In the Hebrew Bible, Abner was the cousin of King Saul and the commander-in-chief of his army. His name appears as אבינר בן נר "Abiner son of Ner", where the longer form Abiner means "my father is Ner". Abner is mentioned incidentally in Saul's history, first appearing as the son of Ner, Saul's uncle, the commander of Saul's army, he comes to the story again as the commander who introduced David to Saul following David's killing of Goliath. He is not mentioned in the account of the disastrous battle of Gilboa. Seizing the youngest but only surviving of Saul's sons, Ish-bosheth, Abner set him up as king over Israel at Mahanaim, east of the Jordan. David, accepted as king by Judah alone, was meanwhile reigning at Hebron, for some time war was carried on between the two parties; the only engagement between the rival factions, told at length is noteworthy, inasmuch as it was preceded by an encounter at Gibeon between twelve chosen men from each side, in which the whole twenty-four seem to have perished.
In the general engagement which followed, Abner was put to flight. He was pursued by Asahel, brother of Joab, said to have been "light of foot as a wild roe"; as Asahel would not desist from the pursuit, though warned, Abner was compelled to slay him in self-defence. This originated a deadly feud between the leaders of the opposite parties, for Joab, as next of kin to Asahel, was by the law and custom of the country the avenger of his blood. However, according to Josephus, in Antiquities, Book 7, Chapter 1, Joab had forgiven Abner for the death of his brother, the reason being that Abner had slain Asahel honorably in combat after he had first warned Asahel and had no other choice but to kill him out of self-defense; this battle was part of the son of Saul. After this battle Abner switched to the side of David and granted him control over the tribe of Benjamin; this act put Abner in David's favor. For some time afterward the war was carried on, the advantage being invariably on the side of David.
At length, Ish-bosheth lost the main prop of his tottering cause by accusing Abner of sleeping with Rizpah, one of Saul's concubines, an alliance which, according to contemporary notions, would imply pretensions to the throne. Abner was indignant at the rebuke, opened negotiations with David, who welcomed him on the condition that his wife Michal should be restored to him; this was done, the proceedings were ratified by a feast. After, Joab, sent away intentionally returned and slew Abner at the gate of Hebron; the ostensible motive for the assassination was a desire to avenge Asahel, this would be a sufficient justification for the deed according to the moral standard of the time. The conduct of David after the event was such as to show that he had no complicity in the act, though he could not venture to punish its perpetrators. David had Abner buried in Hebron, as it states in 2 Samuel 3:31-32, "And David said to all the people who were with him,'Rend your clothes and gird yourselves with sackcloth, wail before Abner.'
And King David went after the bier. And they buried Abner in Hebron, the king raised his voice and wept on Abner's grave, all the people wept."Shortly after Abner's death, Ish-bosheth was assassinated as he slept, David became king of the reunited kingdoms. The site known as the Tomb of Abner is located not far from the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron and receives visitors throughout the year. Many travelers have recorded visiting the tomb over the centuries. Benjamin of Tudela, who began his journeys in 1165, wrote in the journal, "The valley of Eshkhol is north of the mountain upon which Hebron stood, the cave of Makhpela is east thereof. A bow-shot west of the cave is the sepulchre of Abner the son of Ner."A rabbi in the 12th century records visiting the tomb as reprinted in Elkan Nathan Adler's book Jewish Travellers in the Middle Ages: 19 Firsthand Accounts. The account states, "I, the son of R. Nathaniel ha Cohen, journeyed with much difficulty, but God helped me to enter the Holy Land, I saw the graves of our righteous Patriarchs in Hebron and the grave of Abner the son of Ner."
