1955 Italian Grand Prix
The 1955 Italian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Autodromo Nazionale Monza, in Monza, Italy on 11 September 1955. It was the final race of the 1955 World Championship of Drivers. In the wake of the 1955 Le Mans disaster, the championship was still open after the British Grand Prix; this meant that Fangio won the world driver's championship for the 3rd time and the 2nd time in succession. A new concrete banking had been constructed over where the original banked version was, the combined 10 km Monza circuit was used for the first time since 1933; the Curva Sud had been modified from 2 right hand corners into one sweeping right-hander known as the "Parabolica". Of the 4 factory Mercedes cars in the race and Moss drove the streamlined, closed-wheel W196's, while Kling and Taruffi drove open-wheel W196's; this was the 4th and last appearance of the streamlined Mercedes cars at a championship GP. This was the last Grand Prix race for 1950 world champion Nino Farina; this was the last Mercedes 1-2 finish until the 2014 Malaysian Grand Prix, 59 years later.
Notes^1 – 1 point for fastest lap Drivers' Championship standingsNote: Only the top five positions are included. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
Lorenzo Bandini was an Italian motor racing driver who raced in Formula One for the Scuderia Centro Sud and Ferrari teams. Bandini was born in Marj, Libya an Italian colony; the family resided near Florence. When he was 15 his father died. Bandini found a job as an apprentice mechanic in the Freddi workshop in Milan, he made his way into auto racing from competing on motorcycles. He started racing cars in 1957 in a borrowed Fiat 1100. Goliardo Freddi, acknowledging Bandini's talent, decided to support him. Bandini would marry Freddi's daughter, Margherita, in 1963, remained involved with the family's garage in Milan, he achieved a first class victory at the Mille Miglia, in a Lancia Appia Zagato, in 1958, a class win the same year in the 500cc Berkeley in the 12-hour race at Monza. He raced in Formula Junior until 1961. Bandini placed third in his first race in Sicily. In 1959 and 1960 he drove a Formula Junior Stanguellini. In 1960 he placed fourth in the Formula Junior World Championship. In 1961 Bandini and fellow Italian driver Giancarlo Baghetti were both in contention for a seat at Ferrari.
Ferrari opted for Baghetti, Bandini went to drive for Guglielmo "Mimmo" Dei's Scuderia Centro Sud. At a non-championship race, he finished third at Pau. Bandini drove his first world championship race at Spa in 1961, he retired with engine failure. During the winter of 1961-1962 he drove in the Tasman races in New Zealand. In 1962 Bandini was hired by Ferrari for the 1962 and 1963 seasons, moved to Maranello, near the team's headquarters, his debut in a works Ferrari at the Monaco Grand Prix. For 1963 Bandini was retained by Ferrari for sports car races only. Along with Ludovico Scarfiotti, he won the Le Mans 24 Hours race and placed second in the Targa Florio that year racing in Formula One for Scuderia Centro Sud, his string of good results, including a fifth place at the British Grand Prix, convinced Ferrari to retain him as a Formula One driver as well for the rest of the season. In 1964 Bandini had his best Formula One season, he won the first Austrian Grand Prix at the Zeltweg circuit and scored two more podiums in Germany and Italy.
At the Mexican Grand Prix, Bandini was running second when he decided to let his teammate John Surtees pass, enabling him to score enough points to win the World Championship. In 1965 Bandini won the Targa Florio. In 1966 Surtees left Ferrari in mid-season. Bandini was promoted to team leader, he was unlucky not to win the French and U. S. Grands Prix that year which he dominated before mechanical problems intervened while he was holding a huge lead. Bandini's best finish was a second place at the Monaco Grand Prix in a 2.4 liter V-6 Ferrari behind Jackie Stewart's BRM. In the season Bandini helped director John Frankenheimer with his movie "Grand Prix". Bandini recommended the location at the harbour chicane for a crash scene in the movie filmed at the Monte Carlo circuit. In "The Making of Grand Prix", actress Eva Marie Saint noted that, this spot would be the site of Bandini's death in the race one year later. In 1967 Bandini won the 24 Hours of the 1,000 km of Monza, both with Chris Amon. On 7 May 1967 Bandini was racing at the Monaco Grand Prix, running second to Denny Hulme on the 82nd lap, when he lost control of his car at the harbour chicane.
