China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Standard Chinese known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Modern Standard Mandarin Chinese, or Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese, the sole official language of China, the de facto official language of Taiwan and one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order, it has more initial consonants but final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese is an analytic language, though with many compound words. There are two standardised forms of the language, namely Putonghua in Mainland China and Guoyu in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters, Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters.
Many characters are identical between the two systems. In Chinese, the standard variety is known as: 普通话 in the People's Republic of China, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Standard Chinese is commonly referred to by generic names for "Chinese", notably 中文. In total, there have been known over 20 various names for the language; the term Guoyu had been used by non-Han rulers of China to refer to their languages, but in 1909 the Qing education ministry applied it to Mandarin, a lingua franca based on northern Chinese varieties, proclaiming it as the new "national language". The name Putonghua has a long, albeit unofficial, history, it was used as early as 1906 in writings by Zhu Wenxiong to differentiate a modern, standard Chinese from classical Chinese and other varieties of Chinese. For some linguists of the early 20th century, the Putonghua, or "common tongue/speech", was conceptually different from the Guoyu, or "national language"; the former was a national prestige variety. Based on common understandings of the time, the two were, in fact, different.
Guoyu was understood as formal vernacular Chinese, close to classical Chinese. By contrast, Putonghua was called "the common speech of the modern man", the spoken language adopted as a national lingua franca by conventional usage; the use of the term Putonghua by left-leaning intellectuals such as Qu Qiubai and Lu Xun influenced the People's Republic of China government to adopt that term to describe Mandarin in 1956. Prior to this, the government used both terms interchangeably. In Taiwan, Guoyu continues to be the official term for Standard Chinese; the term Guoyu however, is less used in the PRC, because declaring a Beijing dialect-based standard to be the national language would be deemed unfair to speakers of other varieties and to the ethnic minorities. The term Putonghua, on the contrary, implies nothing more than the notion of a lingua franca. During the government of a pro-Taiwan independence coalition, Taiwan officials promoted a different reading of Guoyu as all of the "national languages", meaning Hokkien and Formosan as well as Standard Chinese.
Huayu, or "language of the Chinese nation" simply meant "Chinese language", was used in overseas communities to contrast Chinese with foreign languages. Over time, the desire to standardise the variety of Chinese spoken in these communities led to the adoption of the name "Huayu" to refer to Mandarin; this name avoids choosing a side between the alternative names of Putonghua and Guoyu, which came to have political significance after their usages diverged along political lines between the PRC and the ROC. It incorporates the notion that Mandarin is not the national or common language of the areas in which overseas Chinese live. Hanyu, or "language of the Han people", is another umbrella term used for Chinese. However, it has confusingly two different meanings: Standard Chinese; this term, as well as Hànzú, is a modern concept. A related concept is Hànzì; the term "Mandarin" is a translation of Guānhuà, which referred to the lingua franca of the late Chinese empire. The Chinese term is obsolete as a name for the standard language, but is used by linguists to refer to the major group of Mandarin dialects spoken natively across most of northern and southwestern China.
In English, "Mandarin" may refer to the standard language, the dialect group as a whole, or to historic forms such as the late Imperial lingua franca. The name "Modern Standard Mandarin" is sometimes used by linguists who wish to distinguish the current state of the shared language from other northern and historic dialects; the Chinese have different languages in different provinces, to such an extent
Southern Xinjiang railway
The Southern Xinjiang railway or Nanjiang railway is a railway between Turpan and Kashgar in Xinjiang, China. The railway is 1,446 km in length and runs along the southern slope of the Tian Shan mountain range, connecting all major cities and towns of the northern Tarim Basin, including Turpan, Yanqi, Luntai, Toksu, Maralbexi and Kashgar; the line joins the Lanzhou -- Xinjiang railway at the Kashgar -- Hotan railway in Kashgar. The Southern Xinjiang railway was built from east to west; the Turpan-Korla section in the east was built from 1974 to 1984. The western section from Korla to Kashgar was built from 1996 to 1999. From Yanqi to Kashgar, the line follows National Highway 314; the Kashgar–Hotan railway referred to as Phase III of the Southern Xinjiang railway, opened in 2010. From 2008 to 2013, the Korla to Kuqa section, 526.9 km in length, was double-tracked. In December 2014, a second double-track electrified line between Turpan and Korla opened to commercial operation; this new line, called the second Turpan–Korla railway, is 334 km in length.
