Basque Country (autonomous community)
The Basque Country the Basque Autonomous Community is an autonomous community in northern Spain. It includes the Basque provinces of Álava and Gipuzkoa; the Basque Country or Basque Autonomous Community was granted the status of nationality within Spain, attributed by the Spanish Constitution of 1978. The autonomous community is based on the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country, a foundational legal document providing the framework for the development of the Basque people on Spanish soil. Navarre, which had narrowly rejected a joint statue of autonomy with Gipuzkoa, Álava and Biscay in 1932, was granted a separate statute in 1982. There is no official capital in the autonomous community, but the city of Vitoria-Gasteiz, in the province of Álava, is the de facto capital as the location of the Basque Parliament, the headquarters of the Basque Government, the residence of the President of the Basque Autonomous Community; the High Court of Justice of the Basque Country has its headquarters in the city of Bilbao.
Whilst Vitoria-Gasteiz is the largest municipality in area, with 277 km2, Bilbao is the largest in population, with 353,187 people, located in the province of Biscay within a conurbation of 875,552 people. The term Basque Country may refer to the larger cultural region, the home of the Basque people, which includes the autonomous community; the following provinces make up the autonomous community: Álava, capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Biscay, capital Bilbao-Bilbo Gipuzkoa, capital Donostia-San Sebastián The Basque Country borders Cantabria and the Burgos province to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the north and Navarre to the east and La Rioja to the south. The territory has three distinct areas, which are defined by the two parallel ranges of the Basque Mountains; the main range of mountains forms the watershed between the Mediterranean basins. The highest point of the range is in the Aizkorri massif; the three areas are: Formed by many valleys with short rivers that flow from the mountains to the Bay of Biscay, like the Nervión, Urola or Oria.
The coast is rough, with small inlets. The main features of the coast are the Bilbao Abra Bay and the Estuary of Bilbao, the Urdaibai estuary and the Bidasoa-Txingudi Bay that forms the border with France. Between the two mountain ranges, the area is occupied by a high plateau called Llanada Alavesa, where the capital Vitoria-Gasteiz is located; the rivers flow south from the mountains to the Ebro River. The main rivers are the Zadorra Bayas River. From the southern mountains to the Ebro is the so-called Rioja Alavesa, which shares the Mediterranean characteristics of other Ebro Valley zones; some of Spain's production of Rioja wine takes place here. The Basque Mountains form the watershed and mark the distinct climatic areas of the Basque Country: The northern valleys, in Biscay and Gipuzkoa and the valley of Ayala in Álava, are part of Green Spain, where the oceanic climate is predominant, with its wet weather all year round and moderate temperatures. Precipitation average is about 1200 mm; the middle section is influenced more by the continental climate, but with a varying degree of the northern oceanic climate.
This gives cold, snowy winters. The Ebro valley has a pure continental climate: winters are cold and dry and summers warm and dry, with precipitation peaking in spring and autumn. Precipitation is irregular, as low as 300 mm. Half of the 2,155,546 inhabitants of the Basque Autonomous Community live in Greater Bilbao, Bilbao's metropolitan area. Of the ten most populous cities, six form part of Bilbao's conurbation, known as Greater Bilbao. With 28.2% of the Basque population born outside this region, immigration is crucial to Basque demographics. Over the 20th century most of this immigration came from other parts of Spain from Galicia or Castile and León. Over recent years, sizeable numbers of this population have returned to their birthplaces and most immigration to the Basque country now comes from abroad, chiefly from South America. Roman Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in the Basque Country. In 2012, the proportion of Basques that identified themselves as Roman Catholic was 58.6%, while it is one of the most secularised communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.