Adler postulates that the visit must have occurred prior to Saladin's capture of Jerusalem in 1187. Rabbi Moses Basola records visiting the tomb in 1522, he states, "Abner's grave is in the middle of Hebron. Another visitor in the 1500s states that "at the entrance to the market in Hebron, at the top of the hill against the wall, Abner ben Ner is buried, in a church, in a cave." This visit was recorded in Sefer Yihus ha-Tzaddiqim, a collection of travelogues from 1561. Abraham Moshe Lunz reprinted the book in 1896. Menahem Mendel of Kamenitz, considered the first hotelier in the Land of Israel, wrote about the Tomb of Abner is his 1839 book Korot Ha-Itim, translated into English as The Book of the Occurrences of the Times to Jeshurun in the Land of Israel, he states, "Here I write of the graves of the righteous. Hebron – Described above is the character and order of behavior of those coming to pray at the Cave of ha-Machpelah. I went there, between the stores, over the grave of Avner ben Ner and was required to pay a Yishmaeli – the grave was in his courtyard – to allow me to enter."
The author and traveler J. J. Benjamin mentioned visiting the tomb in his book Eight Years in Asia and Africa, he states, "On
Christoph Weigel the Elder
Johann Christoph Weigel, known as Christoph Weigel the Elder, was a German engraver, art dealer and publisher. He was born at Redwitz, Free imperial city of Eger in Egerland, died in Nuremberg, aged 70. Media related to Christoph Weigel at Wikimedia Commons
Gibeon (ancient city)
Gibeon was a Canaanite city north of Jerusalem. According to Joshua 10:12 and Joshua 11:19, the pre-conquest inhabitants of Gibeon, the Gibeonites, were Hivites; the remains of Gibeon are located on the south edge of the Palestinian village of Al Jib. After the destruction of Jericho and Ai, the people of Gibeon sent ambassadors to trick Joshua and the Israelites into making a treaty with them. According to the Bible, the Israelites were commanded to destroy all inhabitants of Canaan; the Gibeonites presented themselves as ambassadors from a powerful land. Without consulting God, Israel entered into a peace treaty with the Gibeonites; the Israelites soon found out that the Gibeonites were their neighbours, living within three days walk of them and Joshua realised that he had been deceived. Theologian John Gill suggests that this curse was a particular example of the curse which Noah inflicted on all of Canaan: Then he said: "Cursed be Canaan. In retaliation for allying with the Israelites, the city was besieged by a coalition of five other Amorite kings led by Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, along with Hoham of Hebron, Piram of Jarmuth, Japhia of Lachish, Debir of Eglon.
The Gibeonites appealed to Joshua, who led the subsequent victory over the Amorites amid miraculous circumstances, including deadly hailstones and the suspension of the movement of the sun and moon, until the Amorites were defeated. In the Book of Joshua, ancient Jib or Gibeon is described as "a large city, like one of the royal cities" located in the tribal territory of Benjamin, it was given as a Levitical city. The flat and fertile land with many springs which surrounds it gave rise to a flourishing economy, attested to in the large number of ancient jars and wine cellars discovered there; the jars could hold 45 liters of wine each and 66 wine cellars two meters deep and dug out of rock have been unearthed in Jib. In the first Book of Chronicles, Jeiel is mentioned as the "father of Gibeon" and is an ancestor of King Saul. Following the capture of the Ark of the Covenant by the Philistines, the remaining part of the Tabernacle of the LORD was moved from Shiloh to the "great high place" in Gibeon.
2 Samuel 21:2 indicates that King Saul pursued the Gibeonites and sought to kill them off "in his zeal for the children of Israel and Judah". Following Saul's death, fighting between the soldiers of Joab and those of Abner took place beside the Pool of Gibeon, it was in this area. David became king of the United Monarchy. Much after the death of his rebellious son Absalom and his restoration to the throne, Israel was visited by a three-year drought which led David to ask God what was wrong; as a result of King Saul's treatment of the Gibeonites, God indicated his anger at Saul, "in his zeal for the children of Israel and Judah", massacring the Gibeonites with whom Israel had made a covenant in the Lord's name. This event is not itself recorded in the biblical narrative, although Gill refers to a Jewish tradition linking this slaughter to the slaughter of the priests at Nob. David asked the Gibeonites. In retribution, they asked for seven of Saul's male descendants to be given to them to kill, seven signalling the sign of completion.
