SLO Transit is the provider of mass transportation in the city of San Luis Obispo, California. SLO Transit operates 10 vehicles at peak along eight fixed-routes within the 23 square miles of the city limits of San Luis Obispo and California Polytechnic State University. SLO Transit operates Monday to Friday from 6am to 11pm, Saturday and Sunday from 8am to 8pm. SLO Transit's ridership has increased steadily, it transports over 1.1 million riders annually. SLO Transit ridership demographics reflect a broad cross section of riders, including: seniors, people with disabilities or economic transit dependent, K-12 students, college students, working professionals and choice riders. Operation and maintenance of all fixed-route services are contracted out to First Transit Inc. a third-party vendor. SLO Transit provides its fixed route transit system information via various formats, including: online at slotransit.org, printed materials, Google & Bing Maps, Social Media, “Bus Tracker” smart phone application, City Hall, the Transit Center, Parks & Rec Facilities, County Library & Offices, San Luis Obispo Council of Governments office, by phone, print advertising, on vehicles, at bus stops, community centers and via neighboring transit agencies.
The public has direct access for participating in the improvements and management of SLO Transit services. By direction of the City Council the Mass Transportation Committee was formed in 1972 to provide them input on matters related to transit; the committee is an advisory body of citizen volunteers. Their purpose is to gather input and represent the general public on matters of setting priorities and to include input during the planning processes. MTC advisory body includes representation from the: Senior, Technical and General community. SLO Transit has received many awards for its system including qualifying for Small Transit Intensive Cities funding, a funding source only granted to cities that provide a greater level of service than which their city’s population size would suggest. For para-transit services, SLO Transit provides part of its funding allocation, off-the-top, to the county’s consolidated para-transit service provider known as Run-About, operated by SLO Regional Transit Authority, who provides the fixed-route services to the other cities and parts of the county.
SLO Transit www.slotransit.org
Long Beach Transit
Long Beach Transit is a municipal transit company providing fixed and flexible bus transit services in Long Beach, United States, in other communities in south and southeast Los Angeles County, northwestern Orange County. Long Beach Transit operates the Passport shuttle and Aqualink; the service, while operated on behalf of the City of Long Beach, is not operated directly by the city, but by a separate nonprofit corporation, the Long Beach Public Transportation Company, operated for that purpose. Long Beach Transit receives its operating revenue from farebox receipts and state tax revenue distributed by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Long Beach Transit began operation in 1963 with the acquisition of Long Beach City Lines and Long Beach Motor Bus Company from National City Lines; the primary service area of Long Beach Transit has been the city of Long Beach and to a limited extent the enclave city of Signal Hill, but it has provided service to surrounding communities in Los Angeles County, including Lakewood, Cerritos and Seal Beach in neighboring Orange County.
The company has operated various types of bus services. During the 1970s and 1980s, it ran small shuttle buses in the downtown area, called DASH, because the routes were shorter, the fare was lower than on the regular buses. Bus transfers could be obtained upon payment of $0.05 for local transfers, $0.10 for "interagency transfers", which allow transfer to another bus line without additional payment. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, instead of using a common transfer with the route number punched on the transfer, each route had its own transfer with the route number printed on them. For transfers to other bus lines, Long Beach Transit used the consolidated Los Angeles County interagency transfer, which every bus company in Los Angeles County except RTD and Orange County Transit District used; the consolidated interagency transfer used by all the other transit agencies had a check box naming the twelve bus companies in the county, the driver would punch the box for the particular agency that issued the transfer.
During the mid-1970s, for a period of six months, a special subsidy was available. All bus trips in Los Angeles County were reduced from $0.80 to $1.25, to $0.25 on weekdays and Saturdays, $0.10 on Sunday. As a result, the issuance of transfers was discontinued for all trips within Los Angeles County; when the subsidy ended, the old price returned and bus companies resumed issuing transfers. In the early 1980s, the company changed its transfer system. Instead of using books of transfers, every bus has a ticket printer, which issues the three types of transfers: regular transfers, which allow the user to transfer to a different route. In case of machine failure, operators would still carry one book of each kind of transfers. Effective in 1999, Long Beach Transit instituted a day pass, on July 1, 2005, it eliminated transfers within the system, although the interagency transfer is available for transfers to other transit systems. In addition to regular service, Long Beach Transit operates two seasonal water taxi services: the 49-passenger AquaBus, the 75-passenger AquaLink, which connects the major attractions of Downtown Long Beach, including the Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach Cruise Terminal, the RMS Queen Mary hotel.