Bilbao-Bilbo Vitoria-Gasteiz San Sebastián-Donostia Barakaldo Getxo Irun Portugalete Santurtzi Basauri Errenteria Spanish and Basque are co-official in all territories of the autonomous community. The Basque-speaking areas in the modern-day autonomous community are set against the wider context of the Basque language, spoken to the east in Navarre and the French Basque Country; the whole Basque speaking territory has experienced both expansion in its history. The Basque language experienced a gradual territorial contraction throughout the last nine centuries, severe deterioration of its sociolinguistic status for much of the 20th century due to heavy immigration from other parts of Spain, the virtual nonexistence of Basque language schooling, national policies implemented by the different Spanish régimes. After the advent of the Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Countr
Limpias is a municipality located in the autonomous community of Cantabria, Spain. According to the 2007 census, the city has a population of 1,497 inhabitants. Limpias - Cantabria 102 Municipios
Campoo is a comarca of Cantabria located in the High Ebro, with a surface little bigger than 1,000 km2, including the municipalities of Hermandad de Campoo de Suso, Campoo de Enmedio, Campoo de Yuso, Valdeprado del Río, Reinosa, Las Rozas de Valdearroyo, Santiurde de Reinosa and San Miguel de Aguayo. Their inhabitants are called Campurrians, its highest elevation is the Cuchillón peak, the lowest is Pesquera, with the capital, Reinosa at 850 m. As it is gathered in the Book of Merindades of Castile, the Merindad of Aguilar de Campoo comprised municipalities of the south of present Cantabria, as well as of northern Province of Palencia and Burgos, with its capital being the Palentine Aguilar de Campoo, ancient capital of the vast Marquesse of Aguilar de Campoo; the capital was moved to Reinosa, which still has this status. The "Palentine Campoo" was left, after the provincial division, with Aguilar as the most important township, included nowadays into the large comarca of Palentine Mountains.
Campoo is placed in a transition zone between the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean regions of the Iberian Peninsula. Its climate is cold and humid, influenced by the Continental and Oceanic climates, the last one smoothed by the Ísar ranges and the Cantabrian Mountains; this climate combination can be observed in cold winters and gentle summers, with no extreme temperatures. With Reinosa in the middle, we can find a more Mediterranean zone, comprising Valderredible and Valdeolea, to the North, near the end of the Besaya River, the climate becomes Oceanic. In the Híjar mountains is the source of the river of the same name, whose discharge is the main water contribution to the Ebro river, born in the locality of Fontibre; this river is dammed near Reinosa, to make one of the largest reservoirs of the hydrographic basin of the Ebro, acting as main regulator of the Navarre and Riojan irrigated lands. In these same mountain ranges, risen from tectonic movements during the time from the end of the Cretaceous to the Oligocene, are the highest peaks of the comarca, the Cuchillón and the Tres Mares, so called because from its skirts rivers flow to all three Spanish river basins.
The Tres Mares is the point where the mountain ranges of Ísar and Híjar start, forming at its base a glacial valley open to the whole comarca. From its summits can be seen the Bay of Biscay to the north, the near Picos de Europa to the northwest, the Cantabrian and Palentine Mountains to the southwest, the Meseta Central to the south, the Pas valleys with the Encartaciones mountains to the east. In the northern slope of the mountains and oak groves of the Saja-Besaya Natural Park spread out; the presence of Iberian wolves is not rare, brown bears have been sighted, thus considering this zone as an important nexus of communication between isolated populations of this plantigrade. There are important colonies of griffon vultures in Polientes and the Híjar ridges. Other interesting species of animals that populate the comarca are: eagle owls, badgers and desmans. In addition, the Ebro swamps house a remarkable aquatic avifauna. Among its flora, as well as the mentioned oak and beech groves, there are important populations of hollies and birches, excellent specimens of taxus, all of which are protected by the Spanish law.
