Thomas Tull is an American businessman and film producer. He is the chief executive officer of Legendary Entertainment, his firm has produced and/or financed several major motion pictures, including The Dark Knight Trilogy, The Hangover and its sequels, 300, Man of Steel and others. Tull grew up in the son of a dental hygienist single mother; as a youth, Tull was an athlete, playing baseball and playing football, earning a football scholarship. Tull graduated from nearby Hamilton College in 1992. After college, Tull abandoned plans to become a lawyer and instead went into business, starting a chain of laundromats. Among his distinguishing innovations was different prices according to demand at different times of day. Tull went into the field of financing and selling several tax and accounting offices. In the private equity business, Tull rose to President of Convex Group and as the Chief of Operations of Tax Services of America, his firm invested in entertainment. After discussing the potential of private equity with a film executive in 2003, Tull quit Convex, raising $600 million in equity to finance movies under the Legendary Pictures banner.
The company entered into a partnership in 2005 with Warner Bros. to jointly finance and produce films. In 2009, Tull became the majority shareholder of Legendary, in a buyout of the original investors; the Warner deal was followed by a similar deal with Universal Studios in 2013. He helped produce the film Blackhat. Tull describes himself as a "fanboy" of comics and several of the films produced by Legendary were personal favorites of Tull. Watchmen had been in "development hell" for years. 300 had been turned down by other studios. Tull describes himself as a "gamer", founded the short-lived Brash Entertainment to work on film-to-video game conversions. Tull is a member of the board of trustees for the American Film Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, the San Diego Zoo. In 2009, Tull became a part-owner of the Pittsburgh Steelers football team. Tull had been a fan of the Steelers since age four, watching the Steelers take on the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl IX. Tull is a billionaire, he has donated US$1 million to Priorities USA Action, a Super PAC supporting Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.
He resides in California with his wife Alba and their children. On January 16, 2018, his home was listed for $85 million and is one of the largest private residences in the world, he plans to move his family to the Pittsburgh area. Thomas Tull on IMDb
Quarantine (2008 film)
Quarantine is a 2008 American found-footage horror film directed and co-written by John Erick Dowdle, produced by Sergio Aguero, Doug Davison, Roy Lee, co-written by Drew Dowdle, being a remake of the Spanish film REC. The film stars Jennifer Carpenter, Jay Hernandez, Columbus Short, Greg Germann, Steve Harris, Dania Ramirez, Rade Sherbedgia, Johnathon Schaech. Quarantine features no actual composition, it is "scored" by sound effects. In comparison to REC, it features several differences such as added and excluded scenes and characters, a different explanation for the virus.'Facing What Consumes You' by the heavy metal band Hatebreed plays during the end credits. The film was released by Sony's subsidiary Screen Gems on October 10, 2008, it grossed $41.3 million worldwide. The film was followed by Quarantine 2: Terminal. On the evening of March 11, 2008, news reporter and cameraman, Angela Vidal and Scott Percival, are assigned to follow firefighters Jake and Fletcher during their nightshift.
They are given a department tour. Arriving, screams from a self-barricaded apartment block room were heard by the landlord and residents; the firemen, police officers, crew enter. Fletcher mysteriously falls to the base floor, incapacitated; the old woman is killed. As the residents are ordered downstairs for their own safety, the team finds a second woman in a similar condition and bring her downstairs with others; those wounded by the women delirious. Angela interviews a sick little girl; the authorities and CDC quarantine the building, allowing none to leave. A resident veterinarian recognizes the symptoms as similar to those of rabies. CDC officers wearing hazmat suits enter the building and begin working on the two victims on the ground floor, but chaos ensues as the victims attack, it is revealed that, the day before, the little girl's dog is the reason the CDC has quarantined the building. The little girl bites her mother and attacks a pursuing police officer. All the other infected break start attacking.
The team retreats upstairs and lock themselves in a room, but discover two people who have been bitten. A panicked resident who rips through the window covering is shot by a sniper; the landlord reveals. The two infected attack, forcing Jake and Scott to flee the room. Jake is bitten as the trio find the basement key. Angela and Scott now appear to be the only human survivors. Rather than making their way to the basement, the pair are forced upstairs to the attic apartment by the remaining infected, where they find lab equipment and newspaper clippings about a doomsday cult and a break-in at a chemical weapons lab where a virus was stolen. A trapdoor opens from the attic and Scott loses the camera light as he investigates it, the light broken by a small boy swatting at it. Scott turns on the night vision, he and Angela hear loud banging noises inside the apartment; the source of the noises is an emaciated man unaware of them, blindly searching. Scott trips and drops the camera. Angela looks around the room, only to see the man eating Scott.