The 49-passenger AquaBus has six "ports of call": Dock 4 of the Aquarium of the Pacific, Queen Mary, Shoreline Village at Parker's Lighthouse, Catalina Landing, Dock 7 of Pine Avenue Circle, Hotel Maya. The fare is $1; the AquaLink is a 68-foot catamaran that ferries up to 75 passengers to the most popular attractions in Long Beach Harbor and on to Alamitos Bay Landing. The fare is $5, wheelchair boarding is available at Dock 4 near the Aquarium of the Pacific and at the Queen Mary. Long Beach Transit operated its bus lines as a consecutive set of route numbers, from 1 to 18; the numbers had no significance except that route 1 ran along State Route 1, the Pacific Coast Highway. Some routes had more than one routing. All of the route 9 buses would continue along Bellflower Boulevard, whereupon one would terminate at Bellflower and Stearns Street. Due to the successful renumbering which RTD had done in 1983, Long Beach Transit decided to renumber its routes. In the mid-1980s, the company changed some of its route numbers, keeping the original 1- or 2-digit number and adding a single digit after the number.
This was done to routes which split and serviced multiple streets and d
Foothill Transit is a public transit agency, government funded by 22 member cities in the San Gabriel and Pomona valleys. It operates a fixed-route bus public transit service in the San Gabriel Valley of Greater Los Angeles, United States. Foothill Transit operates out of two yards: one in Pomona, the other in Arcadia; the Foothill Transit joint powers authority membership consists of elected representatives from 22 member cities in the San Gabriel Valley and Pomona Valley and three members appointed from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. These representatives are divided into five geographical clusters, which each elect a representative annually to serve on a five-member Executive Board. Los Angeles County Supervisor Pete Schabarum is credited with the formation of the transit agency. Schabarum, annoyed by what he saw as disproportionate cutbacks of bus service by the Southern California Rapid Transit District in the San Gabriel Valley, wanted to secede from the larger agency and form a separate transit agency as early as 1986.
Compared to routes serving more densely-populated areas, routes in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys required greater subsidies to serve fewer riders on longer freeway alignments in eastern Los Angeles County. Foothill was founded by 20 member cities. In 1987, the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission approved Foothill to take over fourteen routes which serviced the San Gabriel Valley that were operated by SCRTD. Although service was planned to start on July 1, 1988, the Foothill Transit Zone had been prevented from starting service in July by an injunction arising from a lawsuit filed by the drivers and mechanics unions of SCRTD against LACTC. Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Eli Chernow ruled that LACTC could not unilaterally transfer the lines without the consent of the SCRTD board of directors; the injunction was upheld on appeal. LACTC had begun withholding $9 million per month from SCRTD in April 1988 on the basis that SCRTD had not followed salary guidelines set by LACTC. SCRTD consented to Foothill Transit taking over the bus lines in December 1988 in return for the restoration of funding.
Those first two lines operated by Foothill Transit were 495 and 498. The trial for the lawsuit against Foothill Transit started in May 1989, was resolved in Foothill's favor by July, the other twelve lines operated by SCRTD were transitioned to Foothill Transit between 1989 and 1992. For a short period in 1992, the last two routes to transition were operated by both Foothill Transit and SCRTD during continued legal disputes; the drivers and mechanics unions disputed the transfer of 486 and 488 since SCRTD had made the decision without negotiating with the union. However, Foothill Transit again prevailed in a February 1993 court ruling. Schabarum, who hated the influence of trade unions, chose to use contractors to operate the service. All of the operations and maintenance work for Foothill Transit are contracted out; as of 2017, bus service is operated by Keolis at Transdev at Arcadia/Irwindale. Embree Bus Lines was the initial contractor that operated the first two lines for Foothill starting in December 1988.