He had just entered the chicane when his Ferrari's left rear wheel hit the guard rail, sending him into an erratic skid. It overturned; the car hit straw bales which lined the harbour side, rupturing the fuel tank, sparks ignited the fuel as the car rolled over, with Bandini trapped beneath it. Marshals flipped his car upright and pulled Bandini, out from the flaming Ferrari, it is thought that, during the effort to right the overturned car, fuel leaked on the hot brake line or the exhaust pipe and exploded. A second fire occurred when the fuel tank exploded after Bandini had been pulled away from the Ferrari. Bandini sustained third degree burns covering more than 70% of his body, as well as a chest wound and ten chest fractures. Three days after the crash, Bandini succumbed to his injuries at Princess Grace Polyclinic Hospital in Monte Carlo. There were concerns about the promptness of Bandini's rescue. However, investigators from the Principality of Monaco ruled on 10 May that "the security operation had functioned properly."
The straw bales, having been banned from all Formula One races in response to the accident, were replaced by an extended guard-rail the following year. Bandini's funeral was held in Reggiolo on 13 May. 100,000 people attended the funeral. He was buried in the Lambrate cemetery, in Milan. Lorenzo Bandini Trophy Lorenzo Bandini's fatal accident on YouTube
Formula Three called Formula 3 or F3, is a class of open-wheel formula racing. The various championships held in Europe, South America and Asia form an important step for many prospective Formula One drivers. Formula Three has traditionally been regarded as the first major stepping stone for F1 hopefuls – it is the first point in a driver's career at which most drivers in the series are aiming at professional careers in racing rather than being amateurs and enthusiasts. F3 is regarded as a key investment in a young driver's future career. Success in F3 can lead directly to a Formula 2 seat or a Formula One test or race seat. Formula Three evolved from postwar auto racing, with lightweight tube-frame chassis powered by 500 cc motorcycle engines; the 500 cc formula evolved in 1946 from low-cost "special" racing organised by enthusiasts in Bristol, just before the Second World War. The second post-war motor race in Britain was organised by the VSCC in July 1947 at RAF Gransden Lodge, 500cc cars being the only post-war class to run that day.
The race was a complete flop, as three of the seven entrants were non-starters, and, of the four runners, all but one were out of it in the first lap, leaving Eric Brandon in his Cooper Prototype trailing round to a virtual walk-over at the unimpressive speed of 55.79 mph, though his best lap was 65.38 mph. Cooper came to dominate the formula with mass-produced cars, the income this generated enabled the company to develop into the senior categories. Other notable marques included Kieft, JBS and Emeryson in England, Effyh and Scampolo in Europe. John Cooper, along with most other 500 builders, decided to place the engine in the middle of the car, driving the rear wheels; this was due to the practical limitations imposed by chain drive but it gave these cars exceptionally good handling characteristics which led to the mid-engined revolution in single-seater racing. The 500cc formula was the usual route into motor racing through the mid-1950s. Other notable 500 cc Formula 3 drivers include Stuart Lewis-Evans, Ivor Bueb, Jim Russell, Peter Collins, Don Parker, Ken Tyrrell, Bernie Ecclestone.
From a statistical point of view, Don Parker was the most successful F3 driver. Although coming to motor racing late in life, he won a total of 126 F3 races altogether, was described by Motor Sport magazine as "the most successful Formula 3 driver in history." Although Stirling Moss was a star by 1953, Parker beat him more than any other driver, was Formula 3 Champion in 1952, again in 1953, in 1954 he only lost the title by a half-point. He took the title for a third time in 1959. In 1954, Parker took on a young man named Norman Graham Hill as his mechanic and general assistant, gave him his first taste of competitive motorsport in a 500cc car at Brands Hatch; some years now using his middle name of Graham, this young man twice became Formula 1 World Champion. Parker retired from Formula Three after the 1959 season, chose not to move to Formula 2 or Formula 1 because of his age. However, he did race for one final season, representing Jaguar in the British Saloon Car Championships, winning at Oulton Park on June 6 in his XK150.
As a retirement gift in 1961, Jaguar's Lofty England presented him with a specially-designed 3.8 litre Jaguar Mark 2. It was claimed to be the fastest Mark 2 Jaguar had built, being tested at 140 mph on the newly opened M4 motorway in 1963. 500cc Formula Three declined at an international level during the late 1950s, although it continued at a national level into the early 60s, being eclipsed by Formula Junior for 1000 or 1100 cc cars. A one-litre Formula Three category for four-cylinder carburetted cars, with tuned production engines, was reintroduced in 1964 based on the Formula Junior rules and ran to 1970; these engines tended to rev highly and were popularly known as "screamers". The "screamer" years were dominated by Brabham and Tecno, with March beginning in 1970. Early one-litre F3 chassis tended to descend from Formula Junior designs but evolved. For 1971 new regulations allowing 1600 cc engines with a restricted air intake were introduced; the 1971–73 seasons were contested with these cars, as aerodynamics started to become important.