In fright, she is attacked. She is unable to locate it. Quarantine was released on October 10, 2008. On its opening day, the film grossed $5,379,867; the film opened at #2, behind the second weekend of Beverly Hills Chihuahua, earning $14,211,321 in its opening weekend. Its total gross is $41,319,906 worldwide. Quarantine was released February 2009, on DVD and Blu-ray; the film was not screened in advance for American critics. Rotten Tomatoes reports; the site's critical consensus reads "Quarantine uses effective atmosphere and consistent scares to stand above the crop of recent horror films." Metacritic reported the film had an aggregate score of 53/100 based on 14 reviews, which indicates "mixed or average reviews". Quarantine received a 3.5/5 stars from Bloody Disgusting, which wrote, "A study in claustrophobia, expertly cast and staged with expert meticulousness and precision, the film’s only major flaw is the need to explain that which never needed explaining." Michael Gingold of Fangoria rated it 3/4 stars and called it "an acceptable substitute" for the original film.
Empire was lukewarm in its response but critical of the rushed and copied-verbatim style of the remake. Paul Nicholasi of Dread Central rated it 1.5/5 stars and called it hard to watch, both because of the shaky cam and the pacing. Joe Leydon of Variety described it as "a modestly inventive, sporadically exciting thriller that nonetheless proves too faithful to its central conceit for its own good." Jaume Balagueró, who co-wrote and directed the REC series, expressed distaste for Quarantine by saying: "It's impossible for me to like, because it's a copy. It's the same, except for the finale. It’s impossible to enjoy Quarantine after REC. I don't understand. Paco Plaza stated, it moved a spotlight onto our film. You know, the fact that it was going to be remade in Hollywood, it was big news in Europe. Everyone knew that it existed, this tiny Spanish film." 2009: Reaper Awards "Best Zombie Film" 2009 Fangoria Chainsaw Awards: 2nd
Notre-Dame de Paris
Notre-Dame de Paris known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or Notre-Dame, is a medieval Catholic cathedral on the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France. The cathedral is considered to be one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture; the innovative use of the rib vault and flying buttress, the enormous and colorful rose windows, the naturalism and abundance of its sculptural decoration all set it apart from earlier Romanesque architecture. The cathedral was begun in 1160 and completed by 1260, though it was modified in the following centuries. In the 1790s, Notre-Dame suffered desecration during the French Revolution when much of its religious imagery was damaged or destroyed. Soon after the publication of Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame in 1831, popular interest in the building revived. A major restoration project supervised by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc began in 1845 and continued for twenty-five years. Beginning in 1963, the facade of the Cathedral was cleaned of centuries of soot and grime, returning it to its original color.
Another campaign of cleaning and restoration was carried out from 1991-2000. As the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Paris, Notre-Dame contains the cathedra of the Archbishop of Paris. 12 million people visit Notre-Dame yearly. The Cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris was built on a site which in Roman Lutetia is believed to have been occupied by a pagan temple, thence by a Romanesque church, the Basilica of Saint Étienne, built between the 4th century and 7th century; the basilica was situated about 40 meters west of the cathedral and was wider and lower and half its size. King Louis VII of France wanted to build monuments to show that Paris was the political and cultural capital of France. In this context, Maurice de Sully, elevated Bishop in 1160, had the old basilica torn down to its foundations, began to build a larger and taller cathedral; the cornerstone was laid in 1163 in the presence of Pope Alexander III. The design followed the traditional plan, with the ambulatory and choir, where the altar was located, to the east, the entrance, facing the setting sun, to the west.
By long tradition, the choir, where the altar was located, was constructed first, so that the church could be consecrated and used long before it was completed. The original plan was for a long nave, four levels high, with no transept; the flying buttress was not yet in use, so the walls were thick and reinforced by solid stone abutments placed against them on the outside, by chapels placed between the abutments. The roof of the nave was constructed with a new technology, the rib vault, which had earlier been used in the Basilica of Saint Denis; the roof of the nave was supported by crossed ribs. The pointed arches were stronger than the earlier Romanesque arches, carried the weight of the roof outwards and downwards to rows of pillars, out to the abutments against the walls. Construction of the choir took from 1163 until around 1177; the High Altar was consecrated in 1182. Between 1182 and 1190 the first three traverses of the nave were built up to the level of tribunes. Beginning in 1190, the bases of the facade were put in place, the first traverses were completed.
