Atatürk Mask, İzmir
The Atatürk Mask is a large concrete relief of the head of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder of modern Turkey, located to the south of Kadifekale the historical castle of İzmir at 38°24′22″N 27°08′46″E. It was completed in 2009; the Atatürk Mask, at 42 m high, is the highest relief sculpture in Turkey, the tenth highest relief sculpture in the world. It is built up over a scaffolding and not carved into the side of the mountain like Mount Rushmore in the United States. To be more specific, the monument is steel structure containing a space truss system; the mask that took three years to complete is higher than the Jesus Christ Statue in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. After being damaged by weather and climate, help was asked from trained mountain climbers with the repairs, because a crane is not able to access some locations of the monument
Karşıyaka is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey. The district extends for twelve kilometres along the northern and eastern coastline of the tip of the Gulf of İzmir, its centre is at a distance of 6 km to the north from the traditional centre of İzmir, Konak Square in Konak at the opposite coast. Karşıyaka's district area neighbours the district areas of Menemen to the north, Bornova to the east and Çiğli to the west. Besides being an active venue of commerce and educational actitivies and tourism, Karşıyaka has an urban culture centred on the sports club Karşıyaka SK, which commands a large and passionate fan base. Late created formations around Izmir consist of sandstone and limestone blocks some of which may be larger than several kilometers; such formations which are observed on hills around the region, are the main reasons for resistance on the hills. In addition to these, the community of neogen age can be estimated through the andesitic compounds of volcanic origin, around Mount Yamanlar.
Such units can be listed as silisium, sodium, lava with magnesium content and tuff stuffed lava agglomerates. The lava contains reddish brown and greenish gray large feldspar crystals. Neogen sedimentary rocks are made up of clay stone and pebble stones at dept while being made up only of limestone on the top. At some places clay stone is observed on limestone layers, it is possible to say that ground resistance is satisfactory in regions covered with limestone on top, while ground resistance is low in regions which has thin layers of limestone intercalated with mud rocks. Karşıyaka bears the general characteristics of the Mediterranean climate zone, it is hot in summer. As it is the case for İzmir's entire coastline, Karşıyaka benefits on a daily basis from the north-west wind called "imbat", because of which ships in the Gulf of İzmir will always be anchored in a northwest-southeast position, which cools the city during summer days; the industrial zone bringing together principally firms of local-scale, exception made of the notable presence of Alaybey shipyard are located in the eastern part of Karşıyaka.
The same eastern corner covers a zone of sparse settlement around the locality called Soğukkuyu a seaside village of semi-nomadic Turkmens made to settle here in the 19th century, to the north is a large forest area. Karşıyaka's centre is connected to İzmir's centre by a busy schedule of railways and commuter ferries, works for the extension of İzmir's underground line to Karşıyaka being carried out at a rapid pace, there are good road links to Menemen and Aliağa to the north, to reach Çanakkale in north-west Turkey, beyond. A hamlet a remote suburb of İzmir in the 19th century, Karşıyaka became much larger and grew in stature in the 1960s when its waterfront developed as a prosperous residential neighbourhood. Karşıyaka S. K. is the sports club of Karşıyaka. It is called "KSK", locally as Kaf Sin Kaf, following the initials in Arabic script since the club's past dates back to Ottoman times; the club has a large and passionate fan base. Karşıyaka supporters like to call the club "The 35 and a half", to differentiate themselves from Izmir that license plate number is 35.
Although its football team is presently in the second level of the Turkish football league system, it still represents İzmir's strongest bid for the Süper Lig. Karşıyaka S. K.'s basketball and volleyball branches, known as Pınar Karşıyaka and Karşıyaka Women's Volleyball Team, are leading contenders in their fields. Pınar Karşıyaka has won twice Turkish League, twice Turkish President's Cup and a Turkish Cup victory; the club has cue sports, motorcycle, sailing and swimming divisions. Karşıyaka have a fierce rivalry with Göztepe. Other rivalries are against Altay. District of Karşıyaka has hosted to 7th stage to finish of Tour of Turkey 2014 and Tour of Turkey 2015. Karşıyaka is associated with commerce, construction of residences and literature, is a prized area for pensioners, not only in the scale of İzmir but from across Turkey as a whole. A total of 220,000 residences make up the urban area and the average yearly increase of the district population is 2.3 per cent. The district area having been entirely built up, Karşıyaka today acts principally as a residential centre for the workforce of İzmir's industry and services, who commute for work to neighbouring Çiğli and Bornova, Alsancak across the gulf, or to locations further afield like Kemalpaşa and Manisa.