David handed over Armoni and Mephibosheth, two of the sons of Saul and the five sons of Merab to the Gibeonites, who hanged them. He saved Jonathan's son called Mephibosheth, from this peril because of his covenant with Jonathan. Amasa was killed here. Here King David's son Solomon offered one thousand burnt offerings. On this occasion God granted him wisdom. Hananiah came from this city. After the exile of the Israelites to Babylon, Gibeon belonged to Judea. In Rabbinic Judaism, the alleged descendants of the Gibeonites, known as Natinim, are treated differently from ordinary Jews, they may not, for example, marry a Jew by birth. However, a Natin may marry Gerim; the earliest known mention of Gibeon in an extra-biblical source is in a list of cities on the wall of the Amum temple at Karnak, celebrating the invasion of Israel by Egyptian Pharaoh Shoshenq I. The 10th-century lexicographer David ben Abraham al-Fasi, identified al-Jib with the ancient city, which view was corroborated by the Hebrew Lexicon compiled by Wilhelm Gesenius and Frants Buhl.
However, the first scientific identification of al-Jib with the ancient Canaanite city of Gibeon was made by Edward Robinson in 1838. The remains of Gibeon were excavated in six expeditions from 1956 to 1962, led by the University of Pennsylvania archaeologist James B. Pritchard. Gibeon was founded in the Early Bronze Age, for the excavators discovered 14 EB storage jars beneath the foundations of the Iron Age wall. Other EB remains were discovered at the top of the tel but the stratigraphy had been destroyed by British gunfire during the First World War, it is probable that there was a defensive wall. Tombs cut
’Ēl is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring to any one of multiple major ancient Near Eastern deities. A rarer form, ` ila, represents the predicate form in Amorite; the word is derived from the Proto-Semitic archaic biliteral ʾ‑l, meaning "god". Specific deities known as ʾEl or ʾIl include the supreme god of the ancient Canaanite religion and the supreme god of East Semitic speakers in Mesopotamia’s Early Dynastic Period. Cognate forms are found throughout the Semitic languages, they include Ugaritic ʾilu, pl. ʾlm. In northwest Semitic use, El was both a generic word for any god and the special name or title of a particular god, distinguished from other gods as being "the god". El is listed at the head of many pantheons. In some Canaanite and Ugaritic sources, El played a role of creation. However, because the word sometimes refers to a god other than the great god Ēl, it is ambiguous as to whether Ēl followed by another name means the great god Ēl with a particular epithet applied or refers to another god entirely.
For example, in the Ugaritic texts, ʾil mlk is understood to mean "Ēl the King" but ʾil hd as "the god Hadad". The Semitic root ʾlh may be ʾl with a parasitic h, ʾl may be an abbreviated form of ʾlh. In Ugaritic the plural form meaning "gods" is ʾilhm, equivalent to Hebrew ʾelōhîm "powers". In the Hebrew texts this word is interpreted as being semantically singular for "god" by biblical commentators; however the documentary hypothesis developed in the 1870s, identifies these that different authors - Jahwist, Elohist and the Priestly source - were responsible for editing stories from a polytheistic religion into those of a monotheistic religion. Inconsistencies that arise between monotheism and polytheism in the texts are reflective of this hypothesis; the stem ʾl is found prominently in the earliest strata of east Semitic, northwest Semitic, south Semitic groups. Personal names including the stem ʾl are found with similar patterns in both Amorite and Sabaic—which indicates that already in Proto-Semitic ʾl was both a generic term for "god" and the common name or title of a single particular god.