The inhabitants of Campoo are called Campurrians and their language is Spanish, influenced by an Astur-Leonese dialect. The traditional costume is characteristic for its "albarcas", footwear similar to Asturian clogs, which are exquisitely carved in birch wood. Another typical Campurrian accessory is the "palo pinto", a rod made of hazelnut tree wood and engraved by fire, and, used to help in walking up the mountains and to beat the livestock; the Campurrian economy has traditionally been connected to cattle, the Campurrians having good reputation as carters and masons. The Campurrian carters were in charge of making the exchange of merchandising between the Castilian Mesa and the capital of the province redoing the route of the Foramontanos that repopulated Castile; the day of Campoo is celebrated the last Sunday as part of Saint Matthew festivities. The main act of the day is a cart parade that show scenes of the traditional everyday life, pulled by oxen and Tudanca cows. Other important festivities are the ones of Los Campanos in Abiada, celebrated the first Sunday of September to commemorate the end of summer by bringing the cows down to the valley from the summer passes, full of regalia.
In the comarca there are plentiful buildings of "highlander" romanesque architecture, among which the Cervatos's and San Martín de Elines's collegiate churchs, the Santa María la Mayor church of Villacantid stand out. In the Campurrian civil architecture the abundant noble houses stand out, with carved ashlars and sunny spots In military architecture one piece must be remarked, the Argüeso castle, built on the 12th century and where Don Íñigo López de Mendoza, Marquis of Santillana and from where he managed the Lordship of Campoo and his marquessate
Western coast of Cantabria
The Western Coast of Cantabria is a comarca of said Spanish autonomous community which comprises the municipalities of Val de San Vicente, San Vicente de la Barquera, Valdáliga, Comillas, Udías, Alfoz de Lloredo, Santillana del Mar and Suances. As its own name indicates, this comarca extends over the western coast of the autonomous community, from its border with Asturias by the mouth of the Deva River, to the Saja-Besaya mouth in Suances, although this limits may vary depending on the source, since this comarca, as the rest of Cantabria's, is not regulated, but there are common characteristic elements in the municipalities that belong to it; this zone has great tourism assets like beaches, nature and culture. Santillana del Mar, Comillas and San Vicente de la Barquera are the municipalities of greater renown, both in the comarca and in Cantabria, so they are the main destinations for tourists. Three of the longest rivers of Cantabria flow into the Western coast: The Deva, the Nansa and the Saja-Besaya.
In addition to the numerous beaches, the Oyambre Natural Park and Mount Corona stand out as natural attractions. As has been mentioned, the culture of the zone is quite remarkable, since in a few kilometers-radius many cultural spots are concentrated: the Altamira Cave and Museum, the Zoologic and Botanic Garden, the Collegiate Church in Santillana del Mar; the Cantabrian West is a touristic comarca, that opposed to the East, it had remained safe from the massive house buildings because of the lateness of the construction of the Cantabrian Motorway, completed in the early 2000s
Matienzo is the name of a village and a karst depression some 25 km southeast of Santander in Ruesga municipality, northern Spain. The limestone around Matienzo is riddled with caves which have been extensively explored over the last 50 years by Spanish and British cavers; the total length of cave passage explored, as of December 2016, is 377 km. Matienzo Caves site Information about the area, more than 4000 caves, research details, cave surveys and thousands of photos], www.matienzocaves.org Matienzo: 50 Years of Speleology Cave exploration, cave diving, archaeology and personal recollections, dual language overview of 50 years of speleology in and around Matienzo], www.rrcpc.org.uk
Assos known as Behramkale or for short Behram, is a small rich town in the Ayvacık district of the Çanakkale Province, Turkey. During Pliny the Elder's time, the city bore the name Apollonia. After leaving the Platonic Academy in Athens, Aristotle went to Assos, where he was welcomed by King Hermias, opened an Academy in this city. Aristotle married Pythias, the adopted daughter of Hermias. In the Academy of Assos, Aristotle became a chief to a group of philosophers, together with them, he made innovative observations on zoology and biology; when the Persians attacked Assos, King Hermias was put to death. Aristotle fled to Macedonia, ruled by his friend King Philip II of Macedon. There, he tutored Alexander the Great. There is a modern statue of Aristotle at the town entrance; the Acts of the Apostles refers to visits by Luke the Paul the Apostle to Assos. Today, Assos is an Aegean-coast seaside retreat amid ancient ruins. Since 2017 it is inscribed in the Tentative list of World Heritage Sites in Turkey.
