Nearly 10 million visitors attended the exhibition and thirty-seven countries participated in it. The Great Central Fair of 1864, one of the fairs held during the Civil War, anticipated the combination of public, private. They made Philadelphia a vital center in the Union war effort, the idea of the Centennial Exposition is credited to John L. Campbell, a professor of mathematics, natural philosophy and astronomy at Wabash College, Indiana. In December 1866, Campbell suggested to Philadelphias mayor that the United States Centennial be celebrated with an exposition in Philadelphia. Detractors said the project would not be able to find funding, other nations might not attend, the Franklin Institute became an early supporter of the exposition and asked the Philadelphia City Council for use of Fairmount Park. The Philadelphia City Council and the Pennsylvania General Assembly created a committee to study the project, congressman William D. Kelley spoke for the city and state and Daniel Johnson Morrell introduced a bill to create a United States Centennial Commission.
The bill, which passed on March 3,1871, provided that the U. S. government would not be liable for any expenses, the United States Centennial Commission organized on March 3,1872, with Joseph R. Hawley of Connecticut as president. The Centennial Commissions commissioners included one representative from state and territory in the United States. On June 1,1872, Congress created a Centennial Board of Finance to help raise money, the boards president was John Welsh, brother of philanthropist William Welsh, who had raised funds for The Great Sanitary Fair in 1864. The board was authorized to sell up to US$10 million in stock via US$10 shares, the board sold US$1,784,320 worth of shares by February 22,1873. Philadelphia contributed US$1.5 million and Pennsylvania gave US$1 million, on February 11,1876, Congress appropriated US$1.5 million in a loan. John Welsh enlisted help from the women of Philadelphia who had helped him in The Great Sanitary Fair, a Womens Centennial Executive Committee was formed with Elizabeth Duane Gillespie, a descendant of Benjamin Franklin, as president.
In its first few months, the group raised US$40,000, when the group learned the planning commission was not doing much to display the work of women, the group raised US$30,000 for a womens exhibition building. In 1873, the Centennial Commission named Alfred T. Goshorn as the general of the Exposition. The Fairmount Park Commission set aside 450 acres of West Fairmount Park for the exposition, the Commission decided to classify the exhibits into seven departments, art and science, machinery and mining and metallurgy. Newspaper publisher John W. Forney agreed to head and pay for a Philadelphia commission sent to Europe to invite nations to exhibit at the exposition, despite fears of a European boycott and high American tariffs making foreign goods not worthwhile, no European country declined the invitation. To accommodate out-of-town visitors, temporary hotels were constructed near the Centennials grounds, Philadelphia streetcars increased service and the Pennsylvania Railroad ran special trains from Philadelphias Market Street, New York City and Pittsburgh.
The Philadelphia and Reading Railroad ran special trains from the Center City part of Philadelphia, a small hospital was built on the Expositions grounds by the Centennials Medical Bureau, but despite a heat wave during the summer, no mass deaths or epidemics occurred
Rachel Goslins is an arts administrator and documentary film director and producer. In August 2016, she was appointed Director of the Smithsonians Arts and she was previously head of the President’s Committee on the Arts and the Humanities. Goslins was Executive Director of the Presidents Committee on the Arts and Humanities, president Obama appointed her to this position in 2009. S. Department of State to rescue and preserve Haitian cultural artifacts in the wake of the 2009 hurricane and she stepped down as Executive Director in 2015. Her feature documentary, Bama Girl premiered at the 2008 South by Southwest Film Festival and her most recent film was Besa, The Promise, an award-winning feature documentary about Albanian Muslims who saved Jews during World War II. Prior to her arts career, Rachel was an international copyright attorney in the office of Policy and she began her career as a litigator for the law firm of Gibson Dunn & Crutcher. In 2012 she was awarded a Henry Crown Fellowship at the Aspen Institute and she is married to investor and former Federal Communications Commission Chairman Julius Genachowski, and they have three children.