Two-litre engine rules were introduced for 1974, still with restricted air intakes. Today engine regulations remain unchanged in F3, a remarkable case of stability in racing regulations; as the likes of Lotus and Brabham faded from F3 to concentrate on Formula One, F3 constructors of the 1970s included Alpine, March, Modus, GRD, Ensign. By the start of the 1980s however, Formula Three had evolved well beyond its humble beginnings to something resembling the modern formula, it was seen as the main training ground for future Formula One drivers, many of them bypassing Formula Two to go straight into Grand Prix racing. The chassis became sophisticated, mirroring the more senior formulae – ground effects
Maserati in motorsport
Throughout its history, the Italian auto manufacturer Maserati has participated in various forms of motorsports including Formula One, sportscar racing and touring car racing, both as a works team and through private entrants. One of the first Maseratis the Tipo 26 driven by Alfieri Maserati with Guerino Bertocchi acting as riding mechanic won the Targa Florio 1,500 cc class in 1926, finishing in ninth place in overall. Maserati was successful in pre-war Grand Prix racing using a variety of cars with 4, 6, 8 and 16 cylinders. Other notable pre-war successes include winning the Indianapolis 500 twice, both times with Wilbur Shaw at the wheel of a 8CTF. Maserati won the Targa Florio in 1937, 1938, 1939 and 1940; the first two wins were achieved by Giovanni Rocco with a Maserati 6CM and the last two by Luigi Villoresi with a 6CM in 1939 and a 4CL in 1940. Maserati's post-war factory effort in sports car racing began in 1954 for the second season of the World Sportscar Championship; the factory raced as Officine Alfieri Maserati.
Maserati scored points in all but one year of the first era of the World Sports Car Championship from 1953 to 1961. Both factory-entered and privately-entered cars were eligible to score points for the manufacturer. At the end of 1957 Maserati retired the factory team from racing though they continued to build cars for privateers. In the 1953 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed thirteenth. In the 1954 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fifth. In the 1955 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1956 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second including a win at the 1000 km Buenos Aires and the 1000 km at the Nürburgring; the win at 1956 1000 km Buenos Aires was a Maserati 300S sports car driven by Stirling Moss and Carlos Menditéguy. In the 1957 World Sportscar Championship Maserati again placed second; this time with wins at Sebring and Rabelöfsbanan In the 1959 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed fourth. In the 1960 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed third.
With a win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 driven by Stirling Moss and Dan Gurney. In the 1961 World Sportscar Championship Maserati placed second. With a repeat win at the ADAC 1000 km Nürburgring for a Maserati Tipo 61 this time driven by Lloyd Casner and Masten Gregory. Maserati returned to sportscar racing in 2004, entering the Maserati MC12 in the FIA GT Championship. Since 2005 the MC12 fieleded by Vitaphone Racing Team won five teams' championships and four drivers' championships in a row. Michael Bartels and Andrea Bertolini won the inaugural GT1 World Championship for Drivers in the 2010 FIA GT1 World Championship driving a Maserati MC12 for the Vitaphone Racing Team; the Vitaphone Racing Team won the GT1 World Championship for Teams. Maserati A6GCS Sports Car Maserati 350S Sports Car. Maserati 300S Sports Car. Maserati 250S Sports Car. Maserati 200S Sports Car. Maserati 150S Sports Car. Maserati 450S Sports Car. Maserati Tipo 60 Sports Car Maserati Tipo 61 the "Birdcage" Sports Car Maserati Tipo 63 Maserati Tipo 64 Maserati Tipo 65 Maserati Tipo 151 Maserati Tipo 152 Maserati Tipo 154 the "Racing Van" Maserati Barchetta Sports Car Maserati Ghibli II Open Cup gt Car Maserati Trofeo series gt Car.