The decision was made to add a transept at the choir, where the altar was located, in order to bring more light into the center of the church. The use of simpler four-part rather than six-part rib vaults meant that the roofs were stronger and could be higher. After Bishop Maurice de Sully's death in 1196, his successor, Eudes de Sully oversaw the completion of the transepts, continued work on the nave, nearing completion at the time of his own death in 1208. By this time, the western facade was largely built, though it was not completed until around the mid-1240s. Between 1225 and 1250 the upper gallery of the nave was constructed, along with the two towers on the west facade. Another significant change came in the mid 13th century, when the transepts were remodeled in the latest Rayonnant style. Shortly afterwards Pierre de Montreuil executed a similar scheme on the southern transept. Both these transept portals were richly embellished with sculpture. An important innovation in the 13th century was the introduction of the flying buttress.
Before the buttresses, all of the weight of the roof pressed outward and down to the walls, the abutments supporting them. With the flying buttress, the weight was carried by the ribs of the vault outside the structure to a series of counter-supports, which were topped with stone pinnacles which gave them greater weight; the buttresses meant that the walls could be higher and thinner, could have much larger windows. The date of the first buttresses is not known with any precision; the first buttresses were replaced by stronger ones in the 14th century. 1160 Maurice de Sully orders the original cathedral demolished. 1163 Cornerstone laid for Notre-Dame de Paris. 1182 Apse and choir completed. 1196 Bishop Maurice de Sully dies. C.1
Alchemy was an ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe and Asia, originating in Greco-Roman Egypt in the first few centuries AD. It aims to purify and perfect certain objects. Common aims were chrysopoeia, the transmutation of "base metals" into "noble metals"; the perfection of the human body and soul was thought to permit or result from the alchemical magnum opus and, in the Hellenistic and Western mystery tradition, the achievement of gnosis. In Europe, the creation of a philosopher's stone was variously connected with all of these projects. In English, the term is limited to descriptions of European alchemy, but similar practices existed in the Far East, the Indian subcontinent, the Muslim world. In Europe, following the 12th-century Renaissance produced by the translation of Medieval Islamic works on science and the rediscovery of Aristotelian philosophy, alchemists played a significant role in early modern science.
Islamic and European alchemists developed a structure of basic laboratory techniques, theory and experimental method, some of which are still in use today. However, they continued antiquity's belief in four elements and guarded their work in secrecy including cyphers and cryptic symbolism, their work was guided by Hermetic principles related to magic and religion. Modern discussions of alchemy are split into an examination of its exoteric practical applications and its esoteric spiritual aspects, despite the arguments of scholars like Holmyard and von Franz that they should be understood as complementary; the former is pursued by historians of the physical sciences who examine the subject in terms of early chemistry and charlatanism, the philosophical and religious contexts in which these events occurred. The latter interests historians of esotericism and some philosophers and spiritualists; the subject has made an ongoing impact on literature and the arts. Despite this split, which von Franz believes has existed since the Western traditions' origin in a mix of Greek philosophy, mixed with Egyptian and Mesopotamian technology, numerous sources have stressed an integration of esoteric and exoteric approaches to alchemy as far back as Pseudo-Democritus's first-century AD On Physical and Mystical Matters.
Although alchemy is popularly associated with magic, historian Lawrence M. Principe writes: Most readers are aware of several common claims about alchemy—for example... that it is akin to magic, or that its practice or now is deceptive. These ideas about alchemy emerged after. While each of them might have limited validity within a narrow context, none of them is an accurate depiction of alchemy in general." The word alchemy comes from Old French alquemie, used in Medieval Latin as alchymia. This name was itself brought from the Arabic word al-kīmiyā' composed of two parts: the Late Greek term khēmeía, khēmía, meaning'to fuse or cast a metal', the Arabic definite article al-, meaning'The'. Together this association can be interpreted as'the process of transmutation by which to fuse or reunite with the divine or original form', its roots can be traced to the Egyptian name kēme, meaning'black earth' which refers to the fertile and auriferous soil of the Nile valley, as opposed to red desert sand.