Webcast on World Digital Library Rachel Goslins at the Internet Movie Database Rachel Goslins on Facebook
Caspar Buberl was an American sculptor. C. Born in Königsberg, Bohemia, as a young man Buberl studied art in Prague, Meigs was chosen to design and construct the new Pension Building, now the National Building Museum, in Washington D. C. Meigs based his design on Italian Renaissance precedents, notably Romes Palazzo Farnese, included in his design was a 1, 200-foot -long sculptured frieze executed by Buberl. Because of the way that the 28 sections were modified and intermixed, Meigs insisted that any teamster included in the Quartermaster panel must be a negro, a plantation slave, freed by war. This figure was ultimately to assume a position in the center, over the west entrance to the building and his impressive New York State Monument crowns Cemetery Hill, and a number of individual memorials for specific regiments dot the battlefield. He died in New York City, four relief panels, Artillery, The Monitor and the Merrimac A. P. C. Adolph Cluss, Montgomery Meigs, associate architect,1881 Pension Building Frieze, National Building Museum, Outdoor Sculpture of Ohio, Chagrin Falls, West Summit Press,1980.
Craven, The Sculpture at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Robert C. and Robert Kalin, Guide to Cleveland Architecture, Ohio, Cleveland Chapter of the American Institute of Architects,1990. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington D. C, Frederick W. Gettysburg, Stories of Men and Monuments, Pennsylvania, The Association of Licensed Battlefield Guides,1988. Kuckro, Anne Crofoot, Hartford Architecture, Volume One, Hartford, Hartford Architecture Conservatory and Lockley, Guide to the Architectural Sculpture of America, unpublished manuscript McDaniel, Joyce L. The Collected Works of Caspar Buberl, An Analysis of a Nineteenth Century American Sculptor, Massachusetts, MA thesis, David, The Secret Architecture of Our Nations Capital, the Masons and the building of Washington, D. C
George Brown Goode
Goode graduated from Wesleyan University and studied at Harvard University. In 1872, he started working with Spencer Baird, soon becoming his trusted assistant and he served as the assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in charge of the United States National Museum. Goode effectively ran both the research program of the U. S. Fish Commission and the Smithsonian Institution from 1873 to 1887. He was the United States Commissioner for Fish and Fisheries from 1887 to 1888 and he authored many books and monographs and wrote more than 100 scientific reports and notes. Goode was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and he received from the Queen Regent of Spain the decoration of Commander in the Royal Order of Ysabel la Catolica. He was awarded the degree of Ph. D. from Indiana University and he died at Lanier Heights in Washington, D. C. on September 6,1896, at the age of only 45, after a bout with pneumonia. He had been at work on a history of the Smithsonians first fifty years, the head of the Smithsonian, Samuel Pierpont Langley, completed the volume and wrote a memorial to Goode, published in 1901.
The genus Goodea of splitfins was named in his honour by David Starr Jordan in 1880, species named after him include, Bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei Jordan,1880. Southern eagle ray, Myliobatis goodei Garman,1885, Goode croaker, Paralonchurus goodei Gilbert,1898. Palometa, Trachinotus goodei Jordan & Evermann,1896, George Brown Goode & Tarleton Hoffman Bean. Oceanic Ichthyology, A Treatise on the Deep-Sea and Pelagic Fishes of the World, Based Chiefly upon the Collections Made by the Steamers Blake, archived from the original on 5 November 2005. The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States,7 volumes, Museum Masters, Their Museums and Their Influence. The Origins of Natural Science in America, Essays of George Brown Goode, langleys A Memorial of G. Brown Goode 1901 on GoogleBooks National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Smithsonian Institution Building
For similar uses and terms, see Smithsonian. The building is constructed of Seneca red sandstone in the faux Norman style and is nicknamed The Castle and it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965. The building committee held a design competition in 1846 and selected Renwicks design by a unanimous vote. A cardboard model of Renwicks winning design survives and is on display in the Castle, Renwick was assisted by Robert Mills, particularly in the internal arrangement of the building. The redstone was substantially less expensive than granite or marble, the building committee selected Gilbert Cameron as the general contractor, and construction began in 1847. The East Wing was completed in 1849 and occupied by Secretary Joseph Henry, the West Wing was completed the same year. A structural collapse in 1850 of partly completed work raised questions of workmanship, the Castles exterior was completed in 1852, Renwicks work was completed and he withdrew from further participation. Cameron continued the work, which he completed in 1855.