The Egyptian god Ptah is given the title ḏū gitti'Lord of Gath' in a prism from Tel Lachish which has on its opposite face the name of Amenhotep II. The title ḏū gitti is found in Serābitṭ text 353. Cross points out that Ptah is called the Lord of eternity and thinks it may be this identification of ʼĒl with Ptah that lead to the epithet ’olam'eternal' being applied to ʼĒl so early and so consistently. A Phoenician inscribed amulet of the seventh century BCE from Arslan Tash may refer to ʼĒl; the text was translated by Rosenthal as follows: However, Cross translated the text as follows: In some inscriptions, the name ’Ēl qōne ’arṣ meaning "ʼĒl creator of Earth" appears including a late inscription at Leptis Magna in Tripolitania dating to the second century. In Hittite texts, the expression becomes the single name Ilkunirsa, this Ilkunirsa appearing as the husband of Asherdu and father of 77 or 88 sons. In a Hurrian hymn to ʼĒl, he is called ’il brt and ’il dn, which Cross takes as'ʼĒl of the covenant' and'ʼĒl the judge' respectively.
Amorite inscriptions from Sam'al refer to numerous gods, sometimes by name, sometimes by title by such titles as Ilabrat'God of the people', ʾil abīka "God of your father", ʾil abīni "God of our father" and so forth. Various family gods are recorded, divine names listed as belonging to a particular family or clan, sometimes by title and sometimes by name, including the name ʾil "God". In Amorite personal names, the most common divine elements are ʾil "God", Hadad/Adad, Dagan, it is that ʾil is very the god called in Akkadian texts Amurru or ʾil ʾamurru. For the Canaanites and the ancient Levantine region as a whole, Ēl or Il was the supreme god, the father of mankind and all creatures, he fathered many gods, most Hadad and Mot, each sharing similar attributes to the Greco-Roman gods: Zeus and Hades respectively. As recorded on the clay tablets of Ugarit, El is the husband of the goddess Asherah. Three pantheon lists found at Ugarit begin with the four gods ’il-’ib, Ēl, Ba’l Ṣapān. Though Ugarit had a large temple dedicated to Dagon and another to Hadad, there was no temple dedicated to Ēl.
Ēl is called again Tôru ` Ēl. He is bātnyu binwāti, ’abū banī ’ili, ‘abū ‘adami, he is qāniyunu ‘ôlam, the epithet ‘ôlam appearing in Hebrew form in the Hebrew name of God ’ēl ‘ôlam "God Eternal" in Genesis 21.33. He is ḥātikuka. Ēl is the grey-bearded ancient one, full of wisdom, malku, ’abū šamīma, ’El gibbōr. He is named lṭpn of unknown meaning, variously rendered as Latpan, Latipan, or Lutpani. "El" and his major son: "Hadad"
Nahash of Ammon
Nahash was the name of a king of Ammon, mentioned in the Books of Samuel in the Bible. Nahash appears abruptly as the attacker of Jabesh-Gilead, which lay outside the territory he laid claim to. Having subjected the occupants to a siege, the population sought terms for surrender, were told by Nahash that they had a choice of death or having their right eyes gouged out; the population obtained seven days' grace from Nahash, during which they would be allowed to seek help from the Israelites, after which they would have to submit to the terms of surrender. The occupants sought help from the people of Israel, sending messengers throughout the whole territory, Saul, a herdsman at this time, responded by raising an army which decisively defeated Nahash and his cohorts at Bezek; the strangely cruel terms given by Nahash for surrender were explained by Josephus as being the usual practice of Nahash. A more complete explanation came to light with the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls: although not present in either the Septuagint or masoretic text, an introductory passage, preceding this narrative, was found in a copy of the Books of Samuel among the scrolls found in cave 4: ahash, king of Ammonites would put hard pressure on the descendants of Gad and the descendants of Ruben and would gouge everyone’s right eye out, but no res would be provided for Israel and there was not left anyone among the children of Israel in the Tr whose right eye Nahash the king of Ammonites did not gouge out but be seven thousand men Ammonites and they arrived at besh Gilead.
