Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from 1600–1100 BC. It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art, writing system; the most prominent site was Mycenae, in the Argolid. Other centers of power that emerged included Pylos, Midea in the Peloponnese, Thebes, Athens in Central Greece and Iolcos in Thessaly. Mycenaean and Mycenaean-influenced settlements appeared in Epirus, Macedonia, on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant and Italy; the Mycenaean Greeks introduced several innovations in the fields of engineering and military infrastructure, while trade over vast areas of the Mediterranean was essential for the Mycenaean economy. Their syllabic script, the Linear B, offers the first written records of the Greek language and their religion included several deities that can be found in the Olympic Pantheon. Mycenaean Greece was dominated by a warrior elite society and consisted of a network of palace-centered states that developed rigid hierarchical, political and economic systems.
At the head of this society was the king, known as wanax. Mycenaean Greece perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages, a recordless transitional period leading to Archaic Greece where significant shifts occurred from palace-centralized to de-centralized forms of socio-economic organization. Various theories have been proposed for the end of this civilization, among them the Dorian invasion or activities connected to the "Sea Peoples". Additional theories such as natural disasters and climatic changes have been suggested; the Mycenaean period became the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and mythology, including the Trojan Epic Cycle. The Bronze Age in mainland Greece is termed as the "Helladic period" by modern archaeologists, after Hellas, the Greek name for Greece; this period is divided into three subperiods: The Early Helladic period was a time of prosperity with the use of metals and a growth in technology and social organization.
The Middle Helladic period faced a slower pace of development, as well as the evolution of megaron-type dwellings and cist grave burials. The Late Helladic period coincides with Mycenaean Greece; the Late Helladic period is further divided into LHI and LHII, both of which coincide with the early period of Mycenaean Greece, LHIII, the period of expansion and collapse of the Mycenaean civilization. The transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Greece is known as Sub-Mycenaean; the decipherment of the Mycenaean Linear B script, a writing system adapted for the use of the Greek language of the Late Bronze Age, demonstrated the continuity of Greek speech from the second millennium BC into the eighth century BC when a new script emerged. Moreover, it revealed that the bearers of Mycenaean culture were ethnically connected with the populations that resided in the Greek peninsula after the end of this cultural period. Various collective terms for the inhabitants of Mycenaean Greece were used by Homer in his 8th century BC epic, the Iliad, in reference to the Trojan War.
The latter was supposed to have happened in the late 13th – early 12th century BC, when a coalition of small Greek states under the king of Mycenae, besieged the walled city of Troy. Homer used the ethnonyms Achaeans and Argives, to refer to the besiegers; these names appear to have passed down from the time they were in use to the time when Homer applied them as collective terms in his Iliad. There is an isolated reference to a-ka-wi-ja-de in the Linear B records in Knossos, Crete dated to c. 1400 BC, which most refers to a Mycenaean state on the Greek mainland. Egyptian records mention a T-n-j or Danaya land for the first time c. 1437 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Thutmoses III. This land is geographically defined in an inscription from the reign of Amenhotep III, where a number of Danaya cities are mentioned, which cover the largest part of southern mainland Greece. Among them, cities such as Mycenae and Thebes have been identified with certainty. Danaya has been equated with the ethnonym Danaoi, the name of the mythical dynasty that ruled in the region of Argos used as an ethnonym for the Greek people by Homer.