The ensuing renovation was undertaken by local Washington architect Adolf Cluss in 1865-67, further fireproofing work ensued in 1883, by Cluss, who by this time had designed the neighboring Arts and Industries Building. A third and fourth floor were added to the East Wing, electric lighting was installed in 1895. Around 1900 the wooden floor of the Great Hall was replaced with terrazzo, a tunnel connected to the Arts and Industries Building. A general renovation took place in 1968-70 to install modern electrical systems and heating, the Enid A. Haupt Garden was dedicated in 1987, along with the Renwick Gate facing Independence Avenue, built from Seneca redstone retrieved from the demolished D. C. James Renwick designed the Castle as the point of a picturesque landscape on the Mall. The building is completed in the Gothic Revival style with Romanesque motifs and this style was chosen to evoke the Collegiate Gothic in England and the ideas of knowledge and wisdom. The façade is built with red sandstone from the Seneca quarry in Seneca, Maryland in contrast to the granite and yellow sandstone from the major buildings in Washington.
The building comprises a section, two extensions or ranges, and two wings. Four towers contain occupiable space, while five smaller towers are primarily decorative, as constructed, the central section contained the main entry and museum space, with a basement beneath and a large lecture room above. Two galleries on the floor were used to display artifacts
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
National Museum of African Art
The National Museum of African Art is the Smithsonian Institutions African art museum, located on the National Mall of the United States capital. Its collections include 9,000 works of traditional and contemporary African art from both Sub-Saharan and Arab North Africa,300,000 photographs, and 50,000 library volumes. It was the first institution dedicated to African art in the United States, the Washington Post called the museum a mainstay in the international art world and the main venue for contemporary African art in the United States. The museum was founded in 1964 by a Foreign Service officer and layman who bought African art objects in Germany, the collection focused on traditional African art and an educational mission towards black cultural heritage. To ensure the longevity, the founder lobbied Congress to adopt the museum under the Smithsonians auspices. It joined the Smithsonian in 1979 and became the National Museum of African Art two years later, a new, mostly underground museum building was completed in 1987 just off the National Mall and adjacent to other Smithsonian museums.
It is among the Smithsonians smallest museums, the African art museum took a scholarly direction over the next twenty years, with less social programming. It collected traditional and contemporary works of historical importance, exhibitions include works both internal and borrowed, and have ranged from solo artist to broad, survey shows. The museum hosts two to three temporary exhibitions and ten special events annually, reviewers criticized the National Mall buildings architecture, particularly its lack of natural light. The museum is slated to be remodeled as part of the Smithsonians upcoming South Mall project, in the 1950s, American Foreign Service officer Warren M. Robbins collected African figures, masks and textiles from German antique shops. Upon returning to Washington, D. C. in 1960, he purchased a house on Capitol Hill, without museum, arts, or fundraising experience, believed that the collection could advance interracial civil rights by improving how white peoples understanding of African culture.