Maserati Trofeo Light GT3 Racing Car Maserati MC12 GT1 Racing Car Gran Turismo GT4 Gran Turismo GT3 The Maserati Biturbo Group A racing car competed unsuccessfully in the British Touring Car Championship in the late 1980s, the European Touring Car Championship and the World Touring Car Championship. The cars for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship season were entered by Pro Team Italia/Imberti; the car was in Group A Division 3 competing against the Ford Sierra RS Cosworth and in the season Ford Sierra RS 500. The car was driven by Bruno Giacomelli, Armin Hahne, Marcello Gunella, Mario Hytten, Nicola Tesini and Kevin Bartlett. For the British Touring Car Championship the cars were entered by Trident Motorsport; this was for the 1989 seasons. The car was driven by John Lepp and Vic Lee. A former 1987 WTCC car was bought by Adriano Dece who converted it for used on road rallies and the company manufactured the Maserati Biturbo Group A Rally car. Maserati participated in Formula One motor racing during the 1950s and 1960s.
Its works Formula One programme was broadly successful, providing a total of 9 Grand Prix wins for the factory team. In addition, Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1957 World Championship of Drivers with a Maserati 250F. Maserati designed two Formula One cars: the Maserati 4CLT and the Maserati 250F, the pre-World War II Maserati 4CL was used with some success. In addition, the Maserati A6GCM, designed as a Formula Two car, was used in F1. Due to financial difficulties in the late 1950s the team had to withdraw from Formula One in 1958 despite the 250F still being successful. Privateers continued to use the 250F until 1960. In the 1960s, Maserati supplied engines to British Formula One team Cooper; the most successful car of that collaboration was the Cooper-Maserati T81, which had a Maserati V12 engine. It won the 1966 Mexican Grand Prix and the 1967 South African Grand Prix, driven by John Surtees and Pedro Rodríguez respectively; the 1948 Maserati 4CLT was one of the first cars built to the new Formula One regulations, introduced in 1946, was developed from the 1938 Maserati 4CL voiturette car.
The older design was still competitive despite the hiatus of World War II and was entered into Formula One races when racing resumed after the war. Its success encouraged Maserati to develop the car's design and these refinements were brought together as the 4CLT. Maseraticorse.com
Automobiles Gonfaronnaises Sportives
Automobiles Gonfaronnaises Sportives was a small French racecar constructor that competed in various racing categories over a period of thirty years, including Formula One from 1986 to 1991. AGS survived as a prosperous Formula One driving school, in Le Luc, near Gonfaron; the team was founded by the French mechanic, Henri Julien, who ran a filling station, the "Garage de l'Avenir", in Gonfaron, a provincial French village. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Julien attended racing events in minor classes. Although not an outstanding driver, the technical knowledge he gained prompted him to start constructing racing cars. Julien's first car, the AGS JH1, saw the light of day in 1969, it was a petite monoposto, dedicated to the "Formule France". The car was designed by Julien's former apprentice, the Belgian mechanic Christian Vanderpleyn, with the garage since the late 1950s and who would stay on until 1988. Soon, AGS went ahead and produced its own Formula 3 cars which were ambitious but not good enough to compete with the state-of-art Martinis which dominated that series in the 1970s.
AGS took another step ahead in 1978 when the team started competing in the European Formula 2 Championship. Still, the car - by now the AGS JH15 - was self-built and self-run. Formula 2 was a difficult task for the small team, racing 1978 and 1979 without scoring any championship points; the early 1980s were somewhat better. AGS was one of the few teams who ran its own cars, the team was able to score points regularly. Soon some victories came, too. AGS made history when works driver Philippe Streiff won the final race of Formula 2 in 1984, using an AGS JH19C. In 1985, AGS switched to Formula 3000 based on the Duqueine VG4 Formula 3 chassis; the JH20 used a Cosworth DFV engine supplied through the Swiss tuning firm Mader. Results were mediocre in 1985 and 1986. By late summer 1986, AGS entered the Italian Grand Prix in Monza, its first Formula One race, its structure was somewhat bizarre: The team had no more than 7 employees and was still operated from the Garage de l'Avenir in Gonfaron. AGS appeared with a car, once again penned by Vanderpleyn.
The JH21C was a strange mixture between former AGS F3000 vehicles and Renault F1 parts which were used extensively. The car was driven by Italian Ivan Capelli. A few weeks before, the car had been tested at Paul Ricard by Didier Pironi, driving an F1 car for the first time since his leg-breaking accident in the 1982 German Grand Prix. Due to technical difficulties, neither in its first attempt nor in the following race in Portugal did Capelli see the finish. For the team's first full F1 season in 1987, Vanderpleyn penned the JH22, which used a normally-aspirated Cosworth DFZ but was otherwise much the same as the JH21C; the car was driven by Pascal Fabre, who had driven for the team in Formula 2 in 1982. He proved to be a reliable driver, finishing eight of the first nine races, but was never in serious contention for scoring points and failed to qualify on three occasions. AGS improved in the last two races of the season when Fabre was replaced by the Brazilian Roberto Moreno. In Adelaide, Moreno scored the first championship point for AGS, which meant that the team finished the season equal on points with the better-financed Ligier and the returning March team.