In the official records of another Bronze Age empire, that of the Hittites in Anatolia, various references from c. 1400 BC to 1220 BC mention a country named Ahhiyawa. Recent scholarship, based on textual evidence, new interpretations of the Hittite inscriptions, as well as on recent surveys of archaeological evidence about Mycenaean-Anatolian contacts during this period, concludes that the term Ahhiyawa must have been used in reference to the Mycenaean world, or at least to a part of it; this term may have had broader connotations in some texts referring to all regions settled by Mycenaeans or regions under direct Mycenaean political control. Another similar ethnonym Ekwesh in twelfth century BC Egyptian inscriptions, has been identified with the Ahhiyawans; these Ekwesh were mentioned as a group of the Sea People. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic period in mainland Greece under influences from Minoan Crete. Towards the end of the Middl
The Amarna letters are an archive, written on clay tablets consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom, between c. 1360-1332 BC. The letters were found in Upper Egypt at el-Amarna, the modern name for the ancient Egyptian capital of Akhetaten, founded by pharaoh Akhenaten during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt; the Amarna letters are unusual in Egyptological research, because they are written in a script known as Akkadian cuneiform, the writing system of ancient Mesopotamia, rather than that of ancient Egypt, the language used has sometimes been characterised as a mixed language, Canaanite-Akkadian. The written correspondence spans a period of at most thirty years; the known tablets total 382, of which 358 have been published by the Norwegian Assyriologist Jørgen Alexander Knudtzon's in his work, Die El-Amarna-Tafeln, which came out in two volumes and remains the standard edition to this day.
The texts of the remaining 24 complete or fragmentary tablets excavated since Knudtzon have been made available. The Amarna letters are of great significance for biblical studies as well as Semitic linguistics, since they shed light on the culture and language of the Canaanite peoples in pre-biblical times; the letters, though written in Akkadian, are colored by the mother tongue of their writers, who spoke an early form of Canaanite, the language family which would evolve into its daughter languages and Phoenician. These "Canaanisms" provide valuable insights into the proto-stage of those languages several centuries prior to their first actual manifestation; these letters, comprising cuneiform tablets written in Akkadian – the regional language of diplomacy for this period – were first discovered around 1887 by local Egyptians who secretly dug most of them from the ruined city of Amarna, sold them in the antiquities market. They had been stored in an ancient building that archaeologists have since called the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh.
Once the location where they were found was determined, the ruins were explored for more. The first archaeologist who recovered more tablets was Flinders Petrie, who in 1891 and 1892 uncovered 21 fragments. Émile Chassinat director of the French Institute for Oriental Archaeology in Cairo, acquired two more tablets in 1903. Since Knudtzon's edition, some 24 more tablets, or fragments, have been found, either in Egypt, or identified in the collections of various museums; the initial group of letters recovered by local Egyptians have been scattered among museums in Germany, Egypt, France and the United States. Either 202 or 203 tablets are at the Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin; the archive contains a wealth of information about cultures, kingdoms and individuals in a period from which few written sources survive. It includes correspondence from Akhenaten's reign, as well as his predecessor Amenhotep III's reign; the tablets consist of over 300 diplomatic letters. These tablets shed much light on Egyptian relations with Babylonia, Syria and Alashiya as well as relations with the Mitanni, the Hittites.
The letters have been important in establishing the chronology of the period. Letters from the Babylonian king, Kadashman-Enlil I, anchor the timeframe of Akhenaten's reign to the mid-14th century BC, they contain the first mention of a Near Eastern group known as the Habiru, whose possible connection with the Hebrews — due to the similarity of the words and their geographic location — remains debated. Other rulers involved in the letters include Tushratta of Mitanni, Lib'ayu of Shechem, Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, the quarrelsome king, Rib-Hadda, of Byblos, who, in over 58 letters, continuously pleads for Egyptian military help; the letters include requests for military help in the north against Hittite invaders, in the south to fight against the Habiru. Amarna Letters are politically arranged in rough counterclockwise fashion: 001–014 Babylonia 015–016 Assyria 017–030 Mitanni 031–032 Arzawa 033–040 Alashiya 041–044 Hatti 045–380+ Syria/Lebanon/CanaanAmarna Letters from Syria/Lebanon/Canaan are distributed roughly: 045–067 Syria 068–227 Lebanon 227–380 Canaan.
