Woodstock was a music festival held on a dairy farm in the Catskill Mountains, northwest of New York City, between August 15–18, 1969, which attracted an audience of more than 400,000. Billed as "An Aquarian Exposition: 3 Days of Peace & Music", it was held at Max Yasgur's 600-acre dairy farm near White Lake in Bethel, New York, 43 miles southwest of Woodstock. Over the sometimes rainy weekend, 32 acts performed outdoors, it is regarded as a pivotal moment in popular music history, as well as the definitive nexus for the larger counterculture generation. Rolling Stone listed it as number 19 of the 50 Moments That Changed the History of Roll; the event was captured in the Academy Award-winning 1970 documentary movie Woodstock, an accompanying soundtrack album, Joni Mitchell's song "Woodstock", which commemorated the event and became a major hit for both Crosby, Nash & Young and Matthews Southern Comfort. Joni Mitchell said, "Woodstock was a spark of beauty" where half-a-million kids "saw that they were part of a greater organism".
In 2017, the festival site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Woodstock was initiated through the efforts of Michael Lang, Artie Kornfeld, Joel Rosenman, John P. Roberts. Roberts and Rosenman financed the project. Lang had some experience as a promoter, having co-organized a festival on the East Coast the prior year, the Miami Pop Festival, where an estimated 25,000 people attended the two-day event. Early in 1969, Roberts and Rosenman were New York City entrepreneurs, in the process of building Media Sound, a large audio recording studio complex in Manhattan. Lang and Kornfeld's lawyer, Miles Lourie, who had done legal work on the Media Sound project, suggested that they contact Roberts and Rosenman about financing a similar, but much smaller, studio Kornfeld and Lang hoped to build in Woodstock, New York. Unpersuaded by this Studio-in-the-Woods proposal and Rosenman counter-proposed a concert featuring the kind of artists known to frequent the Woodstock area. Kornfeld and Lang agreed to the new plan, Woodstock Ventures was formed in January 1969.
The company offices were located in an oddly decorated floor of 47 West 57th Street in Manhattan. Burt Cohen, his design group, Curtain Call Productions, oversaw the psychedelic transformation of the office. From the start, there were differences in approach among the four: Roberts was disciplined and knew what was needed for the venture to succeed, while the laid-back Lang saw Woodstock as a new, "relaxed" way of bringing entrepreneurs together; when Lang was unable to find a site for the concert and Rosenman, growing concerned, took to the road and came up with a venue. Similar differences about financial discipline made Roberts and Rosenman wonder whether to pull the plug or to continue pumping money into the project. In April 1969, Creedence Clearwater Revival became the first act to sign a contract for the event, agreeing to play for $10,000; the promoters had experienced difficulty landing big-name groups prior to Creedence committing to play. Creedence drummer Doug Clifford commented, "Once Creedence signed, everyone else jumped in line and all the other big acts came on."
Given their 3 a.m. start time and omission from the Woodstock film, Creedence members have expressed bitterness over their experiences regarding the festival. Woodstock was designed as a profit-making venture, it famously became a "free concert" only after the event drew hundreds of thousands more people than the organizers had prepared for. Tickets for the three-day event cost $18 in $24 at the gate. Ticket sales were limited to record stores in the greater New York City area, or by mail via a post office box at the Radio City Station Post Office located in Midtown Manhattan. Around 186,000 advance tickets were sold, the organizers anticipated 200,000 festival-goers would turn up; the original venue plan was for the festival to take place in Wallkill, New York near the proposed recording studio site owned by Alexander Tapooz. After local residents shot down that idea and Kornfeld thought they had found another possible location in Saugerties, New York, but they had misunderstood, as the landowner's attorney made clear, in a brief meeting with Roberts and Rosenman.
Growing alarmed at the lack of progress and Rosenman took over the search for a venue, discovered the 300-acre Mills Industrial Park in the town of Wallkill, New York, which Woodstock Ventures leased for $10,000 in the Spring of 1969. Town officials were assured. Town residents opposed the project. In early July, the Town Board passed a law requiring a permit for any gathering over 5,000 people. On July 15, 1969, the Wallkill Zoning Board of Appeals banned the concert on the basis that the planned portable toilets would not meet town code. Reports of the ban, turned out to be a publicity bonanza for the festival. In his 2007 book Taking Woodstock, Elliot Tiber relates that he offered to host the event on his 15-acre motel grounds, had a permit for such an event, he claims to have introduced the promoters to dairy farmer Max Yasgur. Lang, disputes Tiber's account and says that Tiber introduced him to a realtor, who drove him to Yasgur's farm without Tiber. Sam Yasgur, Max's son, agrees with Lang's account.
