Arthur "Dooley" Wilson was an American actor and musician, best remembered as Sam in the 1942 film, Casablanca. Wilson was a drummer and singer who led his own band in the 1920s, touring nightclubs in London and Paris. In the 1930s he took up acting, playing supporting roles onstage on Broadway and in a series of modest films, his role in Casablanca was by far his most prominent, but his other films included My Favorite Blonde with Bob Hope, Stormy Weather with Lena Horne and the Nicholas Brothers, the Western Passage West. Arthur Wilson was born in Tyler, the youngest of five children. At age seven, the year of his father's death, he began to make a living by performing in churches in Tyler; when he was eight years old he was making $18 a week and playing in tent shows. By 1908 he was in Chicago in the repertory company of the Pekin Theatre, the first legitimate black theatre in the United States. By he had earned the nickname "Dooley", for his whiteface impersonation of an Irishman singing a song called "Mr. Dooley".
Part of the emerging African American theatre, Wilson worked with the Anita Bush company in New York City in 1914 and with Charles Gilpin's stock company at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem in 1915. He performed in James Reese Europe's band, after World War I he toured Europe with his own band, The Red Devils, throughout the 1920s. Working in the U. S. again during the Great Depression, Wilson starred in Conjur' Man Dies and other plays for the Federal Theatre Project's Negro Theatre Unit under the direction of John Houseman. His breakthrough role came in 1940, with his portrayal of Little Joe in the Broadway musical Cabin in the Sky; this won him a contract with Paramount Pictures in Hollywood. He found himself playing Pullman porters while his stage role in the MGM film adaptation of Cabin in the Sky was played by Eddie "Rochester" Anderson. In May 1942, Warner Bros. was casting its production of Casablanca and borrowed Wilson from Paramount Pictures for seven weeks at $500 a week. Per the studio custom of the day, Wilson received his contract salary, $350 per week, Paramount kept the balance.
Wilson was cast in the role of a singer and pianist employed by nightclub owner Rick. Wilson performs the Herman Hupfeld song "As Time Goes By", a continuing musical and emotional motif throughout the film. According to Aljean Harmetz, Variety singled out Wilson for the effectiveness of the song, The Hollywood Reporter said he created "something joyous"; the phrase "Play it again, Sam" believed to be a quote from the film, is never heard in Casablanca. In the film, Wilson as Sam performs several other songs for the cafe audience: "It Had To Be You", "Shine", "Knock on Wood", "Avalon" and "Parlez-moi d'amour". Wilson was a drummer, but not a pianist; the piano music for the film was dubbed. Wilson was cast in the film version of Stormy Weather, as Gabe Tucker, the best friend of Bill Williamson, it was the second all-black cast motion picture made by a major studio in the 1940s, after Cabin in the Sky. Back on Broadway, Wilson played an escaped slave, in the musical Bloomer Girl, his performance of the song "The Eagle and Me" in this show was selected by Dwight Blocker Bowers for inclusion in a Smithsonian recordings compilation, American Musical Theatre.
Wilson played the role of Bill Jackson on the television situation comedy Beulah during its 1951–52 season. Wilson was on the executive board of the Negro Actors Guild of America. Wilson died May 30, 1953 at his Los Angeles home, he had become ill two years earlier, while he was performing in a stage production of Harvey in New York. He is buried at the Rosedale Cemetery in Los Angeles, he was survived by his wife, who died in 1971. Dooley Wilson on IMDb Dooley Wilson at the TCM Movie Database Dooley Wilson at the Internet Broadway Database
Broadway theatre known as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world; the Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City. According to The Broadway League, for the 2017–2018 season total attendance was 13,792,614 and Broadway shows had US$1,697,458,795 in grosses, with attendance up 3.9%, grosses up 17.1%, playing weeks up 2.8%. The majority of Broadway shows are musicals. Historian Martin Shefter argues that "'Broadway musicals', culminating in the productions of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein, became enormously influential forms of American popular culture" and contributed to making New York City the cultural capital of the Western Hemisphere.