Note: Many assignments are tentative. This is just a guide. William L. Moran summarizes the state of the chronology of these tablets as follows: Despite a long history of inquiry, the chronology of the Amarna letters, both relative and absolute, presents many problems, some of bewildering complexity, that still elude definitive solution. Consensus obtains only about what is obvious, certain established facts, these provide only a broad framework within which many and quite different reconstructions of the course of events reflected in the Amarna letters are possible and have been defended.... The Amarna archive, it is now agreed, spans at most about thirty years only fifteen or so. From the internal evidence, the earliest possible date for this correspondence is the final decade of the reign of Amenhotep III, who ruled from 1388 to 1351 BC as early as this king's
Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic and Ionian Greek colonists. During the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League; the city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC. The city was famed for the nearby Temple of one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other monumental buildings are the Library of Celsus, a theatre capable of holding 25,000 spectators. Ephesos was one of the seven churches of Asia; the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th-century Christian Councils; the city was destroyed by the Goths in 263, although rebuilt, the city's importance as a commercial centre declined as the harbour was silted up by the Küçükmenderes River. It was destroyed by an earthquake in AD 614; the ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport or from the cruise ship port of Kuşadası, some 30 km to the South.
The area surrounding Ephesus was inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill. According to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa; some scholars suggest that this is the Greek Ephesus. In 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John; this was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi settled in Asia Minor during the 14th and 13th centuries BC. The names Apasa and Ephesus appear to be cognate, found inscriptions seem to pinpoint the places in the Hittite record. Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on a hill, three kilometers from the centre of ancient Ephesus; the mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, King Kodros.
According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder, he was a successful warrior, as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper, he died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze. Greek historians such as Pausanias and Herodotos and the poet Kallinos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons; the Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus", identified with Artemis, was venerated in the Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the World and the largest building of the ancient world according to Pausanias. Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, before the arrival of the Ionians.
Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains. Ancient sources seem to indicate. About 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. Following a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council; the city prospered again under a new rule, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus. About 560 BC, Ephesus was conquered by the Lydians under king Croesus, though a harsh ruler, treated the inhabitants with respect and became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis, his signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple. Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup in the vicinity of the Temple of Artemis, enlarging the city.
In the same century, the Lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The Ionians refused a peace offer from siding with the Lydians instead. After the Persians defeated Croesus, the Ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire, they were defeated by the Persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The Persians incorporated the Greek cities of Asia Minor into the Achaemenid Empire; those cities were ruled by satraps. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement. There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze Age and the Roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbou
Amenhotep III known as Amenhotep the Magnificent, was the ninth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to different authors, he ruled Egypt from June 1386 to 1349 BC, or from June 1388 BC to December 1351 BC/1350 BC, after his father Thutmose IV died. Amenhotep III was Thutmose's son by Mutemwiya, his reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of its artistic and international power. When he died in the 38th or 39th year of his reign, his son ruled as Amenhotep IV, but changed his own royal name to Akhenaten; the son of the future Thutmose IV and a minor wife Mutemwiya, Amenhotep III was born around 1401 BC. He was a member of the Thutmosid family that had ruled Egypt for 150 years since the reign of Thutmose I. Amenhotep III was the father of two sons with his Great Royal Wife Tiye, their first son, Crown Prince Thutmose, predeceased his father and their second son, Amenhotep IV known as Akhenaten succeeded Amenhotep III to the throne.
Amenhotep III may have been the father of a third child—called Smenkhkare, who would succeed Akhenaten and ruled Egypt as pharaoh. Amenhotep III and Tiye may have had four daughters: Sitamun, Isis or Iset, Nebetah, they appear on statues and reliefs during the reign of their father and are represented by smaller objects—with the exception of Nebetah. Nebetah is attested only once in the known historical records on a colossal limestone group of statues from Medinet Habu; this huge sculpture, seven meters high, shows Amenhotep III and Tiye seated side by side, "with three of their daughters standing in front of the throne—Henuttaneb, the largest and best preserved, in the centre. Evidence that Sitamun was promoted to this office by Year 30 of his reign, is known from jar-label inscriptions uncovered from the royal palace at Malkata. Egypt's theological paradigm encouraged a male pharaoh to accept royal women from several different generations as wives to strengthen the chances of his offspring succeeding him.