According to the Egyptologist Wallis Budge, the Arabic word al-kīmiyaʾ means "the Egyptian ", borrowing from the Coptic word for "Egypt", kēme. This Coptic word derives from Demotic kmỉ, itself from ancient Egyptian kmt; the ancient Egyptian word referred to both the country and the colour "black". However, according to Mahn, this theory may be an example of folk etymology. Assuming an Egyptian origin, chemistry is defined as follows: Chemistry, from the ancient Egyptian word "khēmia" meaning transmutation of earth, is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing with collections of atoms, such as molecules and metals. Thus, according to Budge and others, chemistry derives from an Egyptian word khemein or khēmia, "preparation of black powder" derived from the name khem, Egypt. A decree of Diocletian, written about 300 AD in Greek, speaks against "the ancient writings of the Egyptians, which treat of the khēmia transmutation of gold and silver"; the Medieval Latin form was influenced by Greek chymeia meaning'mixture' and referring to pharmaceutical chemistry.
Alchemy is several philosophical traditions spanning three continents. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships. One can distinguish at least three major strands, which appear to be independent, at least in their earlier stages: Chinese alchemy, centered in China and its zone of cultural influence. Chinese alchemy was connected to Ta
Radio Times is a British weekly magazine which provides radio and television listings. It was the world's first broadcast listings magazine when it was founded in 1923 by John Reith general manager of the British Broadcasting Company became the British Broadcasting Corporation from 1927, it was published in-house by BBC Magazines from 1937 until 2011 when the BBC Magazines division was merged into Immediate Media Company. Radio Times was first issued on 28 September 1923 for the price of 2d, carrying details of BBC wireless programmes. Radio Times was a combined enterprise between the British Broadcasting Company and the publisher George Newnes, who type-set and distributed the magazine, but in 1925 the BBC assumed full editorial control, by 1937 the publication was in-house. The Radio Times established a reputation for using leading writers and illustrators, the covers from the special editions are now collectible design classics. In 1928, Radio Times announced a regular series of'experimental television transmissions by the Baird process' for half an hour every morning.
The launch of the first regular 405-line television service by the BBC was reflected with television listings in the Radio Times edition of 23 October 1936. Thus Radio Times became the first television listings magazine in the world. Only two pages in each edition were devoted to television. However, on 8 January 1937 the magazine published a lavish photogravure supplement and by September 1939, there were three pages of television listings. Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939 and television broadcasting ceased. Radio listings continued throughout the war with a reduced service, but by 1944, paper rationing meant editions were only 20 pages of tiny print on thin paper; when television resumed, the Radio Times expanded with regional editions were introduced. In 1953 the television listings, in the back of the magazine, were placed alongside the daily radio schedules and on 17 February 1957, television listings were moved to a separate section at the front with radio listings relegated to the back.
By the 1950s Radio Times had grown to be the magazine with the largest circulation in Europe, with an average sales of 8.8 million in 1955. Radio Times is published on Tuesdays and carries listings for the following Saturday through to Friday. From 20 April 1964, BBC Two starts broadcasting, the existing "BBCtv" is renamed BBC One on 1 July 1967, BBC Two becomes Europe's first colour television service is launched with the live Wimbledon coverage, two years BBC One is introduced colour service on 15 November 1969. Since Christmas 1969, a double-sized issue has been published each December containing listings for two weeks of programmes; this covered Christmas and New Year listings, but in some years these appear in separate editions, with the two-week period ending just before New Year. The cover of the'Christmas Number' dating from the time when it contained just a single week's listings features a generic festive artwork, atypical for the magazine, which since the 1970s has exclusively used photographic covers for all other issues.
By the 1970s, Radio Times took a stand with "no smoking" policies were beginning to appear for some reason and stopped cigarette advertising from September 1969 within the magazine. On 1 September 1984, the method of web-offset printing was used for the first time, the magazine became brighter and more colourful, gone were the sludgy greys of newsprint and sheets of gravure was replaced by clean blacks on white paper from leafing through although it wasn't until 2 June 1990 that the entire magazine was printed in full colour; until the deregulation of television listings on 1 March 1991, the Radio Times carried programme listings for BBC radio and television channels only, while the ITV-published magazine, TVTimes, carried television programme listings for ITV, from November 1982, Channel 4. Today both publications carry listings for all major terrestrial and satellite television channels in the United Kingdom and following deregulation, new listings magazines began to be published. After the deregulation of television listings, there was strong criticism from other listings magazines that Radio Times was advertised on the BBC, saying that it gave unfair advantage to the publication bearing "If it's on... it's in!" slogan.