Though the town is named Behramkale, most people still call it by its ancient name of Assos. The town is on the southern side of Biga Peninsula, better known by Troad. Assos is located on the coast of the Adramyttian Gulf. Much of the surrounding area is visible from the ancient Temple of Athena, built on top of a trachyte crag; the view from this temple on a clear day extends to nearby Lesbos in the south, Pergamum in the southeast, Mount Ida in Phrygia in the east. To the north, the Tuzla River flows. To the northwest, two massive Hellenic columns still mark the gate to the city. Assos had the only good harbour on the 80 kilometres of the north coast of the Adramyttian Gulf; this made. The city was founded from 1000 to 900 BC by Aeolian colonists from Lesbos, who are said to have come from Methymna; the natural cleavage of the rock into joint planes had scarped out shelves which it was comparatively easy for human labour to shape. The settlers built a Doric Temple to Athena on top of the crag in 530 BC.
From this temple Hermias of Atarneus, a student of Plato, ruled Assos, the Troad and Lesbos for a period of time, under which the city experienced its greatest prosperity. Under his rule, he encouraged philosophers to move to the city; as part of this, in 348 BC Aristotle came here and married King Hermeias's niece, before leaving for Lesbos three years in 345 BC. This'golden period' of Assos ended several years when the Persians arrived, subsequently tortured Hermias to death; the Persians were driven out by Alexander the Great in 334 BC. Between 241 and 133 BC, the city was ruled by the Kings of Pergamon. However, in 133 BC, the Pergamons lost control of the city. According to Christian tradition, St. Paul visited the city during his third missionary journey through Asia Minor, between 53-57 AD, on his way to Mytilene on the island of Lesbos. Acts 20 records that Luke the Evangelist and his companions "went ahead to the ship and sailed to Assos, there intending to take Paul on board... and when he met us at Assos, we took him on board and came to Mitylene".
From this period onwards, Assos shrunk to a small village, as it has remained since. Ruins around Assos continue to be excavated; the pillars from the ancient port lay in the harbor for over a millennia. They were sold. In the early 1900s an attempt was made to move the contents of the Temple of Athena. Much of the art has been moved to museums like the Louvre; the art found includes pictures both of heraldic events. In 2018, archaeologists discovered a Hellinistic undamaged family grave; the name "Aristios" was written on the cover of the grave. The grave belonged to a family of 21. One of the family members was buried while the remaining 20 were cremated and their ashes were placed inside urn-like vases; the lids were sealed off with cement in order to prevent any foreign substance getting inside the urns. Many of the old buildings of Assos are in ruins today, it still serves as a port for the Troad. On the acropolis 238 m above sea level are the remains of the Doric order Temple of Athena, which date back to 530 BC.
Six of the original 38 columns remain. West of the acropolis stands the well preserved 4th century BC city wall and main gate with 14 meter high towers. An ancient paved road leads northeast through the gate to the ruins of a large 2nd-century BC gymnasium, a 2nd-century BC agora and a bouleuterion. Further south toward the seashore is a 3rd-century BC theatre built for 5,000 spectators. Down the steep seaward side of the hill at the water's edge is the hamlet called İskele, with old stone houses now serving as inns and restaurants. There is a small pebbly beach. There are boat tours of the hamlet itself. Although the narrow road to the hamlet is steep with sheer drops, the sea front has a constant stream of cars and minibuses arriving from dawn to dusk. In 2018, archaeologists discovered many Strigils; some of the strigils found were iron. Nurettin Arslan - Beate Böhlendorf-Arslan, Living in the Rocks Assos an Archaeological Guide, Istanbul 2010. ISBN 978-9944-483-30-8. Haiko Türk: Die Mauer als Spiegel der Stadt.
Neue Forschungen zu den Befestigungsanlagen in Assos, in: A. Kuhrmann - L. Schmidt, Bauen & Erha