The hourly operating cost under Foothill Transit was reduced by up to half compared to service under SCRTD, ridership grew, but the contract operator drivers earned less in both wages and fringe benefits, had less influence over working conditions. In addition, Foothill Transit was not required to provide typical rider services such as schedules, bus stops, transit police, or telephone information. During the 1992 Los Angeles riot, Foothill Transit terminated service at El Monte rather than continue on to downtown Los Angeles. Over the first five years, Foothill Transit saved money compared to SCRTD's historical costs. In 1994, Foothill reported their hourly cost of operations was $55, compared to $93 for the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, with a farebox recovery ratio of 48% at a lower fare of $0.85. In addition, Foothill reported an accident rate of 0.3 per 100,000 mi traveled, compared to Metro's rate of 3.3 per 100,000 mi, although Metro's accident rate was skewed by older buses and more dense traffic in its operating area.
Foothill executives made the service strike-proof by insisting that two different companies operate the two bus yards if it would cost more in the short term. By 1998, Foothill's contractors were Laidlaw and Ryder/ATE. However, due to bus industry consolidation, First Transit operated both yards from 2001 to mid-2007. Both Foothill Transit yards are represented by unions, but past strikes at the agency have been less than successful due to the ability of one yard to operate the other yard's service. In addition, wages are less at Foothill than at other transit operators in the region; the contract operator drivers at Foothill were represented by the Teamsters
Kern Transit Kern Regional Transit, is the operator of mass transportation in Kern County, California. It provides inter-regional transportation, connecting outlying regions with the city of Bakersfield, it provides inter-city transportation within specific regions. Kern Transit is operated by the Kern County Department of Roads; the agency was founded in 1981. Its headquarters are located in Bakersfield. In January 2017, operation of Kern Transit was taken over by National Express Transit. Bakersfield is the central hub for the inter-regional routes. Buses stop at the Downtown Transit Center, or the Bakersfield Amtrak Station, located downtown, or both. Bus bays are used at the Amtrak Station. Buses instead park in front of it. Depending on the route, Kern Regional Transit makes additional stops in Bakersfield, but are used either to board or discharge passengers. Additional hubs are located in Frazier Park, Lake Isabella, Mojave. Passengers transfer from inter-regional routes to inter-city routes.
Many of these routes were requested and funded by local governments, instead of operating their own transit system. Some local governments have funded their own public transportation system, instead of relying on Kern Regional Transit; these include Arvin and Taft. In addition and Wasco provide their own Dial-a-ride service, which serves their communities; because of the variety of distances traveled, fares vary widely. As of 2011, a one-way trip can cost between $0.75 on the Mojave-Ridgecrest Route, to $5.00 on the East Kern Express. Operating days vary depending on the route. Most of the long distance inter-regional routes run 7 days a week. Shorter regional routes run 1, 2, or 3 days a week. However, some run 7 days a week; because of the wide variety of demand for service in various areas, Kern Regional Transit uses a variety of vehicles. The fleet consists of 40-foot, 30-foot, 21-foot buses which are used on scheduled routes depending on the number of riders. All buses are equipped with wheelchair ramps, offer bicycle racks.
A portion of the fleet runs on compressed natural gas. The paint scheme is white, on all sides. On the sides, a small "Kern Regional Transit" logo is directly in front of "Regional Transit", with the slogan "...your county connection" directly behind. Changeable signs, which list the destination city, left side of the bus; the maintenance facility is located on Victor Street, just south of Olive Drive in Northwest Bakersfield. It contains parking for the entire fleet, bus wash, cleaning facilities; the facility does not contain the headquarters for the agency. That is located in the Public Services Building on "M" Street. Kerntransit.org
Sprinter (light rail)
The Sprinter is a DMU-operated light rail line operating between Oceanside and Escondido, United States. The service uses the pre-existing 22 miles Escondido Branch trackage of the San Diego Northern Railroad. Station platforms were constructed for the line’s fifteen stations serving the cities of Oceanside, San Marcos, Escondido; the line provides service to California State University, San Marcos. Sprinter service is targeted towards commuters; the Sprinter is operated by the North County Transit District of Oceanside, the area's public transit agency. The agency operates the Coaster commuter rail line and the BREEZE Bus routes. Sprinter service is operated with Desiro-class diesel multiple units manufactured by Siemens in Germany, where they are used by main-line regional railways. Twelve married pairs of Siemens VT642 Desiro DMUs were delivered to the Escondido Transit Center in August 2006; the vehicles were in acceptance testing in California during the early part of 2007. At Oceanside Transit Center, the Sprinter connects to three commuter rail lines, as well as to Amtrak's Pacific Surfliner regional rail line.
