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Aryan race

The Aryan race is a historical race concept which emerged in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of Indo-European heritage as a racial grouping. The concept derives from the notion that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or subrace of the Caucasian race; the term Aryan has been used to describe the Proto-Indo-Iranian language root *arya, the ethnonym the Indo-Iranians adopted to describe Aryans. Its cognate in Sanskrit is the word ārya, in origin an ethnic self-designation, in Classical Sanskrit meaning "honourable, noble"; the Old Persian cognate ariya- is the ancestor of the modern name of Iran and ethnonym for the Iranian people. The term Indo-Aryan is still used to describe the Indic half of the Indo-Iranian languages, i.e. the family that includes Sanskrit and modern languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Romani, Kashmiri and Marathi. In the 18th century, the most ancient known Indo-European languages were those of the ancient Indo-Iranians.

The word Aryan was therefore adopted to refer not only to the Indo-Iranian peoples, but to native Indo-European speakers as a whole, including the Romans and the Germanic peoples. It was soon recognised that Balts and Slavs belonged to the same group, it was argued that all of these languages originated from a common root – now known as Proto-Indo-European – spoken by an ancient people who were thought of as ancestors of the European and Indo-Aryan peoples. In the context of 19th-century physical anthropology and scientific racism, the term "Aryan race" came to be misapplied to all people descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans – a subgroup of the Europid or "Caucasian" race, in addition to the Indo-Iranians; this usage was considered to include most modern inhabitants of Australasia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Latin America, North America, South Asia, Southern Africa, West Asia. Such claims became common during the early 19th century, when it was believed that the Aryans originated in the south-west Eurasian steppes.

Max Müller is identified as the first writer to mention an "Aryan race" in English. In his Lectures on the Science of Language, Muller referred to Aryans as a "race of people". At the time, the term race had the meaning of "a group of tribes or peoples, an ethnic group", he used the term "Aryan race" afterwards, but wrote in 1888 that "an ethnologist who speaks of Aryan race, Aryan blood, Aryan eyes and hair, is as great a sinner as a linguist who speaks of a dolichocephalic dictionary or a brachycephalic grammar". Müller's concept of Aryan was construed to imply a biologically distinct sub-group of humanity, by writers such as Arthur de Gobineau, who argued that the Aryans represented a superior branch of humanity. Müller objected to the mixing of linguistics and anthropology. "These two sciences, the Science of Language and the Science of Man, cannot, at least for the present, be kept too much asunder. He restated his opposition to this method in 1888 in his essay Biographies of words and the home of the Aryas.

By the late 19th century the steppe theory of Indo-European origins was challenged by a view that the Indo-Europeans originated in ancient Germany or Scandinavia – or at least that in those countries the original Indo-European ethnicity had been preserved. The word Aryan was used more restrictively – and less in keeping with its Indo-Iranian origins – to mean "Germanic", "Nordic" or Northern Europeans; this implied division of Caucasoids into Aryans and Hamites was based on linguistics, rather than based on physical anthropology. The German origin of the Aryans was promoted by the archaeologist Gustaf Kossinna, who claimed that the Proto-Indo-European peoples were identical to the Corded Ware culture of Neolithic Germany; this idea was circulated in both intellectual and popular culture by the early twentieth century, is reflected in the concept of "Corded-Nordics" in Carleton S. Coon's 1939 The Races of Europe; this usage was common among knowledgeable authors writing in the late early 20th centuries.

An example of this usage appears in The Outline of a bestselling 1920 work by H. G. Wells. In that influential volume, Wells used the term in the plural, but he was a staunch opponent of the racist and politically motivated exploitation of the singular term by earlier authors like Houston Stewart Chamberlain and was careful either to avoid the generic singular, though he did refer now and again in the singular to some specific "Aryan people". In 1922, in A Short History of the World, Wells depicted a diverse group of various "Aryan peoples" learning "methods of civilization" and by means of different uncoordinated movements that Wells believed were part of a larger dialectical rhythm of conflict between settled civilizations and nomadic invaders that encompassed Aegean and Mongol peoples inter alia, "subju

Freewheel

In mechanical or automotive engineering, a freewheel or overrunning clutch is a device in a transmission that disengages the driveshaft from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the driveshaft. An overdrive is otherwise unrelated; the condition of a driven shaft spinning faster than its driveshaft exists in most bicycles when the rider stops pedaling. In a fixed-gear bicycle, without a freewheel, the rear wheel drives the pedals around. An analogous condition exists in an automobile with a manual transmission going downhill, or any situation where the driver takes their foot off the gas pedal, closing the throttle: the wheels drive the engine at a higher RPM. In a two-stroke engine, this can be catastrophic—as many two stroke engines depend on a fuel/oil mixture for lubrication, a shortage of fuel to the engine starves oil from the cylinders, the pistons can soon seize, causing extensive damage. Saab used a freewheel system in their two-stroke models for this reason and maintained it in the Saab 96 V4 and early Saab 99 for better fuel efficiency.

The simplest freewheel device consists of two saw-toothed, spring-loaded discs pressing against each other with the toothed sides together, somewhat like a ratchet. Rotating in one direction, the saw teeth of the drive disc lock with the teeth of the driven disc, making it rotate at the same speed. If the drive disc slows down or stops rotating, the teeth of the driven disc slip over the drive disc teeth and continue rotating, producing a characteristic clicking sound proportionate to the speed difference of the driven gear relative to that of the driving gear. A more sophisticated and rugged design has spring-loaded steel rollers inside a driven cylinder. Rotating in one direction, the rollers lock with the cylinder making it rotate in unison. Rotating slower, or in the other direction, the steel rollers just slip inside the cylinder. Most bicycle freewheels use an internally step-toothed drum with two or more spring-loaded, hardened steel pawls to transmit the load. More pawls help spread the wear and give greater reliability although, unless the device is made to tolerances not found in bicycle components, simultaneous engagement of more than two pawls is achieved.