The line makes use of extensive tunneling to shorten the distance between the two cities by 123 km. The maximum elevation along route is lowered from 2,980 m to 1,490 m, the steepest incline is reduced from 22.7‰ to 13‰. The longest tunnel along route, the Middle Tianshan Tunnel, is 22.467 km in length and one of the longest railway tunnels in China. Turpan: Lanzhou–Xinjiang railway Kashgar: Kashgar–Hotan railway List of railways in China
A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs of prefectural level cities have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities. A prefectural level city is a "city" and "prefecture" that have been merged into one consolidated and unified jurisdiction; as such it is a city, a municipal entry with subordinate districts, a prefecture with subordinate county-level cities and counties, an administrative division of a province. A prefectural level city is not a "city" in the usual sense of the term, but instead an administrative unit comprising a main central urban area, its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities and villages; the larger prefectural level cities span over 100 kilometres. Prefectural level cities nearly always contain multiple counties, county level cities, other such sub-divisions.
This results from the fact that the predominant prefectures, which prefectural level cities have replaced, were themselves large administrative units containing cities, smaller towns, rural areas. To distinguish a prefectural level city from its actual urban area, the term 市区 shìqū, is used; the first prefectural level cities were created on 5 November 1983. Over the following two decades, prefectural level cities have come to replace the vast majority of Chinese prefectures. Most provinces are composed or nearly of prefectural level cities. Of the 22 provinces and 5 autonomous regions of the PRC, only 9 provinces and 3 autonomous regions have at least one or more second level or prefectural level divisions that are not prefectural level cities. Criteria that a prefecture must meet to become a prefectural level city: An urban centre with a non-rural population over 250,000 gross output of value of industry of 200,000,000 RMB the output of tertiary industry supersedes that of primary industry, contributing over 35% of the GDP15 large prefectural level cities have been granted the status of sub-provincial city, which gives them much greater autonomy.
Shijiazhuang and Zhengzhou are the largest prefectural level cities with populations approaching or exceeding some sub-provincial cities. A sub-prefecture-level city is a county-level city with powers approaching those of prefectural level cities. There are total of three classification of prefecture-level city: Regular prefectural level city which consist of counties, county level cities, districts subdivisions. Consolidated district-governed prefectural level city which only consist of districts as it subdivisions. There are only 12 cities are under this classification: Ezhou, Guangzhou, Karamay, Sanya, Wuhai, Xiamen, Zhuhai Prefectural level city with no county-level divisions are cities that are not governed by any county-level divisions such as counties, county level cities, or legal administrative districts. There are only 5 cities are under this classification: Danzhou, Jiayuguan, Zhongshan In Europe and North America, cities are represented as points, while counties are represented as areas.
Thus, Indiana is indicated on the map by a point, distinct from, enclosed by, the area of Monroe County, Indiana. In China, large cities such as City of Xianning may, in reality, contain both urban and rural elements. Moreover, they may enclose other cities. On a less detailed map, City of Xianning would be indicated by a point, more or less corresponding to the coordinates of its city government. Other populous areas may be exhibited as points, such as County of Tongshan, with no indication that County of Tongshan is, in fact, enclosed by City of Xianning. On a more detailed map, City of Xianning would be drawn as an area, similar to a county of the United States, County of Tongshan would be drawn as a smaller area within City of Xianning; this convention may lead to difficulty in the identification of places mentioned in older sources. For example, Guo Moruo writes that he was born in Town of Shawan, within Prefecture of Leshan, attended primary school in Town of Jiading. A modern map is unlikely to show either town: Shawan, because it is too small, Jiading, because it is the seat of City of Leshan, is therefore indicated on the map by a point labelled "Leshan."
A more detailed map would show Shawan as a district within City of Leshan, but Jiading would still be missing. Statistics of China such as population and industrial activity are reported along prefectural city lines. Thus, the unknown City of Huangshi has 2.5 million residents, more than most European capitals, but upon closer inspection, the city covers an area 100 kilometers across. Furthermore, Huangshi contains several other cities, such as City of Daye. If a person wished to calculate the population of the urban
The Tian Shan known as the Tengri Tagh, meaning the Mountains of Heaven or the Heavenly Mountain, is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia. The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 metres high, its lowest point is the Turpan Depression. The Chinese name for Tian Shan may have been derived from the Xiongnu word Qilian – according to Tang commentator Yan Shigu, Qilian is the Xiongnu word for sky or heaven. Sima Qian in the Records of the Grand Historian mentioned Qilian in relation to the homeland of the Yuezhi, the term is believed to refer to the Tian Shan rather than the Qilian Mountains 1,500 kilometres further east now known by this name; the Tannu-Ola mountains in Tuva has the same meaning in its name. Tian Shan is sacred in Tengrism, its second-highest peak is known as Khan Tengri which may be translated as "Lord of the Spirits". Tian Shan is north and west of the Taklamakan Desert and directly north of the Tarim Basin in the border region of Kazakhstan and Xinjiang in northwest China.