A 2007 study by the San Diego Association of Governments predicted that the Sprinter would reduce road trips by 5,000 a day. It predicted over 11,000 riders per day by the end of the first year. Ridership numbers did climb after opening, reaching just under 8,000 people per day as of March 2008. Average weekday ridership for FY2018 was 8,300; the Sprinter is the first passenger train service along the Escondido Branch since the Santa Fe Railroad discontinued passenger service in 1946. Built in 1888, the entire line had to be rebuilt to accommodate more traffic and be elevated because the line runs along a river; the funding for Sprinter originated with the TransNet Tax measure passed by San Diego County voters in 1987 to relieve traffic congestion. A third of the tax was dedicated to mass transit; the $477 million project was funded through a $152 million Full Funding Grant Agreement from the Federal Transit Administration. NCTD purchased the line in 1992 from the Santa Fe Railroad. Construction started on the line in 2005 and was scheduled for completion in December 2007.
The Sprinter was previewed on December 28, 2007, with full revenue service scheduled to begin on January 13, 2008. Opening of the Sprinter was delayed due to other concerns. Service began on March 9, 2008. Due to its shared right-of-way with freight trains serving businesses in Escondido, the Sprinter platforms had to be set back from the tracks a sufficient distance to provide enough room for employees riding on the sides of freight cars; the passenger trains are not FRA-compliant for operation in association with freight trains and therefore freight operations on the route are not permitted during passenger operations. For this reason some publications refer to this line as light rail but it does not conform with the usual understanding of that term. While the DMUs are not much narrower than freight cars, the space for employees hanging at the sides of cars increases the free space required, gangways were designed into the station that fold up after end of service to allow the BNSF trains plus employees at their sides to pass through.
At the eastbound side of the Escondido Avenue platform, the tracks curve so that a gap exists between the outside edges of the gangway and the side of the DMU. The California Public Utilities Commission has stated that such a gap is unsafe, as a result, the Eastbound platform at Escondido Avenue was not used for six months after the opening of the Sprinter. On September 12, 2008, the station was completed and on September 15, 2008, the station became operational. Sprinter was the least expensive rail project per mile of 10 rail projects built or planned in California in 2005. American Public Works Association awarded Sprinter the Transportation Project of the Year for projects valued over $75 million; the Sprinter runs every 30 minutes in both directions seven days a week, from 4 am to 9 pm. Trains run on Friday and Saturday evenings, to 10:30pm, to 11:30pm. Saturday/Sunday/Holiday trains operate every 30 minutes between 10 am and 6 pm and hourly before 10 am and after 6 pm; the Sprinter serves a total including the two termini at Oceanside and Escondido.