The goddess Hathor herself was related to Ra as first the mother and wife and daughter of the god when he rose to prominence in the pantheon of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Amenhotep III is known to have married several foreign women: Gilukhepa, the daughter of Shuttarna II of Mitanni, in the tenth year of his reign. Tadukhepa, the daughter of his ally Tushratta of Mitanni, Around Year 36 of his reign. A daughter of Kurigalzu, king of Babylon. A daughter of Kadashman-Enlil, king of Babylon. A daughter of Tarhundaradu, ruler of Arzawa. A daughter of the ruler of Ammia. Amenhotep III has the distinction of having the most surviving statues of any Egyptian pharaoh, with over 250 of his statues having been discovered and identified. Since these statues span his entire life, they provide a series of portraits covering the entire length of his reign. Another striking characteristic of Amenhotep III's reign is the series of over 200 large commemorative stone scarabs that have been discovered over a large geographic area ranging from Syria through to Soleb in Nubia.
Their lengthy inscribed texts extol the accomplishments of the pharaoh. For instance, 123 of these commemorative scarabs record the large number of lions that Amenhotep III killed "with his own arrows" from his first regnal year up to his tenth year. Five other scarabs state that the foreign princess who would become a wife to him, arrived in Egypt with a retinue of 317 women, she was the first of many such princesses. Another eleven scarabs record the excavation of an artificial lake he had built for his Great Royal Wife, Queen Tiye, in his eleventh regnal year, Regnal Year 11 under the Majesty of... Amenhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life, the Great Royal Wife Tiye, his Majesty commanded the making of a lake for the great royal wife Tiye—may she live—in her town of Djakaru.. Its length is 3,700 and its width is 700. Celebrated the Festival of Opening the Lake in the third month of Inundation, day sixteen, his Majesty was rowed in the royal barge Aten-tjehen in it. Amenhotep appears to have been crowned while still a child between the ages of 6 and 12.
It is that a regent acted for him if he was made pharaoh at that early age. He married Tiye two years and she lived twelve years after his death, his lengthy reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. Proof of this is shown by the diplomatic correspondence from the rulers of Assyria, Mitanni and Hatti, preserved in the archive of Amarna Letters; the letters cover the period from Year 30 of Amenhotep III until at least the end of Akhenaten's reign. In one famous correspondence—Amarna letter EA 4—Amenhotep III is quoted by the Babylonian king Kadashman-Enlil I in rejecting the latter's entreaty to marry one of this pharaoh's daughters: From time immemorial, no daughter of the king of Egy is given to anyone. Amenhotep III's refusal to allow one of his daughters to be married to the Babylonian monarch may indeed be connect
Küçük Menderes, Cayster River or Kaystros River or Caystrus River is south of İzmir, Turkey. It flows westward and arrive into the Aegean Sea at Pamucak beach, near Selçuk, İzmir; the ancient city of Ephesus was once an important port on the river, but over the centuries, sedimentation filled in the inlet around the city. The ancient port of Panormus was near its mouth; the coastlines moved seaward, the ruins of Ephesus are now some 8 km inland from the coast. Its tributaries are the Fertek, Uladı, Ilıca, Değirmen, Aktaş, Prinçci, Yuvalı, Ceriközkayası, Eğridere, Birgi, Çevlik and Keles; the river is just north of the Buyuk Menderes River.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the
Suppiluliuma I or Suppiluliumas I was king of the Hittites. He achieved fame as a great warrior and statesman challenging the then-dominant Egyptian empire for control of the lands between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates. Suppiluliuma was the son of Queen Daduhepa, he began his career as the chief advisor and general to Tudhaliya II based at Samuha. In this capacity, he defeated the Hittites' enemies among the Azzi-Hayasa and the Kaskas. Both enemies united around charismatic leaders to counter him. Suppiluliuma and Tudhaliya defeated these threats in turn, to the extent that the Hittite court could settle in Hattusa again; when Tudhaliya II died, Tudhaliya III succeeded to the throne. Soon after his accession, however, he was overthrown and succeeded by his younger brother Suppiluliuma; some of the Hittite priests reported this to Suppiluliumas's son and biographer Mursili II, holding it out as an outstanding crime of the whole dynasty. Suppiluliuma married a sister to the Hayasan king Hukkana, his daughter Muwatti to Maskhuiluwa of the Arzawan state Mira.