New York did not have a significant theatre presence until about 1750, when actor-managers Walter Murray and Thomas Kean established a resident theatre company at the Theatre on Nassau Street, which held about 280 people. They presented Shakespeare ballad operas such as The Beggar's Opera. In 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager, they established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice and The Anatomist. The company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida; the Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the year the 2,000-seat Park Theatre was built on Chatham Street. The Bowery Theatre opened followed by others. By the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in Lower Manhattan. In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblo's Garden opened and soon became one of New York's premiere nightspots.
The 3,000-seat theatre presented all sorts of non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmo's Opera House opened and presented opera for only four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burton's Theatre; the Astor Opera House opened in 1847. A riot broke out in 1849 when the lower-class patrons of the Bowery objected to what they perceived as snobbery by the upper class audiences at Astor Place: "After the Astor Place Riot of 1849, entertainment in New York City was divided along class lines: opera was chiefly for the upper middle and upper classes, minstrel shows and melodramas for the middle class, variety shows in concert saloons for men of the working class and the slumming middle class."The plays of William Shakespeare were performed on the Broadway stage during the period, most notably by American actor Edwin Booth, internationally known for his performance as Hamlet. Booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, would revive the role at his own Booth's Theatre.
Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, Charles Fechter. Theatre in New York moved from downtown to midtown beginning around 1850, seeking less expensive real estate. In the beginning of the 19th century, the area that now comprises the Theater District was owned by a handful of families and comprised a few farms. In 1836, Mayor Cornelius Lawrence opened 42nd Street and invited Manhattanites to "enjoy the pure clean air." Close to 60 years theatrical entrepreneur Oscar Hammerstein I built the iconic Victoria Theater on West 42nd Street. Broadway's first "long-run" musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857. In 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square. Theatres did not arrive in the Times Square area until the early 1900s, the Broadway theatres did not consolidate there until a large number of theatres were built around the square in the 1920s and 1930s.
New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keene's "musical burletta" The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keene's troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, D. C. that Abraham Lincoln was shot. The first theatre piece that conforms to the modern conception of a musical, adding dance and original music that helped to tell the story, is considered to be The Black Crook, which premiered in New York on September 12, 1866; the production was five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a "musical comedy". Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham.
These musical comedies featured characters and situations taken from the everyday life of New York's lower classes and represented a significant step forward from vaudeville and burlesque, towards a more literate form. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of questionable repute who had starred in earlier m
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
Warner Bros. Entertainment Inc. referred to as Warner Bros. and abbreviated as WB, is an American entertainment company headquartered in Burbank, California and a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Founded in 1923, it has operations in film and video games and is one of the "Big Five" major American film studios, as well as a member of the Motion Picture Association of America; the company's name originated from the four founding Warner brothers: Harry, Albert and Jack Warner. Harry and Sam emigrated as young children with their parents to Canada from Krasnosielc, Poland. Jack, the youngest brother, was born in Ontario; the three elder brothers began in the movie theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania and Ohio. In the beginning and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and The Great Train Robbery, they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, arranged to save it.
The owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, to distribute films. In 1912, Harry Warner hired. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films. In 1918 they opened the first Warner Brothers Studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, based on a popular book by former ambassador James W. Gerard, was released. On April 4, 1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Bros. Pictures, Incorporated; the first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwood's 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, from theatrical impresario David Belasco.
However, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature; the movie was so successful. Rin Tin Tin became the studio's top star. Jack nicknamed him "The Mortgage Lifter" and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanuck's career. Zanuck became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jack's right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came. Lubitsch's film The Marriage Circle was the studio's most successful film of 1924, was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warner's remained a lesser studio. Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel; the film was so successful. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywood's most successful independent studio, where it competed with "The Big Three" Studios. As a result, Harry Warner—while speaking at a convention of 1,500 independent exhibitors in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—was able to convince the filmmakers to spend $500,000 in newspaper advertising, Harry saw this as an opportunity to establish theaters in cities such as New York and Los Angeles.