Three of these stations are transit centers – the two termini, Oceanside Transit Center and Escondido Transit Center, along with the Vista Transit Center station. A one-way fare on the Sprinter costs $2 per $1 for Senior / Disabled/Medicare riders. In addition, riders can buy'passes' which allow for unlimited travel not only on the Sprinter, but on other NCTD and MTS systems, such as the San Diego Trolley, Breeze and MTS buses, for the duration of that pass. Rides on those systems, plus the Coaster commuter rail, express buses, requires a "RegionPlus" pass. In September 2008, SANDAG introduced a new contactless "Compass Card", made possible by Cubic Transportation Systems, Inc.. The "Compass Card" allows passengers from MTS and NCTD to store regional transit passes and cash value on a rewriteable RFID card. Customers can add cash value on the Internet or at any ticket vending machine; when a customer boards a bus they tap their Compass Card on the "Validator"
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and injection of fuel. Diesel engines have found broad use as a result of higher thermodynamic efficiency and thus fuel efficiency; this is noted where diesel engines are run at part-load. The most common type of diesel fuel is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum, such as biodiesel, biomass to liquid or gas to liquid diesel, are being developed and adopted. To distinguish these types, petroleum-derived diesel is called petrodiesel. Ultra-low-sulfur diesel is a standard for defining diesel fuel with lowered sulfur contents; as of 2016 all of the petroleum-based diesel fuel available in the UK, mainland Europe, North America is of a ULSD type. In the UK, diesel fuel for on-road use is abbreviated DERV, standing for diesel-engined road vehicle, which carries a tax premium over equivalent fuel for non-road use.
In Australia, diesel fuel is known as distillate, in Indonesia, it is known as Solar, a trademarked name by the local oil company Pertamina. Diesel fuel originated from experiments conducted by German scientist and inventor Rudolf Diesel for his compression-ignition engine he invented in 1892. Diesel designed his engine to use coal dust as fuel, experimented with other fuels including vegetable oils, such as peanut oil, used to power the engines which he exhibited at the 1900 Paris Exposition and the 1911 World's Fair in Paris. Diesel fuel is produced from the most common being petroleum. Other sources include biomass, animal fat, natural gas, coal liquefaction. Petroleum diesel called petrodiesel, or fossil diesel is the most common type of diesel fuel, it is produced from the fractional distillation of crude oil between 200 °C and 350 °C at atmospheric pressure, resulting in a mixture of carbon chains that contain between 9 and 25 carbon atoms per molecule. Synthetic diesel can be produced from any carbonaceous material, including biomass, natural gas and many others.
The raw material is gasified into synthesis gas, which after purification is converted by the Fischer–Tropsch process to a synthetic diesel. The process is referred to as biomass-to-liquid, gas-to-liquid or coal-to-liquid, depending on the raw material used. Paraffinic synthetic diesel has a near-zero content of sulfur and low aromatics content, reducing unregulated emissions of toxic hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides and particulate matter. Fatty-acid methyl ester, more known as biodiesel, is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats which have been transesterified with methanol, it can be produced from many types of oils, the most common being rapeseed oil in Europe and soybean oil in the US. Methanol can be replaced with ethanol for the transesterification process, which results in the production of ethyl esters; the transesterification processes use catalysts, such as sodium or potassium hydroxide, to convert vegetable oil and methanol into FAME and the undesirable byproducts glycerine and water, which will need to be removed from the fuel along with methanol traces.
FAME can be used pure in engines where the manufacturer approves such use, but it is more used as a mix with diesel, BXX where XX is the biodiesel content in percent. FAME as a fuel is specified in DIN EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Fuel equipment manufacturers have raised several concerns regarding FAME fuels, identifying FAME as being the cause of the following problems: corrosion of fuel injection components, low-pressure fuel system blockage, increased dilution and polymerization of engine sump oil, pump seizures due to high fuel viscosity at low temperature, increased injection pressure, elastomeric seal failures and fuel injector spray blockage. Pure biodiesel has an energy content about 5–10% lower than petroleum diesel; the loss in power when using pure biodiesel is 5–7%. Unsaturated fatty acids are the source for the lower oxidation stability; as FAME contains low levels of sulfur, the emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates, major components of acid rain, are low. Use of biodiesel results in reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, particulate matter.
CO emissions using biodiesel are reduced, on the order of 50% compared to most petrodiesel fuels. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel have been found to be 30% lower than overall particulate matter emissions from petrodiesel; the exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons are up to 93% lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel. Biodiesel may reduce health risks associated with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel emissions showed decreased levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and nitrited PAH compounds, which have been identified as potential cancer-causing compounds. In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75–85%, except for benzanthracene, reduced by 50%. Targeted nPAH compounds were reduced with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90%, the rest