Yasgur's land formed a natural bowl sloping down to Filippini Pond on the land's north side. The stage would be set up at the bottom of the
Jonathan Smith, known professionally as Lil Jon, is an American DJ, record producer, rapper based in Atlanta, Georgia. He was the lead frontman of the multi-platinum selling rap group, Lil Jon & The East Side Boyz and was instrumental in the emergence of the sub hip/hop genre Crunk, he is credited with bringing the genre into mainstream success, producing Top 10 Billboard Hot 100 singles Get Low, Cyclone, Freek-a-Leek, Yeah!. Yeah! won a Grammy Award for Best Rap/Sung Performance. Lil Jon is a frequent collaborator with friend and fellow rapper Pitbull. In 2013, Lil Jon collaborated with DJ Snake and released the EDM multi-platinum hit, Turn Down For What, that won Billboard Music Award for Top Dance/Electronic Song; the music video for the single, released in 2014, was nominated for a Grammy Award for Best Music Video, has been viewed over 826 million times on YouTube as of January 2018. As of 2016, Lil Jon is listed as one of the Top Billboard Music Award Winners of All Time. Smith was born in Atlanta and grew up in a middle class Southwest Atlanta neighborhood.
He is oldest of five children born to his father, an engineer at Lockheed Martin and to his mother, in the Army Reserves While in middle School, he met Robert McDowell, Dwayne Searcy and Vince Philips, who would become his lifelong friends and business partners. The trio became immersed in the skateboarding culture and would work at Skate Escape, a popular skate and bicycle shop near the city's Piedmont Park. Smith attended Frederick Douglass High School, was in magnet program and a member of the school's marching band. At age 15, Lil Jon taught himself how to DJ and although his parents were strict, they gave him a chance to work on his DJ skills by allowing him to have house parties in the basement of the family home, citing that they would rather have him under their watch than for him to "be in the street somewhere wilding out." The parties, hosted by Lil Jon and Searcy were called "Old Eng and Chicken Parties" which became popular with teenagers in the area. In addition to working at the skate shop, Lil Jon began working in local dance clubs as a DJ After graduating high school, Lil Jon continued to work as a DJ in a popular downtown Atlanta club It was there he met Jermaine Dupri.
When it came to hiring an A&R to lead his Atlanta based music label So So Def, Jermaine Dupri stated that "All I could think about was Lil Jon, because he was the person in the clubs. He knew people, DJs knew him. I had to hire him." After he was promoted to Executive Vice President of A&R, Lil Jon recruited local producers and rappers DJ Smurf, Shawty Redd, Raheem the Dream, Playa Poncho with others to create the compilation album series, So So Def Bass All Stars as his first project. Released on May 22, 1996, the album was a success, selling over 500,000 units and was certified Gold by the RIAA on September 19, 1995, four months after its initial release The album, executive produced by Lil Jon, included the hit single, My Boo by Ghost Town DJs, it was sampled by Ciara in her 2013 smash, Body Parts In 2016, 20 years after its initial release, the song re-entered the Billboard Hot 100 chart at No. 29. Lil Jon completed the series, releasing So So Def Bass All-Stars Vol. II and So So Def Bass All-Stars Vol. III Apart from his label commitments, Lil Jon was a radio personality/DJ on Atlanta radio station, V-103, continued to produce music for outside music artists, was still working as a DJ at popular clubs around the city.
Lil Jon collaborated with Lil' Bo to form a musical rap group. Sam and Bo both grew up on the east side of Metropolitan Atlanta area and thus chose the name, The East Side Boyz. In 1996, the group released their debut single, "Who U Wit?". The song is credited as bringing the term "crunk" into hip-hop currency. In 1997, the group released; the singles, "Who U Wit?" and "Shawty Freak a Lil Sumthin", charted on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs at No. 70 and No. 62, respectively. In 2000, through the newly created label Black Market, the group released their breakthrough album We Still Crunk! which featured the single, I Like Them Girls, which reached No. 55 on the Billboard R&B and No. 3 on the Billboard Hot Rap Tracks charts. The team was well equipped with prior experience at promoting albums and worked to grow the group's fan base across radio markets. Promotional street teams that were hired major music labels to promote their repertoire, began to talk within music promotion circles on how successful Lil Jon and his team were on the ground and were gaining radio airplay in radio markets that were difficult non local artists to break into.