The share of agriculture and industry in its economy is in constant decrease, while Karşıyaka's tourism potential remains an open field. The waterfront is the wealthier part of Karşıyaka and it is here that residents of long date are concentrated; the neighbourhoods located along the slopes are poorer, with slum-type residences in parts, these continue receiving flows of immigration from Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region. The district counts a total of 11,570 enterprises, 207 of which are identified as industrial firms, 3,180 categorised under commerce. Nine industrial companies have full or partial foreign capital and 143 commercial establishments in Karşıyaka are registered exporters. There are eighteen banks providing services through 61 branches in Karşıyaka, a handful of hotels with a total bed capacity of 180. There is one doctor for 1,127 patients overall; the literacy rate is high at 92 per cent. An environment of urban consciousness favoured the fo
Bornova is a metropolitan district of İzmir in İzmir Province in Turkey. It is the third largest district in İzmir's Greater Metropolitan Area of and is fully urbanized at the rate of 98,6 per cent, with corresponding high levels of development in terms of industry and services. Bornova's center is situated at a distance of 8 km to the northeast from the traditional center of İzmir and 5 km from the coastline at the tip of the Gulf of İzmir to the west. Bornova district area is surrounded by the district areas of Manisa center and Menemen to the north, Kemalpaşa to the east, Buca to the south, Konak and Karşıyaka to the west, where the larger part of İzmir's urban area extends. Bornova is home to Ege University's main campus and for many at in Turkey Bornova's name is synonymous with the university's hospital, one of the largest and the foremost medical centers in western Turkey for decades. During the Ottoman period, Bornova was called "Birunabad" rendered as "Bournabad" or "Bournabat" in Western sources, although explanations as to how that name was composed vary.
A number of sources seek the explanation in the Persian and Ottoman Turkish term birun, which means "outer, exterior", abad being a suffix common to a number of cities across the Islamic world and which forms a place name when attached to the name of a person or to a proper name, such as Haydarabad or Islamabad. Although befitting a settlement outside a greater metropolitan zone, that the name "Birunabad" is based on an adjective in Bornova's case, makes an association with an earlier Byzantine name more likely. In fact, under the Byzantine and Nicean Empires the region was called "Prinobaris" and was notable for being a source of considerable revenues for the Haghia Sophia from its attached properties here, was for this reason alternatively known as "Hagiosophitike chora"; as such, Birunabad and now Bornova could be converted forms of this name. The recent discovery, within the boundaries of Bornova district, of Yeşilova Höyük, on which the fieldwork continues, seems to indicate that Bornova's alluvial plain, fed by several small streams, was the site of the first settlement by the Neolithic-Calcolithic inhabitants of the region across present-day İzmir's metropolitan area.
The municipality of Bornova was established in 1881 and the town became a district center in 1957. The incumbent mayor of İzmir Greater Metropolitan Municipality, Aziz Kocaoğlu, was the mayor of Bornova before taking over his present office for the city as a whole; the urban area is divided into 36 constituted and delimited neighborhoods. Several unofficial denominations for neighborhoods are in common use across İzmir and beyond to describe localities with determined centers but vague boundaries, such as Altındağ. Twelve small villages located in the forested uplands around Mount Yamanlar and with a cumulative population of 6,354 -as against the district total of 464,694-, depend Bornova prefecture. According to the estimates made by the Izmir Chamber of Commerce and other people visiting Bornova on a daily basis could account for an additional 300,000 to be cumulated with the district population. With a total bed capacity of only 400 across the district, most of, accounted by the suburb's single large hotel, the accommodation facilities are rather limited inside Bornova, the hotels in İzmir's center is preferred for a night's stay.
Despite that, visitors on a leisure tour are a common sight in Bornova's streets due to the town's historical center having been much in favor in the 19th century among İzmir's European and Levantine residents who left visible architectural traces, in the form of the Levantine mansions of İzmir. Indeed, Bornova used to be a summer residence for many foreign consuls and wealthy businessmen fleeing the stagnantly hot weather in central İzmir to seek the cooler breeze of the slopes of Mount Yamanlar, the departure point of Bornova in its beginnings; this move by diplomats and the rich was at the origin of the town's growth in the beginning of the 19th century, until which time Bornova used to be a small forestry village, recorded in Ottoman times principally in connection with the task of guarding the mountain passes leading to İzmir, assigned to its inhabitants in exchange of certain tax reliefs. Moves to Bornova during summer for a month or two had entered among the habits of İzmir's European/Levantine inhabitants since the preceding century, but while their rich opted to live here on a permanent basis, the city's Europeans/Levantines with more modest social conditions seem to have ceased to come to Bornova for the summer, by the 1820s.