In 1988, AGS started with a new car, the JH23, Philippe Streiff as the team's only driver. Streiff drove quite powerfully and qualified well. Financially, the year ended with a disaster. AGS had a solid sponsor - the French Bouygues group - which promised to support not only the racing activity but the completion of a new factory outside Gonfaron. After AGS had started work on the new facility, Bouygues withdraw from the team, leaving Julien without any support. To save the team, he had to sell it to Cyril de Rouvre, a French entrepreneur with various ambitions. Things went soon from bad to worse; the new team management changed and brought a lot of disorder. Worse was to come, he was replaced with Gabriele Tarquini, who surprised with some great performances in the first half of the season. He was close to the points in both the 1989 Monaco Grand Prix and 1989 United States Grand Prix, but retired in both races. Things went better in the 1989 Mexican Grand Prix, where he finished sixth and scored his first point.
But after these highlights, the team was never able to be as competitive again. In the second part of the 1989 season, the team had to prequalify - a task, nearly never achieved by Gabriele Tarquini and Yannick Dalmas. AGS finished 15th in the Constructors' Championship, equal with the Lolas used by the Larrousse team. During the summer months, there were strong rumours that AGS would soon use a new W12 engine developed by the French designer Guy Nègre; this strange MGN machine saw the light of day in late 1988 and was tested in an old AGS JH22 chassis in the summer of 1989. It was clear; the engine never found its way to a Grand Prix but it was announced to be used in a 1990 Le Mans car called N
Chris Amon Racing
Chris Amon Racing known as Amon, was a Formula One team established by New Zealand driver Chris Amon. It competed as a privateer team in the 1966 Italian Grand Prix as a constructor in its own right in the 1974 Formula One season. Chris Amon made his Formula One debut in 1963. After finding himself without a full-time drive in 1966, he entered a Brabham BT11 powered by a 2-litre BRM engine at the Italian Grand Prix, under the banner of "Chris Amon Racing". With most of the other cars running 3-litre engines, Amon struggled in qualifying and failed to make the grid. From 1967 until 1972, Amon drove for Ferrari and Matra, winning several non-championship F1 races while developing a reputation for bad luck in World Championship events, he struggled in 1973 with the small Italian Tecno team. But encouraged by the potential of the underdeveloped Gordon Fowell chassis, Amon tried running his own Formula One car in 1974. Financial backing came from John Dalton, the car, designed by Fowell, followed the Lotus 72 in some areas of construction, with sophisticated torsion-bar suspension and side radiators.
The venture failed completely: retiring from the first race, Amon withdrew from the second, the car was unable to qualify for two more before the team closed down due to financial problems. The AF101 was the only Formula One car built by Amon Racing. Fowell and Tom Boyce designed the car which featured a single central fuel tank, titanium torsion bars and a forward driving position. One unusual feature of the AF101 was that the fuel tank was located between the driver's cockpit and the engine. Structurally, it proved to be weak and was not ready for a Formula One appearance until the fourth race of the season, the Spanish Grand Prix. Amon was only able to qualify 23rd, due to brake-disc vibration that became worse with the tyres required for the wet race that followed. Despite cautious driving, a brake shaft broke and Amon was forced to retire after 22 laps. Following further work and testing, Amon returned for the Monaco Grand Prix and qualified twentieth, but due to mechanical problems, he was unable to start the race.
Further problems meant Amon was not able to reappear with the AF101 until the German Grand Prix when both Amon and Larry Perkins failed to qualify. Amon did not reappear with the AF101 until the Italian Grand Prix, three races before the end of the season, but this time he was unable to qualify; that signalled the end of both the car and Chris Amon Racing, leaving Amon to close down the team after the race when the money ran out. F1 Rejects profile
Arrows Grand Prix International
Arrows Grand Prix International was a British Formula One team active from 1978 to 2002. It was known as Footwork from 1991 to 1996; the Arrows Grand Prix International team was founded in Milton Keynes, England in 1977, by Italian businessman Franco Ambrosio, Alan Rees, Jackie Oliver, Dave Wass and Tony Southgate when they left the Shadow team. Arrows ran a copy of the Shadow DN9, with the initials of the team's first sponsor, Franco Ambrosio, used in naming the car, the Arrows FA1. However, Ambrosio left the team in early 1978 when jailed in Italy for financial irregularities and main sponsor became Warsteiner. Shadow sued for copyright infringement, the London High Courts ruled that the FA1 was a direct copy of the Shadow DN9. Arrows designed a brand new car, the Arrows A1, in 52 days, it was shown the day after the High Court of Justice in London upheld Shadow's claim and banned the team from racing the FA1. For the team's first season Gunnar Nilsson and Riccardo Patrese were signed as drivers.