Bryan Leach an A&R executive at New York based label TVT Records, heard about the group attended their Atlanta show. He was blown away by the group's immense energy. Leach told HitQuarters: "It was like early Beastie Boys, when they had the energy of a rock group but they were rapping, that energy is what crunk music is all about." By 2001, Leach signed Lil Jon & The East Side Boyz to TVT Records with Black Market delivering the albums to the label. The group released the album Put Yo Hood Up, which combined released tracks with new ones. Bia' Bia', which featured rappers Ludacris, Oakland rap legend, Too Short, New York based DJ, Big Kap, along with newcomer, New Orleans's rapper Chyna Whyte was the group's first single to be played nationally. "Bia' Bia"' peaked at No. 97 on the Billboard Hot No. 47 on the Billboard R&B chart. The album was certified Gold by the RIAA in June of 2002. In 2001, The group release their sophomore studio album under the label, Kings of Crunk
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport known as Atlanta Airport, Hartsfield, or Hartsfield–Jackson, is an international airport 7 miles south of downtown Atlanta, Georgia. It is named after former Atlanta mayors William B. Maynard Jackson; the airport has 192 gates: 40 international. ATL has five parallel runways; the airport has international service within North America and to South America, Central America, Europe and Asia. As an international gateway to the United States, Hartsfield–Jackson ranks seventh. Many of the nearly one million flights are domestic flights. Atlanta has been the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 2000, by number of landings and take-offs every year since 2005 except 2014. Hartsfield–Jackson held its ranking as the world's busiest airport in 2012, both in passengers and number of flights, by accommodating 100 million passengers and 950,119 flights. In 2017, it remained the busiest airport in the world with 104 million passengers. Hartsfield–Jackson is the primary hub of Delta Air Lines, is a focus city for low-cost carriers Frontier Airlines, Southwest Airlines, Spirit Airlines.
With just over 1,000 flights a day to 225 domestic and international destinations, the Delta hub is the world's largest hub. Delta Air Lines flew 75.4% of the airport's passengers in February 2016, Southwest flew 9.2%, American Airlines flew 2.5%. In addition to hosting Delta's corporate headquarters, Hartsfield–Jackson is the home of Delta's Technical Operations Center, the airline's primary maintenance and overhaul arm; the airport is in unincorporated areas of Fulton and Clayton counties, but it spills into the city limits of Atlanta, College Park, Hapeville. The airport's domestic terminal is served by MARTA's Red and Gold rail lines. Hartsfield–Jackson began with a five-year, rent-free lease on 287 acres, an abandoned auto racetrack named The Atlanta Speedway; the lease was signed on April 16, 1925, by Mayor Walter Sims, who committed the city to develop it into an airfield. As part of the agreement, the property was renamed Candler Field after its former owner, Coca-Cola tycoon and former Atlanta mayor Asa Candler.
The first flight into Candler Field was September 15, 1926, a Florida Airways mail plane flying from Jacksonville, Florida. In May 1928, Pitcairn Aviation began service followed in June 1930 by Delta Air Service; those two airlines, now known as Eastern Air Lines and Delta Air Lines would both use Atlanta as their chief hubs. The airport's weather station became the official location for Atlanta's weather observations September 1, 1928, records by the National Weather Service, it was a busy airport from its inception and at the end of 1930 it was third behind New York City and Chicago for regular daily flights with sixteen arriving and departing. Candler Field's first control tower opened March 1939; the March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows fourteen weekday airline departures: ten Eastern and four Delta. In October 1940, the U. S. government declared it a military airfield and the United States Army Air Forces operated Atlanta Army Airfield jointly with Candler Field. The Air Force used the airport to service many types of transient combat aircraft.