About a month Nahash the Ammonite went up and besieged Jabesh-Gilead. In other words, Nahash had conquered the tribal lands of Gad and Reuben, a portion of the population had fled from him to Jabesh-Gilead, why he laid siege to it. Nothing more is told about Nahash in the Books of Samuel until his death, at the start of the reign of David, is mentioned. At this point, the narrative states that David sent a message of condolence to Hanun, the heir of Nahash, because Nahash had shown kindness to David. There is a tradition that when David had earlier entrusted his family to the King of Moab the latter slew the entire family, except for one of David's brothers who had escaped and found asylum with Nahash. Jerome suggested. However, Josephus claimed that Nahash was slain when the Ammonites were defeated by Saul, which would, if true, make the Nahash whose death David lamented a different person. There is a man named Nahash, described by 2 Samuel 17:27-29 as the father of Shobi, a man who aided David against Absalom.
The Jewish Encyclopedia argues that the father of Abigail, the king of the Ammonites, the father of Shobi, were the same individual, hence making Shobi and David, half-brothers. In consequence of this view, it would seem that Shobi shared his father's positive view of David, while Hanun, Shobi's brother and David's half-brother saw David as an enemy; however some Rabbis argued. Wellhausen on the other hand believed that the 2 Samuel 17:25 named Jesse as the father of Abigail, the current mention there of Nahash is a typographic error caused by the brevity of the letters for Jesse and the presence in verse 27 of the name Nahash; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Isidore. "Nahash". The Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls
Joab the son of Zeruiah, was the nephew of King David and the commander of his army, according to the Hebrew Bible. The name Joab is derived from Yahweh, the name of the God of Israel, the Hebrew word'av', meaning'father', it therefore means'Yahweh father'. Joab was the son of a sister of king David, who made him captain of his army, he had two brothers and Asahel. Asahel was killed by Abner in combat, for which Joab took revenge by murdering Abner in an ambush, against David's wishes and shortly after Abner and David had secured peace between the House of David and the House of Saul. After leading the assault on the fortress of Mount Zion, Joab was promoted to the rank of General, he led the army against Aram, Ammon and Edom. He colluded with David in the death of Uriah. Joab played a pivotal role as the commander of David's forces during Absalom's rebellion. Absalom, one of David's sons, rallied much of Israel in rebellion against David, forced to flee with only his most trusted men. However, David could not bring himself to harm his son, ordered that none of his men should kill Absalom during the ensuing battle.
However, when a man reported that Absalom had been found, caught in a tree and his men killed him. Hearing of David's grief over the reported death of Absalom, Joab admonished David; the king followed Joab's advice to make a public appearance to encourage his troops. David replaced him as commander of the army with his nephew, Amasa. Joab killed Amasa. Joab and other commanders began questioning David's judgment; as David neared the end of his reign, Joab offered his allegiance to David's eldest son, Adonijah rather than to the promised king, Solomon. On the brink of death, David told Solomon to have Joab killed citing Joab's past betrayals and the blood that he was guilty of, for this Solomon ordered his death by the hand of Benaiah. Hearing this, Joab told Benaiah that he would die there. Benaiah, as ordered by King Solomon, killed Joab in the House of Yahweh and replaced him as commander of the army. Joab was buried in'the wilderness'. According to Josephus, Joab did not kill Abner out of revenge, because he had forgiven him for the death of his brother, since Abner had slain Asahel honorably in combat after he had twice warned Asahel and had no other choice but to kill him out of self-defense.