In the south it links up with the Pamir Mountains and to north and east it meets the Altai Mountains of Mongolia. In Western cartography such as National Geographic, the eastern end of the Tian Shan is understood to be east of Ürümqi, with the range to the east of that city known as the Bogda Shan as part of the Tian Shan. Chinese cartography from the Han Dynasty to the present agrees, with the Tian Shan including the Bogda Shan and Barkol ranges; the Tian Shan are a part of the Himalayan orogenic belt, formed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates in the Cenozoic era. They are one of the longest mountain ranges in Central Asia and stretch some 2,900 kilometres eastward from Tashkent in Uzbekistan; the highest peak in the Tian Shan is Jengish Chokusu on the border of China. At 7,439 metres high, it is the highest point in Kyrgyzstan; the Tian Shan's second highest peak, Khan Tengri, straddles the Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan border and at 7,010 metres is the highest point of Kazakhstan. Mountaineers class these as the two most northerly peaks over 7,000 metres in the world.
The Torugart Pass, at 3,752 metres, is located at the border between Kyrgyzstan and China's Xinjiang province. The forested Alatau ranges, which are at a lower altitude in the northern part of the Tian Shan, are inhabited by pastoral tribes that speak Turkic languages; the Tian Shan are separated from the Tibetan Plateau by the Taklimakan Desert and the Tarim Basin to the south. The major rivers rising in the Tian Shan are the Ili River and the Tarim River; the Aksu Canyon is a notable feature in the northwestern Tian Shan. Continuous permafrost is found in the Tian Shan starting at the elevation of about 3,500-3,700 m above the sea level. Discontinuous alpine permafrost occurs down to 2,700-3,300 m, but in certain locations, due to the peculiarity of the aspect and the microclimate, it can be found at elevations as low as 2,000 m. One of the first Europeans to visit and the first to describe the Tian Shan in detail was the Russian explorer Peter Semenov, who did so in the 1850s. Glaciers in the Tian Shan Mountains have been shrinking and have lost 27%, or 5.4 billion tons annually, of its ice mass since 1961 compared to an average of 7% worldwide.
It is estimated. The Tian Shan have a number of named ranges which are mentioned separately. In China the Tian Shan starts north of Kumul City with the U-shaped Barkol Mountains, from about 600 to 400 kilometres east of Ürümqi; the Bogda Shan run from 350 to 40 kilometres east of Ürümqi. There is a low area between Ürümqi and the Turfan Depression; the Borohoro Mountains start just south of Ürümqi and run west northwest 450 kilometres separating Dzungaria from the Ili River basin. Their north end abuts on the 200 kilometres Dzungarian Alatau which run east northeast along Sino-Kazakh border, they start 50 kilometres east of end at the Dzungarian Gate. The Dzungarian Alatau in the north, the Borohoro Mountains in the middle and the Ketmen Range in the south make a reversed Z or S, the northeast enclosing part of Dzungaria and the southwest enclosing the upper Ili valley. In Kyrgyzstan the main line of the Tian Shan continues as Narat Range from the base of the Borohoros west 570 kilometres to the point where China and Kyrgyzstan meet.
Here is the highest part of the range -- the Central Tian Shan, with Khan Tengri. West of this, the Tian Shan split with Issyk Kul Lake in its center; the south side of the lake is the north side the Kyungey Ala-Too. North of the Kyungey Ala-Too and parallel to it is the Trans-Ili Alatau in Kazakhstan just south of Almaty. West of the eye, the range continues 400 kilometres as the Kyrgyz Ala-Too, separating Chui Province from Naryn Oblast and Kazakhstan from the Talas Province; this oblast is the upper valley of the Talas River, the south side of, the 200 kilometres Talas Ala-Too Range. At the east end of the Talas Alatau the Suusamyr Too range runs southeast enclosing the Suusamyr Valley or plateau; as for the area south of the Fergana Valley there is a 800 kilometres group of mountains that curves west-southwest
The Kyrgyz people are a Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia Kyrgyzstan. There are several theories on the origin of ethnonym Kyrgyz, it is said to be derived from the Turkic word kyrk, with -iz being an old plural suffix, so Kyrgyz means "a collection of forty tribes". It means "imperishable", "inextinguishable", "immortal", "unconquerable" or "unbeatable", as well as its association with the epic hero Manas, who – according to a founding myth – unified the 40 tribes against the Khitans. A rival myth, recorded in 1370 in the Yuán Shǐ, concerns 40 women born on a steppe motherland; the original root of the ethnonym appears to have been the word kirkün meaning "field people". This and the Chinese transcription Tse-gu suggest that the original ethnonym was Kirkut and/or Kirkur, both of which can be traced back to kirkün. By the time of the Mongol Empire, the meaning of the word kirkun had been forgotten – as was shown by variations in readings of it across different reductions of the Yuán Shǐ.