The mansions and residences built in the 19th century, most of which reached our day, restored and in public or private use, are still named after the prestigious names of the former owners, such as Whittall, Paterson, Edwards, Pandespanian. There is a small Catholic Church named the "Church of Santa Maria" in the main square of Bornova and an Anglican chapel and Bornova Anglican Cemetery nearby, both dating from the 19th century, landmarks of Bornova's cosmopolitan past. Despite the obvious luxurious style of the residences they built, these new inhabitants did not always have lives in all comfort; the soar observed in the course of the 19th century in a particular form of brigandage, sometimes interpreted as a form of social resistance and associated with efe tradition and with the coastal strait along the Aegean Sea as well as its valleys reaching inland had Bornova as its frontier land. A number of notorious cases of kidnapping involving brigands and the owners of these residences and high demands of ransom occurred on a frequent basis for a
Buca is a district of İzmir Province of Turkey. It is one of the main districts of İzmir Metropolitan Municipality. Buca was one of the preferred settlement areas of İzmir's community of Levantines; the great mansions they built in the 19th century stand to this day, most of them restored. The district center is situated inland like the district of Bornova with which it shares important points in common, on the higher ground that commands the southern shores of the tip of the Gulf of İzmir. Buca existed from the Byzantine times and was inhabited by Greeks farmers. However, Buca started to develop as of the end of the 17th century when the French consulate in İzmir moved there following the 1676 plague and the 1688 Smyrna earthquake that shook İzmir's core as an international trade center, its rich Levantine residents who acquired the surrounding vineyards had Latin backgrounds, as opposed to those who came from Britain and who preferred Bornova. But in the case both of Bornova and of Buca, the concentration in terms of ethnic backgrounds was far from having an exclusive nature.
Yet, in 1770, following the failure of the Orlov Revolt, a revolt of the Greeks in today's Greece against the Ottoman occupation encouraged by the Russian Nobles Orlov in 1770, many Greeks from the revolted regions fled from Peloponnese, Chios and Kythira and settled in Buca, contributing to the growth of the place. In 1861, when the railway reached Buca from Smyrna, many rich Europeans from Smyrna built their summer houses in Buca. Yet, due to its substantial growth, Buca soon became a suburb of Smyrna and people started to stay there permanently. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were three Greek Orthodox churches, two Greek community schools as well as some private Greek schools while there were two private English schools, one catholic nonnes' school and one Capuchin monks school; the Greeks, together with other Christian inhabitants, constituted the majority of the local population, while Muslim population was small. However, Greek inhabitants were expulsed in 1922 and fled to Greece, where they named their new settlement "Neos Voutzas", close to Athens.
As a result, there are today only a Catholic and a Baptist church in service in Buca. Many of the 19th-century houses have been restored and are still being used either by public institutions or by private persons, although many still need care; the core area of Buca could preserve its traditional architectural tissue based on two-storey residences, while apartment blocks mushroomed in its extensions, as it is the case in all localities in Turkey which had to absorb immigration. There are a number of municipal parks, notably a vast ongoing project that comprises seven artificial lakes. Dokuz Eylül University, one of the two larger universities in İzmir, has its newly built main campus located in Buca, in the locality called Tınaztepe. While the university has dependencies scattered all over İzmir, it is associated with Buca, in the same way as the other large university, Ege University, is associated with Bornova; the hippodrome of İzmir is located in Buca, in the quarter named Şirinyer along the road to İzmir metropolitan center, the hippodrome is known under the name of this quarter.
Şirinyer area used to be called Kızılçullu, in reference to a legend according to which Tamerlane would have established his headquarters here during his 1402 siege of İzmir, Buca's Levantine population, who owned orchards and vineyards here, had named the area under the no less assumptive name of Paradiso. Çevik Bir, the retired Turkish general, the force commander of during the United Nations' Operation Restore Hope in Somalia and an influential figure in Turkey's politics and diplomacy in the 1990s, is from Buca and a public square is named after him. Cemil Şeboy Dokuz Eylül University Levantine mansions of Smyrna Metropolitan Municipality of Greater İzmir Dokuz Eylül University Dokuz Eylül University Forum Şirinyer Hippodrome page of Turkish Jockey Club
Konak is a district of İzmir Province in Turkey. It is one of the nine districts in the Greater Metropolitan Area of İzmir, the largest in terms of population and its core urban zone occupies a central position, administratively and within İzmir. Konak district area extends for 11.4 kilometres along the southern coastline of the Gulf of İzmir tip. A long panhandle that the district area draws in the direction of the southwest, on the other hand covers a large rural area covered with mountains and forests, two isolated villages. Konak district area neighbors the district areas of Bornova to the east, Balçova to the west and Buca and Gaziemir to the south, all of which are among İzmir's metropolitan districts. Konak center is connected to other districts of İzmir and beyond by a dense network of roads and railroads, as well as by a subway line being extended and by ferry services to Karşıyaka. Konak is a active hub of industry, trade and services, with the number of companies exceeding sixty thousand and its exports nearing two billion US Dollars in 2006.