During World War II the airport doubled in size and set a record of 1,700 takeoffs and landings in a single day, making it the nation's busiest in terms of flight operation. Atlanta Army Airfield closed after the war. In 1942 Candler Field was renamed Atlanta Municipal Airport and by 1948, more than one million passengers passed through a war surplus hangar that served as a terminal building. Delta and Eastern had extensive networks from ATL, though Atlanta had no nonstop flights beyond Texas, St Louis and Chicago until 1961. Southern Airways appeared at ATL after the war and had short-haul routes around the Southeast until 1979. In 1957 Atlanta saw its first jet airliner: a prototype Sud Aviation Caravelle, touring the country arrived from Washington D. C; the first scheduled turbine airliners were Capital Viscounts in June 1956. The first trans-Atlantic flight was the Delta/Pan Am interchange DC-8 to Europe via Washington starting in 1964. Nonstops to Europe started in 1978 and to Asia in 1992–93.
Atlanta claimed to be the country's busiest airport, with more than two million passengers passing through in 1957 and, between noon and 2 p.m. each day, it became the world's busiest airport. Chicago Midway had 414 weekday departures, including 48 between 12:00 and 2:00 PM. In 1957, Atlanta was the country's ninth-busiest airline airport by flight count and about the same by passenger count; that year work began on a $21 million terminal that opened May 3, 1961. It could handle over six million travelers a year. In March 1962 the longest runway was 7,860 feet. In 1971 the airport was named William B. Hartsfield Atlanta Airport after former Atlanta mayor William B. Hartsfield, who had died that year; the name change took effect on February 28. Later
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, painting, printmaking, crafts, video and architecture. Many artistic disciplines involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art. Current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term'artist' was restricted to a person working in the fine arts and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media; the distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts; the increasing tendency to privilege painting, to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art.
In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, the furthest removed from manual labour – in Chinese painting the most valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Training in the visual arts has been through variations of the apprentice and workshop systems. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists, today most of the people who are pursuing a career in arts train in art schools at tertiary levels. Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. Drawing is a means of using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques, it involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool, or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils and ink, inked brushes, wax color pencils, charcoals and markers.
Digital tools that simulate the effects of these are used. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing, crosshatching, random hatching, scribbling and blending. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draughtsman. Drawing goes back at least 16,000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. In ancient Egypt, ink drawings on papyrus depicting people, were used as models for painting or sculpture. Drawings on Greek vases geometric developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century, drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli, Raphael and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. Painting taken is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier and a binding agent to a surface such as paper, canvas or a wall. However, when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing, composition, or other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner.
Painting is used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. Like drawing, painting has its documented origins on rock faces; the finest examples, believed by some to be 32,000 years old, are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. In shades of red, brown and black, the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison, cattle and deer. Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. In the great temple of Ramses II, his queen, is depicted being led by Isis; the Greeks much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations are the Hellenistic Fayum mummy portraits. Another example is mosaic of the Battle of Issus at Pompeii, based on a Greek painting. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC, which initiated a tradition in icon painting. Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages, the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century, this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro techniques were used to create the illusion of 3-D space.
Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. Jan van Eyck from Belgium, Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times, they used the glazing technique with oils to achieve luminosity. The 17th century witnessed the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt, remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes, Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life; the Baroque started from the late 16th century to the late 17th century. Main artists of the Baroque included Caravaggio. Peter Paul Rubens was a flemish painter who studied in Italy, work
John Lewis (civil rights leader)
John Robert Lewis is an American politician and civil rights leader. He is the U. S. Representative for Georgia's 5th congressional district, serving in his 17th term in the House, having served since 1987, is the dean of the Georgia congressional delegation, his district includes the northern three-fourths of Atlanta. Lewis, who as chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was one of the "Big Six" leaders of groups who organized the 1963 March on Washington, played many key roles in the Civil Rights Movement and its actions to end legalized racial segregation in the United States, he is a member of the Democratic Party leadership in the U. S. House of Representatives and has served as a Chief Deputy Whip since 1991 and Senior Chief Deputy Whip since 2003. Lewis has been awarded many honorary degrees and is the recipient of numerous awards from eminent national and international institutions, including the highest civilian honor of the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
John Lewis was born in Troy, the third son of Willie Mae and Eddie Lewis. His parents were sharecroppers. Lewis grew up in Alabama, he has several siblings, including brothers Edward, Freddie, Sammy and William, sisters Ethel and Ora. At the age of six, Lewis had seen only two white people in his life, he was educated at the Pike County Training High School, Brundidge and American Baptist Theological Seminary and at Fisk University, both in Nashville, where he became a leader in the Nashville sit-ins. While a student, he was invited to attend nonviolence workshops held in the basement of Clark Memorial United Methodist Church by the Rev. James Lawson and Rev. Kelly Miller Smith. There and many of his fellow students became dedicated adherents to the discipline and philosophy of nonviolence, which he still practices today; the Nashville sit-in movement was responsible for the desegregation of lunch counters in downtown Nashville. Lewis was arrested and jailed many times in the nonviolent movement to desegregate the downtown area of the city.