This may have led to the adoption of its mythical explanation. During the 18th and 19th centuries, European writers used the early Romanized form Kirghiz – from the contemporary Russian киргизы – to refer not only to the modern Kyrgyz, but to their more numerous northern relatives, the Kazakhs; when distinction had to be made, more specific terms were used: the Kyrgyz proper were known as the Kara-Kirghiz, the Kazakhs were named the Kaisaks. or "Kirghiz-Kazaks". The early Kyrgyz people, known as Yenisei Kyrgyz, have their origins in the western parts of modern-day Mongolia and first appear in written records in the Chinese annals of the Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian, as Gekun or Jiankun, they were described in Tang Dynasty texts as having "red hair and green eyes", while those with dark hair and eyes were said to be descendants of a Chinese general Li Ling. In Chinese sources, these Kyrgyz tribes were described as fair-skinned, green- or blue-eyed and red-haired people with a mixture of European and East Asian features.
This was the result of mixing with Indo-European people in the early genesis of Turkic groups. The Middle Age Chinese composition Tanghuiyao of the 8–10th century transcribed the name "Kyrgyz" as Tsze-gu, their tamga was depicted as identical to the tamga of present-day Kyrgyz tribes Azyk, Cherik, Sary Bagysh and few others. According to recent historical findings, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC; the Yenisei Kyrgyz lived in central Siberia. In Late Antiquity the Yenisei Kyrgyz were a part of the Tiele people. In the Early Middle Ages, the Yenisei Kyrgyz were a part of the confederations of the Göktürk and Uyghur Khaganates. In 840 a revolt led by the Yenisei Kyrgyz brought down the Uyghur Khaganate, brought the Yenisei Kyrgyz to a dominating position in the former Turkic Khaganate. With the rise to power, the center of the Kyrgyz Khaganate moved to Jeti-su, brought about a spread south of the Kyrgyz people, to reach Tian Shan mountains and Xinjiang, bringing them into contact with the existing peoples of western China Tibet.
By the 16th century the carriers of the ethnonym Kirgiz lived in South Siberia, Tian Shan, Pamir-Alay, Middle Asia, Urals, in Kazakhstan. In the Tian Shan and Xinjiang area, the term Kyrgyz retained its unifying political designation, became a general ethnonym for the Yenisei Kirgizes and aboriginal Turkic tribes that presently constitute the Kyrgyz population. Though it is impossible to directly identify the Yenisei and Tien Shan Kyrgyz, a trace of their ethnogenetical connections is apparent in archaeology, history and ethnography. A majority of modern researchers came to the conclusion that the ancestors of Kyrgyz tribes had their origin in the most ancient tribal unions of Sakas/Scythians, Wusun/Issedones, Dingling and Huns. There follow from the oldest notes about the Kyrgyz that the definite mention of Kyrgyz ethnonym originates from the 6th century. There is certain probability that there was relation between Kyrgyz and Gegunese in the 2nd century BC, between Kyrgyz and Khakases since the 6th century A.
D. but there is quite missing a unique mention. The Kyrgyz as ethnic group are mentioned quite unambiguously in the time of Genghis Khan rule, when their name replaces the former name Khakas; the genetic makeup of the Kyrgyz is consistent with their origin as a mix of tribes. For instance, 63% of modern Kyrgyz men of Jumgal District Haplogroup R1a1. Low diversity of Kyrgyz R1a1 indicates a founder effect within the historical period. Other groups of Kyrgyz show lower haplogroup R frequencies and lack haplogroup N. West Eurasian mtDNA ranges from 27% to 42.6% in the Kyrgyz with Haplogroup mtDNA H being the most predominant marker at 21.3% among the Kyrgyz. Because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they speak related languages. According to a genetic study based on geographic location of the 26 Central Asian populations shows the admixture proportions of East Eurasian ancestry is predominant in most Kyrgyz living in Kyrgyzstan.
East Eurasian ancestry makes up two-thirds with exceptions of Kyrgyz living in Tajikistan and the western areas of Kyrgyzstan where it forms only