The name "Konak" was used for İzmir's historic core neighborhood, as well as for its key central square. For example, Karşıyaka along the opposing northern shore did not always consider itself as an integral part of İzmir, or in any case, had marking specificities and points of rivalry. Administrative history of Konak started in 1983–1984 when the steps towards the constitution of a Metropolitan Municipality of İzmir, itself divided into districts, were taken. In 1987, the territory of former district of central İzmir of was renamed the district of Konak, the name İzmir implies the entire metropolitan area since then; the municipality of Konak came into effect in full terms in July 1988. Konak district area starts at the tip of the Gulf of İzmir and follows the southern shoreline, covering such prominent neighborhoods of İzmir as from east to west, Alsancak with its international freight and passenger port, Konak Square proper and Kemeraltı and Çankaya bazaar areas and Kültürpark, where İzmir International Fair is held behind it, Karataş, the former Jewish neighborhood marked by Asansör building, Göztepe, famous for its football team, among others, further along the coast towards the west, as well as the hillside zone behind these, notably the quarters of Eşrefpaşa and Hatay.
For both the metropolitan area and İzmir Province in general, Konak still represents the administrative nerve center, with the governorship, the offices of İzmir Metropolitan Municipality, the commercial areas, other important administrative and private headquarters being situated within the boundaries of Konak. The name konak itself means, inter alia, government house or official residence in Turkish and refers in the case of Konak, İzmir, to the residence built for the governor between 1869–1972 at the spot and as a replacement of the mansion of Katipzade, a family of notables who controlled the city and the region between 1750–1820; the new building was intended to emphasize the prestige acquired by a growing international trade center and its design and furnishings were luxurious. The building marked the move for the seat of the vilayet of Aydın to İzmir, initiated in 1865. In recent years, there is a move toward decentralization and shift to other districts of İzmir by official and private headquarters, notably with the building of a new and huge Hall of Justice in Bornova.
The core areas of Konak Square and Kemeraltı were formed with the filling in due course during the 17th century of the shallow inner bay of İzmir and immediate outer coastal reaches. Kemeraltı bazaar came into existence with the filling between 1650–1670 of the shallowest parts of the bay and the process of gaining ground from the sea bay was pursued progressively; the shoreline took its present form by the end of the 18th century in approximate terms, although some of the land along the berth remained unused till the mid-19th century. In 1829, Sarı Kışla, the Yellow Casern, the principal Ottoman casern of the city, gigantic for its time, was built at immediate sea-side, a private residence situated diagonally behind the casern was extended and converted into the governor's mansion, demarcating Konak Square that holds its name from the mansion, which in its turn gave the name to the central metropolitan district of İzmir, at the level of which Kemeraltı is considered to start; the Yellow Casern was demolished in 1955 under express instructions from the Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, who wanted to see Konak Square re-shaped, to the continuing regret of many Smyrniots who had come to adopt the oversize building as one of the main landmarks of their city.
