In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl. "Aryl" is used for the sake of abbreviation or generalization, "Ar" is used as a placeholder for the aryl group in chemical structure diagrams. A simple aryl group is phenyl, a group derived from benzene. Examples of other aryl groups consist of: The tolyl group, CH3C6H4, derived from toluene The xylyl group, 2C6H3, derived from xylene The naphthyl group, C10H8, derived from naphthaleneArylation is the process in which an aryl group is attached to a substituent, it is achieved by cross-coupling reactions. The most basic aryl group is phenyl, made up of a benzene ring with one hydrogen atom substituted for some substituent, has the molecular formula C6H5−. Note that phenyl groups are not the same as benzyl groups, which consists of a phenyl group attached to a methyl group, has the molecular formula C6H5CH2−. To name compounds containing phenyl groups, the phenyl group can be taken to be the parent hydrocarbon and being represented by the suffix "-benzene".

Alternatively, the phenyl group could be treated as the substituent, being described within the name as "phenyl". This is done when the group attached to the phenyl group consists of six or more carbon atoms; as an example, consider a hydroxyl group connected to a phenyl group. In this case, if the phenyl group was taken as the parent hydrocarbon, the compound would be named hydroxybenzene. Alternatively, more the hydroxyl group could be taken as the parent group, resulting in the more familiar name phenol. Benzene rings have a delocalised pi-system of electrons, which creates areas of high negative charge; this makes aromatic compounds more prone to attacks by electrophilic reagents. However, due to the high stability of benzene rings, they will only react with reactive electrophiles, will only undergo substitution reactions. Benzene's unusual stability is explained by its ability to delocalise charges by resonance. Electrophilic aromatic substitution of benzene takes place in two main steps: electrophilic attack and proton loss.

The image below summarizes the general mechanism of an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. An example of such reaction is between benzene. In this reaction, a bromine atom will substitute a hydrogen atom in the benzene ring, giving bromobenzene, an aryl halide. However, due to the unreactive nature of benzene, catalyst such as aluminium chloride is needed; the formula for this reaction is: C6H6 + 0.5 Br2 → C6H5Br Organometallic compounds are compounds that have a bond between a carbon and a metal atom. The halogen atom of an aryl halide atom could be exchanged for a metal atom using an organometallic reagent. An example of such reaction is the reaction between bromobenzene and an organolithium reagent, where there is a nucleophilic attack of the lithium cation on bromine; the formula to such reaction is: C6H5Br + C4H10Li → C6H5Li + C4H10Br The reaction is able to occur since benzene has a higher acidity compared to butane, which can be explained by the stability of the carbanion after the molecule loses a proton.

The lithium-phenyl complex can better delocalize the negative charge by resonating it around the benzene ring. Hence, formation of the lithium-phenyl complex can be observed. Alkyl Aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a bodily target for dioxins Arene compound Media related to Aryl groups at Wikimedia Commons

Kamu Laird

Kamu Laird is a Trinidadian footballer who played in the Football League for Chester City as a forward. Before joining Chester in December 1999, Laird had played in his homeland for Fatima College and in the United States for Augusta State University, he signed for Chester along with compatriot Angus Eve at a time when they were bottom of Division Three under American manager Terry Smith, who had signed other foreign hopefuls including Joe Carver, Goran Milosavljevic and Martin Nash. The duo were to enjoy memorable debuts against Halifax Town, with both scoring in the first–half in a 2–1 win on December 18, 1999. Laird went off at half -- in the next game came on as substitute against Mansfield Town, his third and final appearance for Chester came just 10 days after his debut, when he was taken off after just 27 minutes in a humiliating 5–1 home defeat by Leyton Orient. After not playing for Chester again, Laird joined non–league side Dulwich Hamlet in late January 2000, he is believed to have emigrated.