The case went to court, but the outcome was that as the Radio Times had close connections with the BBC it would be allowed to be advertised by the BBC. By the early 2000s, advertisements for the publication had become sparse on the BBC; the Radio Times has not been promoted on BBC television and radio channels since 2005, following complaints by rival publications that the promotions were unfair competition. Radio Times gets with the new fresher look on 3 September 1994 as the television listings had the day's name going vertical with "today's choices" replacing "at a glance" on the left of a page, while the major revamp on 25 September 1999, which
Legendary Entertainment is an American media company based in Burbank, California. The company was founded by Thomas Tull in 2000 and in 2005 concluded an agreement to co-produce and co-finance films with Warner Bros. and Universal Pictures. Since 2016, Legendary has been a subsidiary of the Chinese conglomerate Wanda Group. Thomas Tull founded Legendary Entertainment after raising $500 million from private equity firms, it was one of the first companies of its kind to pair major motion picture production with major Wall Street private equity and hedge fund investors, including ABRY Partners, AIG Direct Investments, Bank of America Capital Investors, Columbia Capital, Falcon Investment Advisors, M/C Venture Partners. Legendary Pictures, Inc. was incorporated in California in 2000 and in 2005 it signed an agreement with Warner Bros. to co-produce and co-finance up to 40 films over seven years. In 2010, Fidelity Investments, Fortress Investment Group bought all the shares of the original investors.
The buyout included a $25 million-investment by Orange Sky Golden Harvest Entertainment. Following the transaction, Tull became the largest shareholder, thus enabling him to more direct the company's operations. Golden Harvest sold its stake in the company for $30 million. In 2011, Accel Partners bought $40 million-worth of shares and Accel partner Jim Breyer joined the company's board of directors; that same year the company was reported to have been valued at more than $1 billion. In September 2011, Chief Creative Officer Jon Jashni was appointed to the new position of President. In December 2012, Waddell & Reed bought around 20% of Legendary's shares for $443 million. In July 2013, Legendary reached an agreement with Universal Pictures in which it will market, co-finance, distribute Legendary's films for five years starting in 2014, the year that Legendary's similar agreement with Warner Bros. expires. In October 2014, SoftBank bought a 10 % stake, in Legendary; the transaction increased the company's total value to around $3 billion.
In 2014, Legendary acquired the TV producer Asylum Entertainment, which made ESPN's 30 for 30 and miniseries The Kennedys, for $100 million, but Asylum Entertainment will continue operating as a separate company. On January 11, 2016, Chinese conglomerate Wanda Group announced that it concluded an agreement with shareholders to acquire Legendary Entertainment for $3.5 billion, making it the largest acquisition of an American media company by a Chinese firm. On January 17, 2017, it was announced that Tull had exited as Legendary Entertainment CEO, he was replaced by the senior vice president of Wanda's cultural industry group, Jack Gao, as interim CEO. On October 17, 2017, it was reported that Gao stepped down from his positions at Legendary Entertainment and Wanda Group; the resignation comes after an announcement by Wanda's chairman Wang Jianlin earlier that year that Wanda would refocus its investments onto the Chinese domestic market in an attempt to "actively respond to the call of the country".
This, in turn, is thought to be a consequence of the Chinese government banning Chinese banks to provide loans to Wanda Group's foreign operations intended to stop the firm's offshore acquisition plans. On December 5, 2017, it was announced that Joshua Grode had been named as Legendary Entertainment CEO. In addition to producing American films, Legendary Entertainment has announced various other business endeavors. In 2009, the company announced the establishment of a digital division, to be headed by Kathy Vrabeck, that would focus on game development, a move which surprised many industry analysts because of the film industry's previous disengagement with the video game industry; the goal of the division was reoriented in 2012 with the acquisition of Nerdist Industries, LLC, a pop culture blog with a eponymous podcast. Nerdist founder Chris Hardwick announced that he and his partner Peter Levin would still have complete editorial autonomy and that they would become the new presidents of the digital division, with Levin heading digital strategy and the digital content.