He married a Babylonian princess and retook Arzawan territory as far as Hapalla. His most permanent victory was against the Mitanni kingdom, which he reduced to a client state under his son-in-law Shattiwazza, he was a master builder of large stone structures decorated with stone reliefs. It was during his reign. Suppiluliuma took advantage of the tumultuous reign of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, seized control of Egyptian territory in Syria, inciting many Egyptian vassals to revolt, his success encouraged the widow of the Egyptian king Nibhururiya to write to him, asking him to send one of his sons to be her husband and rule Egypt, since she had no heir and was on the verge of being forced to marry "a servant" thought to be the Egyptian general Horemheb or her late husband's vizier Ay. Suppiluliuma dispatched an ambassador to Egypt to investigate. Angry letters were exchanged between Suppiluliuma and the Pharaoh Ay, who had assumed the Egyptian throne, over the circumstances of Zannanza's death. Suppililiuma was furious at this turn of events and unleashed his armies against Egypt's vassal states in Canaan and Northern Syria, capturing much territory.
Many of the Egyptian prisoners carried a plague which would ravage the Hittite heartland and lead to the deaths of both Suppiluliuma I and his successor, Arnuwanda II. Suppiluliuma had two wives; the first wife who served as his queen was a woman named Henti. A badly damaged text from the reign of her son Mursili II implies that Queen Henti may have been banished by her husband to the land of Ahhiyawa. An advantageous marriage with a Babylonian Princess might have resulted in her banishment, she is the mother of all of Suppiluliuma's sons. Arnuwanda II a king of the Hittite Empire c. 1322–1321 BC Telipinu, known from a decree appointing him as a priest of Kizzuwadna. Piyassili known as Sarri-Kusuh and governor of the former territory of Hanigabat west of the Euphrates Mursili II a king of the Hittite Empire c. 1321–1295 BC Zannanza, the Hittite Prince, sent to Egypt in response to the Dakhamunzu letter and murdered en route. After Henti's disappearance the next queen is a Babylonian princess named Malignal.
She is the daughter of King Burna-Buriash II. Malignal adopts the title Tawananna as her personal name. Suppiluliuma is known to have had at least one daughter, her name was Muwatti. The Deeds of Suppiluliuma, compiled after his death by his son Mursili, is an important primary source for the king's reign. One of Suppiluliuma's letters, addressed to Akhenaten, was preserved in the Amarna letters archive at Akhetaten, it expresses his hope that the good relations which existed between Egypt and Hatti under Akhenaten's father would continue into Akhenaten's new reign. Deeds of Suppiluliuma Reads: http://ancienegypte.fr/istanbul/traduction_tablettes/image6.jpg "In relating the wars of his father Suppiluliuma I and his victories the Hittite king Mursili II mentions that after the death of the king of Egypt Tutankamon, Queen Dahamunzu asked his father to send a prince to become her husband and king from the country. When the inhabitants of Egypt heard about Amqa's attack, they were afraid because to make matters worse their king Tutankhamun had just died, the widowed Queen of Egypt sent a message to my father saying the following: "My husband is dead and I do not have a son.
It is said that you have many sons, if you sent one, he could be my husband. "When my father learned that he summoned the Great Council. He decided to send Hattu-Zili, the chamberlain, to him saying I am sure of information "During the absence of Hattu-Zili in Egypt, my father conquered the city of Kargamis; the Egyptian envoy, the Honorable Hani, came to see him. The Queen sent her a letter saying, "Why do you say do not deceive me that way? If I had a son would I write to a foreign country in such a humiliating way for me and my country? Give me one of your sons and he will be my husband and the king of Egypt. " because my father had a good heart, he accepted the lady's wish and decided to send his son" To the non-specialist general public, Suppiluliuma I is known from the best-selling histor