Kamu Laird at Soccerbase

David Berry (inventor)

David Berry is an American innovator, inventor, CEO, venture capitalist. Berry has co-founded and helped build over 25 companies in life sciences and sustainability including category-defining companies such as Seres Therapeutics, Indigo Agriculture, Axcella Health, he was selected as a 2014 Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. He was named as the Innovator of the Year by the MIT Technology Review TR35 list of one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35 for his creation of LS9. Berry was a founding member of the Leadership Council of the United Nations Sustainable Development Network, which authored the Sustainable Development Goals, he speaks globally on topics such as entrepreneurship. Berry was born in New York City in 1978, he graduated Hackley School in Tarrytown, NY in 1996. Berry graduated with a S. B. Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2000, he earned his M. D. from Harvard Medical School and his PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with Robert Langer and Ram Sasisekharan, completing his dual degree through the Harvard-MIT Program of Health Sciences and technology in just over 5 years as one of the fastest combined degrees in the history of the program.

Berry was recognized in 2005 with the Lemelson-MIT Student Prize for innovation. He started multiple companies during his graduate education. Berry has been an author of over 200 patents and applications. Berry joined Flagship Pioneering in 2005, a Cambridge, Massachusetts based venture capital firm that creates and funds early-stage start-ups addressing unmet needs in healthcare and sustainability; the firm has more than $2.4 billion under management. Since inception, Flagship has conceived and launched over 40 first-in-class companies through VentureLabs and supported another nearly 50 best-in-class. Berry has been described "a rising star of the Boston-area venture capital scene," and "one of the most brilliant thinkers." Berry has founded over 20 companies at Flagship including Seres Therapeutics, Evelo Biosciences, Joule Unlimited, Axcella Health, Eleven Biotherapeutics, Indigo Agriculture, LS9. Berry additionally launched category-defining companies including T2 Biosystems, Seventh Sense Biosystems, KSQ Therapeutics.

Berry speaks on topics including entrepreneurship, life sciences and beyond. Berry talks about the biology century and has been cited as referring to biotech as being at the first big inflection point since the foundation of Genentech. Selected as a 2014 Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum. Recognized in 2013 in the PharmaVOICE 100, a list of the 100 most inspiring people in the life-sciences industry Honored by the Boston Business Journal as one of the 2012 Class of 40 under 40. Recognized in 2008 by the US State Department as one of 12 Innovators Helping Reshape Reality along with J. Craig Venter and Tim Berners-Lee. Named as the Innovator of the Year from the MIT Technology Review TR35 list of one of the top 35 innovators in the world under the age of 35 in 2007. 2005 Lemelson-MIT Student Prize for invention and innovation. Berry is a founding member of the Leadership Council of the United Nations Sustainable Development Solutions Network, which authored the Sustainable Development Goals.

The Sustainable Development Goals contains 17 goals and 169 targets agreed to by 193 countries at the United Nations to foster sustainable development with a 2030 target. Berry is a Trustee at the Hackley School, was a member of the corporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, its board, from 2006-2011.. David has served as a board member of the Juventas New Music Ensemble. and of the Boston Philharmonic Orchestra. In 2012, Berry founded Seres Therapeutics, a company that develops a new class of therapeutics based on insights into the biology of the human microbiome. Seres is pioneering a new approach to treating microbiome diseases by catalyzing a shift from a disease state to one of health building upon a functional assessment associated with disease and health to construct a consortium of organisms to enable the shift; the company raised over $130M as a private company, including a $65M investment from Nestle Health Sciences. Seres publicly listed on the Nasdaq under the symbol MCRB in June 2015, raising $134M.

The company's stock had the second best first day performance of any stock after its IPO since 2000, reaching a valuation of $2B. Seres signed a partnership valued at $2B with Nestle Health Sciences in early 2016. Seres lead, SER-109 was advanced into the clinic for recurrent C. difficile where it clinically cured 29 out of 30 patients. The FDA has granted SER-109 Orphan Drug, as well as designations. SER-109 is in a Phase 3 trial for recurrent C. difficile. The company is developing therapeutics for ulcerative colitis, metabolic diseases, other infectious disease. A Phase 1b clinical trial was launched testing SER-287 in ulcerative colitis in 2015 which showed positive objective responses in its topline readout. Seres has developed the first therapeutic product composed of a defined consortium of microorganisms, has launched a clinical trial with SER-262 in primary C. difficile infection which will read out in the first half of 2018. In 2013, Berry founded Indigo to pioneer microbial solutions that promote plant health and improve agricultural production by harnessing the beneficial microbes residing within plants.

Plants live in harmony with their microbiome. The plant microbiome has been an unappreciated means to change agriculture for the better; the company raised ov