As the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan. With this new money, the Warners bought the pioneer Vitagraph Company which had a nationwide distribution system. In 1925, Warners' experimented in radio, establishing a successful radio station, KFWB, in Los Angeles. Warner Bros. was a pioneer of films with synchronized sound. In 1925, at Sam's urging, Warner's agreed to add this feature to their productions. By February 1926, the studio reported a net loss of $333,413. After a long period denying Sam's request for sound, Harry agreed to change, as long as the studio's use of synchronized sound was for background music purposes only; the Warners signed a contract with the sound engineer company Western Electric and established Vitaphone. In 1926, Vitaphone began making films with music and effects tracks, most notably, in the feature Don Juan starring John Barrymore; the film was silent. To hype Don Juan's release, Harry acquired the large Piccadilly Theater in Manhattan, New York City, renamed it Warners' Theatre.
Don Juan premiered at the Warners' Theatre in New York on August 6, 1926. Throughout the early history of film distribution, theater owners hired orchestras to attend film showings, where they provided soundtracks. Through Vitaphone, Warner Bros. produced eight shorts in 1926. Many film production companies questioned the necessity. Don Juan did not recoup its production cost and Lubitsch left for MGM. By April 1927, the Big Five studios had ruined Warner's, Western Electric renewed Warner's Vit
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Clifton, New Jersey
Clifton is a city in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 84,136, retaining its position as the state's 11th-largest municipality, as the population increased by 5,464 from the 78,672 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 6,930 from the 71,742 counted in the 1990 Census. Clifton was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 26, 1917, replacing Acquackanonk Township, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier. Clifton is listed under five different ZIP Codes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 11.397 square miles, including 11.260 square miles of land and 0.137 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the city include Albion Place, Athenia, Botany Village, Dutch Hill, Main Mall, Montclair Heights, Rosemawr, West Clifton and Yanticaw Pond. Clifton is located 10 miles west of New York City off both Route 3 and Route 46.
The city is served by the Garden State Parkway, Route 19 and Route 21. The city borders the municipalities of Little Falls, Passaic and Woodland Park in Passaic County; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 84,136 people, 30,661 households, 21,125.429 families residing in the city. The population density was 7,472.0 per square mile. There were 31,946 housing units at an average density of 2,837.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.63% White, 4.92% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 8.90% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 12.44% from other races, 3.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.92% of the population. There were 30,661 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.3% were married couples living together, 13.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.33. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.0% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 27.0% from 45 to 64, 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.4 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 90.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $62,271 and the median family income was $76,070. Males had a median income of $49,780 versus $40,149 for females; the per capita income for the city was $29,812. About 7.2% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.5% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. Same-sex couples headed 243 households in 2010; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 78,672 people, 30,244 households, 20,354 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,965.2 people per square mile.
There were 31,060 housing units at an average density of 2,749.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.22% White, 2.89% African American, 0.24% Native American, 6.44% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 9.60% from other races, 4.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 19.84% of the population. There were 30,244 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families. 27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.20. In the city the population was 21.6% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $50,619, the median income for a family was $60,688. Males had a median income of $40,143 versus $32,090 for females; the per capita income for the city was $23,638. About 4.3% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.6% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. The most common ancestry groups in Clifton as of 2000 were Italian American, Polish American, Irish American and German American. Many Turkish and Ukrainian immigrants live in Clifton. There are significant populations of Puerto Ricans, Arabs, Filipinos and Indians as well. Businesses in Clifton include: Rutt's Hut, a hot dog restaurant, is located at the east end of Delawana Avenue. Established in 1928, it was described by Peter Applebome of The New York Times as being "on the long shortlist of the state's esteemed hot dog palaces". Clifton Commons, a shopping center located near Route 3, features numerous stores, restaurants and a 16-screen AMC movie theater, with a gross leasable area of 448,848 square feet.
Promenade Shops at Clifton is an upsc