Afterwards, he participated in the Freedom Rides sponsored by the Congress of Racial Equality, led by James Farmer, became a national leader in the movement for civil rights and respect for human dignity. In an interview, John Lewis said, "I saw racial discrimination as a young child. I saw those signs that said'White Men, Colored Men, White Women, Colored Women'.... I remember as a young child with some of my brothers and sisters and first cousins going down to the public library trying to get library cards, trying to check some books out, we were told by the librarian that the library was for whites only and not for'coloreds'." During a childhood trip to Buffalo, New York, Lewis saw for the first time black men and white men working together, desegregating water fountains, began to believe the dream of equality was more than just a dream. Lewis listened to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks on the radio, he and his family supported the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Lewis met Parks in 1957 when he was 17, he met King the following year.
John Lewis was the youngest of the "Big Six" leaders as chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee from 1963 to 1966, some of the most tumultuous years of the Civil Rights Movement. During his tenure, SNCC opened Freedom Schools, launched the Mississippi Freedom Summer, organized some of the voter registration efforts during the 1965 Selma voting rights campaign; as the chairman of SNCC, Lewis had written a speech in reaction to the Civil Rights Bill of 1963. He denounced the bill because it didn't protect African Americans against police brutality or provide African Americans with the right to vote. Lewis graduated from the American Baptist Theological Seminary in Nashville and received a bachelor's degree in Religion and Philosophy from Fisk University; as a student, he was dedicated to the Civil Rights Movement. He organized sit-ins at segregated lunch counters in Nashville and took part in many other civil rights activities as part of the Nashville Student Movement, he was instrumental in organizing student sit-ins, bus boycotts and nonviolent protests in the fight for voter and racial equality.
In 1960, Lewis became one of the 13 original Freedom Riders. There were seven whites and six blacks who were determined to ride from Washington, D. C. to New Orleans in an integrated fashion. At that time, several states of the old Confederacy still enforced laws prohibiting black and white riders from sitting next to each other on public transportation; the Freedom Ride, originated by the Fellowship of Reconciliation and revived by James Farmer and CORE, was initiated to pressure the federal government to enforce the Supreme Court decision in Boynton v. Virginia that declared segregated interstate bus travel to be unconstitutional. In the South and other nonviolent Freedom Riders were beaten by angry mobs, arrested at times and taken to jail; when CORE gave up on the Freedom Ride because of the violence and fellow activist Diane Nash arranged for the Nashville students to take it over and bring it to a successful conclusion. In 1963, when Chuck McDew stepped down as SNCC chairman, one of the founding members of SNCC, was elected to take over.
Lewis's experience at that point was widely respected. His courage and his tenacious adherence to the philosophy of reconciliation and nonviolence made him emerge as a leader. By this time, he had been arrested 24 times in the nonviolent struggle for equal justice, he held the post of chairman until 1966. In 1963, as chairman of SNCC Lewis was named one of the "Big Six" leaders who were organizing the March on Washington, the occasion of Dr
Fox Theatre (Atlanta)
The Fox Theatre, a former movie palace, is a performing arts venue located at 660 Peachtree Street NE in Midtown Atlanta, is the centerpiece of the Fox Theatre Historic District. The theater was planned as part of a large Shrine Temple as evidenced by its Moorish design; the 4,665 seat auditorium was developed as a lavish movie theater in the Fox Theatres chain and opened in 1929. It hosts a variety of cultural and artistic events including the Atlanta Ballet, a summer film series, performances by national touring companies of Broadway shows; the venue hosts occasional concerts by popular artists. When the Fox Theatre first opened, the local newspaper described it as having, "a picturesque and disturbing grandeur beyond imagination", it remains a showplace. The principal architect of the project was Olivier Vinour of the firm Marye and Vinour; the original architecture and décor of the Fox can be divided into two architectural styles: Islamic architecture and Egyptian architecture. The 4,665-seat auditorium, designed for movies and live performances, replicates an Arabian courtyard complete with a night sky of 96 embedded crystal "stars" and a projection of clouds that drift across the "sky."