Starting in 1963, he expanded his Capitol Hill house museum into adjacent townhouses, the collections eventually occupied nine townhouses and over a dozen other properties near the Supreme Court Building. The museum was founded in 1964 as the Museum of African Art. Under Robbinss tenure, the focused on traditional African art. Robbins referred to his museum as a department with a museum attached. By 1976, the African art museum had a 20-person staff,6, 000-object collection, to ensure the museums longevity, Robbins lobbied Congress to have the Smithsonian Institution, a federal group of museums and research centers, absorb it. The Smithsonian directors adopted the museum the next year and began plans to move the collection from the townhouses into a proper museum, in 1981, the museum was renamed the National Museum of African Art. In early 1983, former Brooklyn Museum curator of African cultures Sylvia Williams became the museums director, that year, the Smithsonian broke ground on a new, dedicated building for the African art museum on the National Mall
The National Mall is a national park in downtown Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States. The National Park Service administers the National Mall, which is part of its National Mall, a smaller designation, sometimes referred to as the Mall proper, excludes both the Capitol grounds and the Washington Monument grounds, applying only to an area between them. The National Mall contains a number of museums and memorials and receives approximately 24 million visitors each year, in his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D. C. The National Mall occupies the site of this grand avenue. The Washington Monument stands near the site of its namesakes equestrian statue. Mathew Careys 1802 map is reported to be the first to name the area west of the United States Capitol as the Mall, during the early 1850s, architect and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downings plan.
Two such areas were Henry Park and Seaton Park, in addition, railroad tracks crossed the Mall on 6th Street, west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, a market and a railroad station rose on the north side of the Mall. Greenhouses belonging to the U. S. Botanic Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall, the plan differed from LEnfants by replacing the 400 feet wide grand avenue with a 300 feet wide vista containing a long and broad expanse of grass. Four rows of American elm trees planted fifty feet apart between two paths or streets would line each side of the vista. Buildings housing cultural and educational institutions constructed in the Beaux-Arts style would line each outer path or street, on the opposite side of the path or street from the elms. In subsequent years, the vision of the McMillan plan was followed with the planting of American elms. In accordance with a plan that it completed in 1976, the NPS converted the two innermost boulevards into gravel walking paths, the two outermost boulevards remain paved and open to vehicular traffic.
Although the Navy intended the buildings to provide quarters for the United States military during World War I. Much of the area became Constitution Gardens, which was dedicated in 1976. From the 1970s to 1994, a model of a triceratops named Uncle Beazley stood on the Mall in front of the National Museum of Natural History. The life-size statue, which is now located at the National Zoological Park in Northwest Washington, in 2003, the 108th United States Congress enacted the Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision Act
National Museum of Natural History
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an area of 1,500,000 square feet with 325,000 square feet of exhibition and public space. The museums collections contain over 126 million specimens of plants, fossils, rocks, human remains, the United States National Museum was founded in 1846 as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum was housed in the Smithsonian Institution Building, which is better known today as the Smithsonian Castle. A formal exhibit hall opened in 1858, the growing collection led to the construction of a new building, the National Museum Building. Covering a then-enormous 2.25 acres, it was built in just 15 months at a cost of $310,000, congress authorized construction of a new building on June 28,1902.
The regents began considering sites for the new building in March, the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall was chosen to design the structure. Testing of the soil for the foundations was set for July 1903, the Natural History Building opened its doors to the public on March 17,1910, in order to provide the Smithsonian Institution with more space for collections and research. The building was not fully completed until June 1911, the structure cost $3.5 million dollars. The Neoclassical style building was the first structure constructed on the side of the National Mall as part of the 1901 McMillan Commission plan. In addition to the Smithsonians natural history collection, it housed the American history, art. Between 1981 and 2003, the National Museum of Natural History had 11 permanent, there were six directors alone between 1990 and 2002. Turnover was high as the directors were disenchanted by low levels of funding. Robert W. Fri was named the director in 1996. One of the largest donations in Smithsonian history was made during Fris tenure, kenneth E.
Behring donated $20 million in 1997 to modernize the museum. Fri resigned in 2001 after disagreeing with Smithsonian leadership over the reorganization of the scientific research programs. J. Dennis OConnor, Provost of the Smithsonian Institution was named acting director of the museum on July 25,2001, eight months later, OConner resigned to become the vice president of research and dean of the graduate school at the University of Maryland