By its nature, a freewheel mechanism acts as an automatic clutch, making it possible to change gears in a manual gearbox, either up- or downshifting, without depressing the clutch pedal, limiting the use of the manual clutch to starting from standstill or stopping. The Saab freewheel can be engaged or disengaged by the driver by pushing or pulling a lever; this unlocks the main shaft with the freewheel hub. A freewheel produces better fuel economy on carbureted engines and less wear on the manual clutch, but leads to more wear on the brakes as there is no longer any ability to perform engine braking; this may make freewheel transmissions dangerous for use on trucks and automobiles driven in mountainous regions, as prolonged and continuous application of brakes to limit vehicle speed soon leads to brake-system overheating followed shortly by total failure. In agricultural equipment an overrunning clutch is used on hay balers and other equipment with a high inertial load when used in conjunction with a tractor without a live power take-off.

Without a live PTO, a high inertial load can cause the tractor to continue to move forward when the foot clutch is depressed, creating an unsafe condition. By disconnecting the load from the PTO under these conditions, the overrunning clutch improves safety. Many unpowered'push' cylinder lawnmowers use a freewheel to drive the blades: these are geared or chain-driven to rotate at high speed and the freewheel prevents their momentum being transferred in the reverse direction through the drive when the machine is halted. A freewheel assembly is widely used on engine starters as a kind of protective device. Starter motors need to spin at 3,000 RPM to get the engine to turn over; when the key is held in the start position for any amount of time after the engine has started, the starter can not spin fast enough to keep up with the flywheel. Because of the extreme gear ratio between starter gear and flywheel it would spin the starter armature at dangerously high speeds, causing an explosion when the centripetal force acting on the copper coils wound in the armature can no longer resist the outward force acting on them.

In starters without the freewheel or overrun clutch this would be a major problem because, with the flywheel spinning at about 1,000 RPM at idle, the starter, if engaged with the flywheel, would be forced to spin between 15,000 and 20,000 RPM. Once the engine has turned over and is running, the overrun clutch releases the starter from the flywheel and prevents the gears from re-meshing while the engine is running. A freewheel clutch is now used in many motorcycles with an electric starter motor, it is used as a replacement for the Bendix drive used on most auto starters because it reduces the electrical needs of the starting system. In addition to the automotive uses listed above, freewheels were used in some luxury or up-market conventional cars from the 1930s into the 1960s; some engines of the period tended to pass oil past the piston rings under conditions with a closed throttle and high engine speed, when the slight vacuum in the combustion chamber combined with high oil pressure and a high degree of splash lubrication from the fast-turning crankshaft would lead to oil getting in the combustion chamber.

The freewheel meant that

Fearless Fred Fury

Fearless Fred Fury is the fifteenth studio album by American hip hop duo Insane Clown Posse, their fourth Joker Card in the second Deck of the Dark Carnival Saga. Planned for release with their twelve-track extended play titled Flip the Rat on October 26, 2018 via Psychopathic Records, it was delayed until February 15, 2019. During the April 13, 2017 Juggalo Show radio show, Violent J announced that he had "received" the name and backstory for the new joker card via an "email in his brain", he went on to say "Before we go out on The Parental Advisory Tour with 2 Live Crew and Necro which will run from June until the Gathering of the Juggalos, we will get the skeleton formed. After the GOTJ, Shaggy 2 Dope will go out on the F. T. F. O. M. F. Tour, when he get back we will begin putting the nervous system and skin to the new entity, bring life to the beast. I won't speak much on it right now, but the only thing I will say is'Red Fred! Red Fred!'". During the 24th Annual: Hallowicked Show in Detroit, the name and face for the new Joker Card was revealed.

On June 22, 2018 ICP took to social media during the "Fearless Fred Fury recording sessions" to give live updates. Pictures were shown with ICP and Str8Jaket with their backs to the camera sitting at the computer working on certain songs; some songs that were named were "WTF!", "Satellite", "Friend Request", "West Vernor Ave.", "Peek-A-Boo", "1967", "Game Over". It was said that "story telling songs like "First Day Out" and "Dreams of Grandeur" would be on the album, as FFF would feature more story telling songs on it than any previous ICP release to date". During ICP's 2018 GOTJ seminar it was announced that FFF would be released on October 26, 2018 plus a bonus album titled Flip the Rat EP would subsequently be released on the same day, with people who only purchase the physical copy could find out how to obtain the EP. Flip the Rat is said to be longer than a standard EP, but shorter than a standard LP, is being dubbed as a "MP" for "Medium Playlist". On January 28, 2019 the tracklist was revealed via video easter eggs containing the number for a phone to call revealing a website to visit.

During ICP's "Milenko & Friends Tour" in the VIP, the question was asked about Red Fred's story and Violent J stated, "It's looking through the eyes of people who only see things negatively, like they don't care about anything. And how people who only let things that hurt them stay in their lives and continuously hurt them. Fite back! In a nutshell it's Y. O. L. O.". On November 23, 2018, the first single, "WTF!", was released. On January 7, 2019, it was announced that the track, "Fury", would be released as a single on January 11, 2019. Fearless Fred Fury at Discogs