A longstanding rumor that one of the stars was a piece of a Coca-Cola bottle was confirmed in June 2010 when two members of the theater's restoration staff conducted a search from within the attic above the auditorium ceiling. The Egyptian Ballroom is designed after a temple for Ramses II at Karnak while the mezzanine Ladies Lounge features a replica of the throne chair of King Tut and makeup tables that feature tiny Sphinxes; the Islamic sections feature a number of ablution fountains, which are kept dry. Throughout the Fox there is extensive use of trompe l'oeil; the Fox Theatre gives regular tours of the Fox Theatre's interior. Designed as the Yaarab Shrine Temple, the headquarters for a 5,000-member Shriners organization, the $2.75 million project exceeded the Shriners' budget, so they leased the auditorium to movie mogul William Fox, building theaters around the country at the time. The theater opened on December 1929, just two months after the stock market crash. A week on New Year's Day, the Shriners inaugurated their new "mosque" in their part of the building, which contained executive offices, a large lounge, a ballroom/banquet hall, practice hall, locker-shower room.
Under the terms of the lease, they remained as paying tenants until 1949. According to the National Park Service, "the Fox Theatre closed only 125 weeks. Members of the Yaarab Temple could not meet their, by 1932, William Fox was bankrupt." After the mortgage was foreclosed in December 1932, the entire complex was purchased jointly by Paramount Pictures and Lucas & Jenkins, a Georgia company that owned a hundred theatres. In 1939, the movie most associated with Atlanta and the South, Gone with the Wind, premiered at the now-demolished Loew's Grand Theatre rather than the Fox. Although GWTW was produced by Selznick International, it was distributed by Loew's Incorporated as part of a deal with rival studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; the parade down Peachtree Street for the movie's premier coincidentally started just outside the Fox because the movie's cast was staying across the street at the Georgian Terrace Hotel. During the 1940s, the Fox acquired strong management and became one of the finest movie theaters in Atlanta.
It was at this time that the Egyptian Ballroom became Atlanta's most popular public dance hall and hosted all the important big bands and country and western swing bands of the era. It was notable at that time for being the only theater in Atlanta allowing both white and black patrons. However, there was a separate black box office and seating; these are left in place for historical purposes. The theater was integrated in 1962. During the 1970s, several elements collided to bring about the Fox's decline – white flight, the rise of suburban multiplex theaters, changes in how films were distributed. In 1974, Southern Bell, the regional arm of AT&T, approached the owners of the theater with an offer to buy and with the intent of tearing it down and building the parking deck for a new headquarters on the site. A group was formed to save the theater and it was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in May 1974; the ensuing public outcry and massive campaign, including such entertainers as Liberace and Lynyrd Skynyrd, among other celebrities, resulted in the city refusing to issue a demolition permit.
A complicated deal was brokered that prevented the Fox's demolition. The Southern Bell Building was built on land adjacent to the theater on the building's west side in conjunction with the construction of the North Avenue MARTA station, with its parking deck built on the north end of th
Bobby Ray Simmons Jr. known professionally as B.o. B, is an American rapper, songwriter, record producer and conspiracy theorist from Decatur, Georgia. In 2006, B.o. B was discovered by Brian Richardson, who introduced him to TJ Chapman, who subsequently brought him to American record producer Jim Jonsin. After hearing his music, Jonsin signed B.o. B to his Rebel Rock Entertainment imprint. Two years Jonsin and B.o. B signed a joint venture deal, with Atlantic Records and American rapper T. I.'s Grand Hustle Records. B.o. B rose to fame after his commercial debut single "Nothin' on You", reached number one in both the United States and the United Kingdom, he would release his third single "Airplanes", which topped several major music charts. His fifth single "Magic", became his 3rd top 10 hit on the US Billboard Hot 100. B.o. B's debut studio album The Adventures of Bobby Ray, preceded by two extended plays and several mixtapes, was released in April 2010; the album reached number one on the US Billboard 200 and was certified 2× platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in 2016.