If this was the case, the reason Joab killed Abner may have been that he became a threat to his rank of general, since Abner had switched to the side of David and granted him control over the tribe of Benjamin. Yet the narrative explicitly states that Joab killed Abner "to avenge the blood of his brother Asahel"; the ATS Bible Dictionary describes Joab as "a valiant warrior, an able general. Ut as a man he was imperious and unscrupulous". Joab in Rabbinic Literature This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George. "article name needed". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
Jesse, or Yishai is a figure described in the Bible as the father of David, who became the king of the Israelites. His son David is sometimes called "Son of Jesse"; the role as both father of King David and ancestor of Christ has been used in various depictions in art, e.g. as the Tree of Jesse or in hymns like Behold, a Branch is growing. According to the Bible, Jesse was the grandson of Ruth and of Boaz, he lived in Bethlehem, in Judah, was of the Tribe of Judah, he was a farmer and owner of sheep. He was a prominent resident of the town of Bethlehem. Jesse is important in Judaism, he is important in Christianity, in part because he is in the Old Testament and mentioned in the genealogy of Jesus. Rabbinic traditions name him as one of four ancient Israelites who died without sin, the other three being Benjamin and Amram; the Book of Samuel states that Jesse had eight sons, naming the first three as Eliab and Shammah, David as the youngest. The Book of Chronicles names seven sons of Jesse—Eliab, Shimea, Raddai and David—as well as two daughters and Abigail.
Among his grandchildren were the three sons of Zeruiah: Abishai and Asahel. One day the prophet Samuel came to Bethlehem sent by God. Ostensibly, his visit to Bethlehem was to offer a sacrifice to God, he used that excuse because he was afraid that King Saul might kill him if he suspected the true reason for his arrival in Bethlehem. Samuel offered a sacrifice with Jesse and went to his house, where he sanctified him and his family; the prophet asked Jesse to present his sons. When Samuel saw Eliab, Jesse's eldest son, he was impressed by his stature and convinced that he must be God's anointed king, however God said to Samuel, "Do not consider his appearance or his height, for I have rejected him; the Lord does not look at the things man. Man look at the outward appearance, but the Lord looks at the heart." When Jesse presented his second son, God told Samuel, "The Lord has not chosen this one either." This happened again with his third son, Shammah his fourth, fifth and seventh sons. Samuel enquired of Jesse if he had any other sons.
Jesse told him. The prophet asked for him and when he came, God asked the prophet to anoint him as king over Israel; some time Saul, suffering from depression and melancholy, asked Jesse for his son David to play the harp for him, since he had heard that David played the harp beautifully. Jesse sent his son along with some gifts for the King; the King was so taken with David's harp playing that he asked Jesse to keep him in his court to play for him whenever he was depressed. On Jesse sent his son David with gifts to be given to his older brothers who were to fight in the war against the Philistines in Saul's army. Years David fled to the desert away from Saul, who sought to kill David in order for him to stay in power and not have his throne be taken away from him. David, worried about the safety of his parents, went to Mizpah in Moab, to ask permission from the King to allow his father Jesse and his mother to stay under the royal protection of the King, they stayed there. The name Jesse is referenced in the Old Testament, in particular the passages of Isaiah, Chapter 11, Verses 1–3: 1.
And there shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, a branch shall grow out of his roots. 2. And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. 3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the Lord, he shall not decide by what his ears hear. In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the peoples; these are two of the verses regarded by Christians as prophecy of the advent of Jesus, whom they consider to be the Christ and Messiah. These two prophesies are regarded by Bahá'ís as referring to Bahá'u'lláh, alleged to have arisen from "the stump of Jesse"; these prophesies are regarded in Latter-Day Saint Movement about the coming Root of Jesse, an ensign who holds special priesthood keys and a gathering of the Lord's people. The Tomb of Ruth and Jesse is an old stone structure on a hilltop in Hebron which today serves as a synagogue, it receives numerous visitors every year on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot when the Book of Ruth is read.
The 1537 book Yihus HaAvos V'Neviim describes the tomb as "a handsome building up on the mount, where Jesse, the King David's father is buried." It includes a drawing of the site, notes an "ancient Israelite burial ground" nearby and Crusader courtyard. Rabbi Moshe Basola wrote in his travel journal that the site houses a cave which connects to the Tomb of Machpela, an assertion postulated by many over the years; the site was refurbished in 2009. List of people named Jesse Nitzevet Tree of Jesse Directory "Jesse" at behindthename.com Jesse the Patriarch at the Christian Iconography web site