19th- 20th century with the name of Free-Dance style; this form of dance was structured to create a harmonious personality which included features such as physical and spiritual freedom. Isadora Duncan was the first female dancer who argued about “woman of future” and developed novel vector of choreography using Nietzsche’s idea of “supreme mind in free mind”. Dance is a powerful impulse, but the art of dance is that impulse channeled by skillful performers into something that becomes intensely expressive and that may delight spectators who feel no wish to dance themselves; these two concepts of the art of dance—dance as a powerful impulse and dance as a skillfully choreographed art practiced by a professional few—are the two most important connecting ideas running through any consideration of the subject.
In dance, the connection between the two concepts is stronger than in some other arts, neither can exist without the other. Choreography is the art of making dances, the person who practices this art is called a choreographer. Music is an art form which combines pitch and dynamic in order to create sound, it can be performed using a variety of instruments and styles and is divided into genres such as folk, hip hop and rock, etc. As an art form, music can occur in live or recorded formats, can be planned or improvised; as music is a protean art, it co-ordinates with words for songs as physical movements do in dance. Moreover, it has a capability of shaping human behaviors. Starting in the 6th century BC, the Classical period of performing art began in Greece, ushered in by the tragic poets such as Sophocles; these poets wrote plays. The Hellenistic period began the widespread use of comedy. However, by the 6th century AD, Western performing arts had been ended, as the Dark Ages began. Between the 9th century and 14th century, performing art in the West was limited to religious historical enactments and morality plays, organized by the Church in celebration of holy days and other important events.
In the 15th century performing arts, along with the arts in general, saw a revival as the Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe plays, some of which incorporated dance, which were performed and Domenico da Piacenza credited with the first use of the term ballo instead of danza for his baletti or balli. The term became Ballet; the first Ballet per se is thought to be Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx's Ballet Comique de la Reine. By the mid-16th century Commedia Dell'arte became popular in Europe, introducing the use of improvisation; this period introduced the Elizabethan
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education is considered the second and final phase of basic education, level 3 secondary education is the stage before tertiary education; every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19. Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; the terminology has proved difficult, there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education. In classical and mediaeval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood.
As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years; the rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19. Secondary education is in most countries the phase in the education continuum responsible for the development of the young during their adolescence, the most rapid phase of their physical and emotional growth, it is at this education level in its first cycle, where values and attitudes formed at primary school are more ingrained alongside the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
The 1997 International Standard Classification of Education describes seven levels that can be used to compare education internationally. Within a country these can be implemented in different ways, with different age levels and local denominations; the seven levels are: Level 0 – Pre-primary education Level 1 – Primary education or first stage of basic education Level 2 – Lower secondary or second stage of basic education Level 3 – secondary education Level 4 – Post-secondary non-tertiary education Level 5 – First stage of tertiary education Level 6 – Second stage of tertiary educationWithin this system, Levels 1 and 2 – that is, primary education and lower secondary – together form basic education. Beyond that, national governments may attach the label of secondary education to Levels 2 through 4 together, Levels 2 and 3 together, or Level 2 alone; these level definition were put together for statistical purposes, to allow the gathering of comparative data nationally and internationally.
They were approved by the UNESCO General Conference at its 29th session in November 1997. Though they may be dated, they do provide a universal set of definitions and remain unchanged in the 2011 update; the start of lower secondary education is characterised by the transition from the single-class-teacher, who delivers all content to a cohort of pupils, to one where content is delivered by a series of subject specialists. Its educational aim is to complete provision of basic education and to lay the foundations for lifelong learning. Lower secondary education is to show these criteria: entry after some 6 years of primary education the requirement for more qualified teachers teaching only within their specialism exit to Level 3 courses, or vocational education, or employment after 9 or more total years of education; the end of lower secondary education coincides with the end of compulsory education in countries where that exists. Secondary education starts on the completion of basic education, defined as completion of lower secondary education.
The educational focus is varied according to the student's interests and future direction. Education at this level is voluntary. Secondary education is to show these criteria: entry after some 9 years of basic education typical age at entry is between 14 and 16 years all teachers have level 5 qualifications in the subject they are teaching exit to Level 4 or 5 courses or to direct employment. More subjects may be dropped, increased specialism occurs. Completion of secondary education provides the entry requirements to Level 5 tertiary education, the entry requirements to technical or vocational education, or direct entry into the workplace. In 2012 the ISCED published a further work on education levels where it codified particular paths and redefined the tertiary levels. Lower secondary education and secondary education could last between 2 and 5 years, the transition between two would be when students were allowed some subject choice. Terminology for secondary schools varies by country, the exact meaning of any of these varies.