B.o. B was named the ninth "Hottest MC in the Game of 2010" on their annual list. B.o. B released his second studio album Strange Clouds, in May 2012; the album spawned six singles. The album's eponymous lead single became his fourth top 10 hit on the Billboard Hot 100; the singles "So Good", "Both of Us" and "Out of My Mind", followed behind, with the former two being certified platinum by the RIAA. The album itself debuted at number five on the Billboard 200, his third album Underground Luxury, was released in December 2013 and supported by the lead single "HeadBand". In August 2015, B.o. B unexpectedly released a new project Psycadelik Thoughtz, via digital distribution, with little-to-no promotion. B.o. B is an outspoken believer that the earth is flat. B.o. B was born in North Carolina, he played the trumpet in his school band from elementary school through high school. Although his parents wanted him to continue his education, B.o. B decided in sixth grade that he wanted to pursue a music career.
His father, a pastor, disapproved of his son's choices, until he realized B.o. B was using music as a form of therapy and a creative outlet. B.o. B reflected on his experience, saying, "They've always supported me, they got my first keyboard to make beats on and they helped me out getting equipment here and there. But it was kind of hard for them to understand what I was trying to accomplish." B.o. B attended Columbia High School in Decatur, where he played the trumpet in the school band, until he landed a record deal and decided to drop out of school in the ninth grade. In 2002, after meeting his mentor and co-manager B- Rich at the age of 14, B.o. B sold his first beat to former Slip-n-Slide recording artist Citti, for a song titled "I'm the Cookie Man". Meanwhile, B.o. B felt he had made it: "I went and blew all of my money on fast stuff like a chain and ballin'. Soon I was broke again, but I learned two important things from it. Back to square one, B.o. B continued performing at open mics and underground venues, to perfect his craft.
In 2006, because he was underage, B- Rich helped sneak B.o. B into Club Crucial, a night club owned by Atlanta-based rapper T. I.. There, B.o. B performed a song titled "Cloud 9", a self-produced, spoken word-like ode to marijuana. In attendance was producer and industry veteran, T. J. Chapman, chief executive officer of TJ's DJ's. Chapman agreed to co-manage B.o. B, which only a month led to B.o. B's signing with Atlantic Records and subsidiary imprint Rebel Rock, run by Florida-based producer Jim Jonsin, his first single for Atlantic, 2007's "Haterz Everywhere", reached the top five of Billboard's Bubbling Under R&B/Hip-Hop singles chart. Along with his solo production career, B.o. B is part of a production/rap group called HamSquad, along with Playboy Tre, DJ Swatts, DJ Smooth, Moss B, B-Rich and TJ Chapman. B.o. B first began to gain recognition at the start of 2007; the underground single, "Haterz Everywhere" featuring Wes Fif, gained the rapper attention by peaking at number 5 on the US Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles.
The remix to "Haterz Everywhere" featuring Rich Boy, was included used in the video game Fight Night Round 4, a music video was released for that version. Another single, "I'll Be in the Sky", was released in 2008 and it has reached at number 15 on the same charts. About.com called the song a "smart, funky artrap and a strong prelude to his album" and included it at number 13 on its subjective ranking "Top 100 Rap Songs of 2008". Incidentally, another song produced by B.o. B called "Generation Lost", listed alongside the song, on the ranking at number 32; this was followed by another single titled "Don't Let Me Fall". B.o. B made his first big feature appearing on T. I.'s acclaimed album Paper Trail, on the song "On Top of the World", alongside fellow Atlanta-based rapper Ludacris. In 2008, it was revealed he would appear on the cover of XXL magazine, along with Asher Roth, Charles Hamilton and Wale as part of their "Hip-Hop's Class of'09" issue. In October 2008, B.o. B was featured on the cover of Vibe along with some of these same young musicians and was identified as promising young talent.
From 2007 to 2008, B.o. B released four mixtapes. My Name is B.o. B Who the F#*k is B.o. B? and two extended plays. In 2008, it was revealed B.o. B was included in XXL's 2009 annual Freshman Class, was featured on the cover alongside fellow up-and-coming rappers Asher Roth, Wale