Ill health prevented Nilsson from driving for the team and he was replaced by Rolf Stommelen for the team's second race, the South African Grand Prix. Nilsson died of cancer in 1978. Patrese scored points in the US West Grand Prix at Long Beach. In September 1978, in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, Patrese was involved in an accident which claimed the life of Ronnie Peterson. Patrese was wrongly accused of causing the accident and subsequently banned from racing at the following event by his fellow drivers; the 1979 Monaco GP could have been the highlight of Arrows' early years, when Jochen Mass' Arrows A1 moved into third place during the race and looked to be closing in on the leaders. However, brake issues dropped him down to sixth position by the chequered flag. In 1981, Patrese scored the team's only Formula One pole position in Long Beach, which he led until retiring with mechanical problems on lap 33 of 80. Arrows finished joint eighth in the Constructors' Championship that year. In 1984 with BMW M12 turbo engines and sponsorship from cigarette brand Barclay things got much better.
That year they were ninth in the Constructors' Championship and eighth in 1985. At the 1985 San Marino Grand Prix, Thierry Boutsen finished third behind Alain Prost and Elio de Angelis. However, after the race, Prost was disqualified because his car was 2 kg underweight, giving Boutsen the second place. In 1987, BMW pulled out of Formula One and the engines were badged Megatron through a deal with Arrows major sponsor USF&G, but the British team had their best seasons yet, finishing sixth in 1987 and fifth in 1988 thanks to frequent points finishes by drivers Eddie Cheever and Derek Warwick. While 1987 and 1988 were Arrows' best years in F1, they were the cause of frustration for the team and its drivers Warwick and Cheever. At the start of 1987 the sports ruling body mandated that all turbo powered cars were to use a pop-off valve in order to restrict turbo boost; this was done not only to slow the cars down for safety reasons, but it was an effort to curb the rising costs of Formula One. The problem for Arrows was that the valve would cut in lower than the set limit.
This meant. It took the team's chief mechanic Heini Mader until just before the 1988 Italian Grand Prix at Monza to find the solution, moving the valve closer to the engine, something Honda and Ferrari engineers had long before discovered. Although Cheever and Warwick finished the race in 3rd and 4th it was too little too late as the turbo era ended after the 1988 season. Warwick and Cheever stayed with the team for 1989 and drove the Ross Brawn designed Arrows A11, powered by the Ford DFR V8 engine; the team's best finish came at the United States Grand Prix in Cheever's home town of Phoenix. There, the American scored his final podium finish by finishing third. However, Cheever struggled in the A11 and he failed to qualify at the British and Italian Grands Prix. Warwick's perennial bad luck continued: a long pit stop during the opening race in Brazil cost him what many believed would have been his first win, while at Round 6 in the wet Canadian Grand Prix, Warwick led, was in second place when his Ford V8 blew.
He had been faster than those behind him, could have won when race leader Ayrton Senna blew the Honda engine in his McLaren with only two laps remaining. After finishing fifth in 1988, Arrows dropped to seventh in 1989. Japanese businessman Wataru Ohashi invested in Arrows in 1990 and the cars started displaying the Footwork logo prominently; the team was renamed Footwork in 1991, secured a deal to race with Porsche engines, but the car was woefully noncompetitive and in 1992 they switched to a Ford V8, to Mugen engines. Arrows retained the Footwork name until Ito pulled out before the 1996 season, whereupon the name of the team was changed back to Arrows. Jackie Oliver had retained control throughout the entire period. In March 1996, Tom Walkinshaw bought the team, in September Walkinshaw signed up World Champion Damon Hill and hired wealthy Brazilian Pedro Diniz to help pay for Hill's salary; the team nearly secured a maiden victory at the 1997 Hungarian Grand Prix, where Hill started in third position and passed Michael Schumacher to take first place.
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