In 2014, Legendary acquired both Geek & Sundry, Inc. a YouTube channel and production company and the website Amy Poehler's Smart Girls. On June 10, 2016, LDN announced a subscription streaming service, which will include programming from both Nerdist and Geek & Sundry. In 2010, the company announced the launch of a comic book division called Legendary Comics, LLC under the direction of editor-in-chief Bob Schreck; the first graphic novel published by the company was Holy Terror by Frank Miller, released in 2011. In 2011, the company announced the creation of Legendary Television to focus on developing television productions; the division was headed by a co-financing contract with Warner Bros.. Television was signed. However, in 2012, Legendary decided to postpone its expansion into television and put the division on hold while restructuring. In 2013, Legendary purchased film marketing agency Five33 Ltd; the company, which in the past has worked on marketing campaigns for various studios, will now work on marketing Legendary's films.
In 2013, Legendary invested in hiring former head of Warner Bros. Television, Bruce Rosenblum, to head Legendary's television and digital media operations. In December 2013, Legendary acquired television production company Asylum Entertainment, best known for producing sports programming and reality and scripted television series such as Beyond the Glory and The Kennedys. In 2011, the company announced the formation of Legendary East Ltd. a joint venture film production company based in Hong Kong. The purpose of
Inferno is the first part of Italian writer Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy. It is followed by Paradiso; the Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet Virgil. In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of torment located within the Earth; as an allegory, the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul toward God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin. Canto I The poem begins on the night of Maundy Thursday on March 24, A. D. 1300, shortly before dawn of Good Friday. The narrator, Dante himself, is thirty-five years old, thus "midway in the journey of our life" – half of the Biblical lifespan of seventy; the poet finds. He sets out to climb directly up a small mountain, but his way is blocked by three beasts he cannot evade: a lonza, a leone, a lupa; the three beasts, taken from the Jeremiah 5:6, are thought to symbolize the three kinds of sin that bring the unrepentant soul into one of the three major divisions of Hell.
According to John Ciardi, these are incontinence. It is now dawn of April 8, with the sun rising in Aries; the beasts drive him back despairing into the darkness of error, a "lower place" where the sun is silent. However, Dante is rescued by a figure who announces that he was born sub Iulio and lived under Augustus: it is the shade of the Roman poet Virgil, author of the Aeneid, a Latin epic. Canto II On the evening of Good Friday, Dante hesitates. Beatrice had been moved to aid Dante by the Virgin Saint Lucia. Rachel, symbolic of the contemplative life appears in the heavenly scene recounted by Virgil; the two of them begin their journey to the underworld. Canto III Dante passes through the gate of Hell, which bears an inscription ending with the famous phrase "Lasciate ogne speranza, voi ch'intrate", most translated as "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here." Dante and his guide hear the anguished screams of the Uncommitted. These are the souls of people. Among these Dante recognizes a figure implied to be Pope Celestine V, whose "cowardice served as the door through which so much evil entered the Church".
Mixed with them are outcasts. These souls are forever unclassified. Naked and futile, they race around through the mist in eternal pursuit of an elusive, wavering banner while relentlessly chased by swarms of wasps and hornets, who continually sting them. Loathsome maggots and worms at the sinners' feet drink the putrid mixture of blood and tears that flows down their bodies; this symbolizes the repugnance of sin. This may be seen as a reflection of the spiritual stagnation in which they lived. After passing through the vestibule and Virgil reach the ferry that will take them across the river Acheron and to Hell proper; the ferry is piloted by Charon. Virgil forces Charon to take him by declaring, Vuolsi così colà dove si puote / ciò che si vuole, referring to the fact that Dante is on his journey on divine grounds; the wailing and blasphemy of the damned souls entering Charon's boat contrast with the joyful singing of the blessed souls arriving by ferry in the Purgatorio. The passage across the Acheron, however, is undescribed, since Dante faints and does not awaken until he is on the other side.
Canto IV Virgil proceeds to guide Dante through the nine circles of Hell. The circles are concentric, representing a gradual increase in wickedness, culminating at the centre of the earth, where Satan is held in bondage; the sinners of each circle are punished for eternity in a fashion fitting their crimes: each punishment is a contrapasso, a symbolic instance of poetic justice. For example in the poem and Virgil encounter fortune-tellers who must walk forward with their heads on backward, unable to see what is ahead, because they tried to see the future through forbidden means; such a contrapasso "functions not as a form of divine revenge, but rather as the fulfilment of a destiny chosen by each soul during his or her life". People who sinned, but prayed for forgiveness before their deaths are found not in Hell but in Purgatory, where they labour to become free of their sins; those in Hell are people who are unrepentant. Dante's Hell is structurally based on the ideas of Aristotle, but with "certain Christian symbolisms and misconstructions of Aristotle's text".
Dante's three major cat