Prime Minister of Aruba
The Prime Minister of Aruba is the head government. Together with Aruba's Council of Ministers, they form the executive branch of Aruban government
Aruba is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about 1,600 kilometres west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and 29 kilometres north of the coast of Venezuela. It measures 32 kilometres long from its northwestern to its southeastern end and 10 kilometres across at its widest point. Together with Bonaire and Curaçao, Aruba forms. Collectively and the other Dutch islands in the Caribbean are called the Dutch Caribbean. Aruba is one of the four countries that form the Kingdom of the Netherlands, along with the Netherlands, Curaçao, Sint Maarten. Aruba has no administrative subdivisions, for census purposes, is divided into eight regions, its capital is Oranjestad. Unlike much of the Caribbean region, Aruba has an arid, cactus-strewn landscape; this climate has helped tourism. It has a land area of 179 km2 and is densely populated, with a total of 102,484 inhabitants at the 2010 Census, it lies outside Hurricane Alley. The name Aruba may have different origins: From the Spanish Oro hubo which means "there was gold" From the Indian word Oruba which means "well-placed" From the Indian words Ora and Oubao Aruba's first inhabitants are thought to have been Caquetío Amerindians from the Arawak tribe, who migrated there from Venezuela to escape attacks by the Caribs.
Fragments of the earliest known Indian settlements date back to 1000 AD. As sea currents made canoe travel to other Caribbean islands difficult, Caquetio culture remained more associated with that of mainland South America. Europeans first learned of Aruba following the explorations for Spain by Amerigo Vespucci and Alonso de Ojeda in the summer of 1499. Both described Aruba as an "island of giants", remarking on the comparatively large stature of the native Caquetíos compared to Europeans. Gold was not discovered on Aruba for another 300 years. Vespucci returned to Spain with stocks of cotton and brazilwood from the island and described houses built into the ocean. Vespucci and Ojeda's tales spurred interest in Aruba, Spaniards soon colonized the island; because it had low rainfall, Aruba was not considered profitable for the plantation system and the economics of the slave trade. Aruba was colonized by Spain for over a century. Simas, the Cacique, or chief, in Aruba, welcomed the first Catholic priests in Aruba, who gave him a wooden cross as a gift.
In 1508, the Spanish Crown appointed Alonso de Ojeda as its first Governor of Aruba, as part of Nueva Andalucía. Arawaks spoke the "broken Spanish". Another governor appointed by Spain was Juan Martínez de Ampiés. A cédula real decreed in November 1525 gave Ampiés, factor of Española, the right to repopulate Aruba. In 1528, Ampiés was replaced by a representative of the House of Welser of Augsburg; the Netherlands seized Aruba from Spain in 1636 in the course of the Thirty Years' War. Since 1636, Aruba has been under Dutch administration governed by Peter Stuyvesant appointed to New Amsterdam. Stuyvesant was on a special mission in Aruba in November and December 1642; the island was included under the Dutch West India Company administration, as "New Netherland and Curaçao", from 1648 to 1664. In 1667 the Dutch administration appointed an Irishman as "Commandeur" in Aruba; the Dutch took control 135 years after the Spanish, leaving the Arawaks to farm and graze livestock, used the island as a source of meat for other Dutch possessions in the Caribbean.
Aruba's proximity to South America resulted in interaction with cultures of the coastal areas more than a century after independence of Netherlands from Spain. Dutch was not spoken on the island outside of colonial administration. Students on Curaçao, Bonaire were taught predominantly in Spanish until the late 18th century, when the British took Curaçao, Bonaire. Teaching of Spanish was restored when Dutch rule resumed in 1815. Efforts were made to introduce bilingual popular education in Dutch and Papiamentu in the late 19th century. During the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire took control over the island, between 1799 and 1802, between 1804 and 1816, before handing it back to the Dutch. During World War II with the occupation of the Netherlands in 1940 the oil facilities in Aruba came under the administration of the Dutch government-in-exile in London, Aruba continued to supply oil to the British and their allies. In August 1947, Aruba presented its first Staatsreglement, for Aruba's status aparte as an autonomous state within the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
By 1954, the Charter of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was established, providing a framework for relations between Aruba and the rest of the Kingdom. In 1972, at a conference in Suriname, Betico Croes, a politician from Aruba, proposed a sui-generis Dutch Commonwealth of four states: Aruba, the Netherlands and the Netherlands Antilles, each to have its own nationality. C. Yarzagaray, a parliamentary member representing the AVP political party, proposed a referendum so that the people of Aruba could choose whether they wanted total independence or Status Aparte as a full autonomous state under the Crown. Croes worked in Aruba to prepare the people of Aruba for independence. In 1976, he appointed a
A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
Juan Alfonso Boekhoudt is an Aruban administrator. He was Minister Plenipotentiary of Aruba from 14 November 2013 to 17 November 2016, he has been Governor since 1 January 2017. Boekhoudt has served as director of the Aruba Ports Authority, he served as chair of the Aruba Red Cross. He was appointed as Minister Plenipotentiary of Aruba per 13 November 2013, he succeeded Edwin Abath. Boekhoudt was succeeded by Juan David Yrausquin on 17 November 2016. In October 2016, the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom of the Netherlands appointed Boekhoudt as Governor of Aruba per 1 January 2017, he was nominated by Ronald Plasterk. The move drew criticism from the government of Prime Minister Mike Eman, which stated that the rules of the Council of Ministers of the Kingdom regarding gubernatorial appointments had not been followed. With the Aruban cabinet wishing that the appointment was reversed; the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations stated. The Aruban cabinet had nominated Finance Minister Angel Bermudez for the position.
The Aruban cabinet subsequently withdrew confidence in Boekhoudt, forcing him to resign as Minister Plenipotentiary of Aruba per 1 November 2016. On 18 October the conflict between Eman and Plasterk was settled, with Eman accepting the appointment of Boekhoudt, with the parties jointly declaring that the process was not handled perfectly
Estates of Aruba
The Estates of Aruba are the unicameral legislature or parliament of Aruba. The Estates have 21 members, elected for a four-year term by proportional representation; each member holds their seats until Parliament is dissolved, every four years by a general election. The leader of the party who gains majority becomes the Prime Minister. List of Chairmen of the Estates of Aruba