Konak Square is still. The number of companies registered in Konak district was 58,199 in 2006. Exports realized by the district's companies reached 1,824,101,418 the same year. 26 banks are present across Konak district area and they provide services through 209 branches. 304,000 residential buildings make up Konak's settlement. It is notable to observe that, according to the figures provided by the prefecture, residential areas make up only around 10-15 per cent of Konak's urban zone, while a huge proportion of 75-80 per cent is classified as land being used for commercial and/or industrial purposes; the literacy rate is close to hundred per cent, a minimal two per cent ratio of illiteracy accounted for principally by new immigrants to the district. There are 23 students for each teacher, 2,085 patients for each doctor in Konak. While İzmir's univ
Hisar Mosque or Hisarönü Mosque is a historical Mosque in İzmir, Turkey. It has been recorded to have been constructed by Aydınoğlu Yakup Bey between 1592 and 1598; the 16th century Mosque is one of the biggest in the city centre and its interior contains one of the most striking examples of Ottoman Islamic artwork in İzmir. The Mosque has one main dome in the centre facing the entrance supported by eight large pillars along with three large domes on either side. There are three smaller domes at the back of the top; the courtyard has a series of seven domes on the sides. There is a şadırvanı overlooking the courtyard; the Mosque has been restored in 1813, 1881, 1927 and 1980 after damage
An elevator or lift is a type of vertical transportation device that moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel, or other structure. Elevators are powered by electric motors that drive traction cables and counterweight systems like a hoist, although some pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston like a jack. In agriculture and manufacturing, an elevator is any type of conveyor device used to lift materials in a continuous stream into bins or silos. Several types exist, such as the chain and bucket elevator, grain auger screw conveyor using the principle of Archimedes' screw, or the chain and paddles or forks of hay elevators. Languages other than English may lift; because of wheelchair access laws, elevators are a legal requirement in new multistory buildings where wheelchair ramps would be impractical. There are some elevators which can go sideways in addition to the usual up-and-down motion; the earliest known reference to an elevator is in the works of the Roman architect Vitruvius, who reported that Archimedes built his first elevator in 236 BC.
Some sources from historical periods mention elevators as cabs on a hemp rope powered by hand or by animals. In 1000, the Book of Secrets by al-Muradi in Islamic Spain described the use of an elevator-like lifting device, in order to raise a large battering ram to destroy a fortress. In the 17th century the prototypes of elevators were located in the palace buildings of England and France. Louis XV of France had a so-called'flying chair' built for one of his mistresses at the Chateau de Versailles in 1743. Ancient and medieval elevators used drive systems based on windlasses; the invention of a system based on the screw drive was the most important step in elevator technology since ancient times, leading to the creation of modern passenger elevators. The first screw drive elevator was built by Ivan Kulibin and installed in the Winter Palace in 1793. Several years another of Kulibin's elevators was installed in the Arkhangelskoye near Moscow; the development of elevators was led by the need for movement of raw materials including coal and lumber from hillsides.
The technology developed by these industries and the introduction of steel beam construction worked together to provide the passenger and freight elevators in use today. Starting in the coal mines, by the mid-19th century elevators were operated with steam power and were used for moving goods in bulk in mines and factories; these steam driven devices were soon being applied to a diverse set of purposes—in 1823, two architects working in London and Hormer, built and operated a novel tourist attraction, which they called the "ascending room". It elevated paying customers to a considerable height in the center of London, allowing them a magnificent panoramic view of downtown. Early, crude steam-driven elevators were refined in the ensuing decade; the elevator used a counterweight for extra power. The hydraulic crane was invented by Sir William Armstrong in 1846 for use at the Tyneside docks for loading cargo; these supplanted the earlier steam driven elevators: exploiting Pascal's law, they provided a much greater force.
A water pump supplied a variable level of water pressure to a plunger encased inside a vertical cylinder, allowing the level of the platform to be raised and lowered. Counterweights and balances were used to increase the lifting power of the apparatus. Henry Waterman of New York is credited with inventing the "standing rope control" for an elevator in 1850. In 1845, the Neapolitan architect Gaetano Genovese installed in the Royal Palace of Caserta the "Flying Chair", an elevator ahead of its time, covered with chestnut wood outside and with maple wood inside, it included a light, two benches and a hand operated signal, could be activated from the outside, without any effort on the part of the occupants. Traction was controlled by a motor mechanic utilizing a system of toothed wheels. A safety system was designed to take effect, it consisted of a beam pushed outwards by a steel spring. In 1852, Elisha Otis introduced the safety elevator, which prevented the fall of the cab if the cable broke, he demonstrated it at the New York exposition in the Crystal Palace in a dramatic, death-defying presentation in 1854, the first such passenger elevator was installed at 488 Broadway in New York City on 23 March 1857.
The first elevator shaft preceded the first elevator by four years. Construction for Peter Cooper's Cooper Union Foundation building in New York began in 1853. An elevator shaft was included in the design, because Cooper was confident that a safe passenger elevator would soon be invented; the shaft was cylindrical. Otis designed a special elevator for the building; the Equitable Life Building completed in 1870 in New York City was thought to be the first office building to have passenger elevators. However Peter Ellis, an English architect, installed the first elevators that could be described as paternoster elevators in Oriel Chambers in Liverpool in 1868; the first electric elevator was built by Werner von Siemens in 1880 in Germany. The inventor Anton Freissler developed the ideas of von Siemens and built up a successful enterprise in Austria-Hungary; the safety and speed of electric elevators were enhanced by Frank Sprague who added floor control, automatic elevators, acceleration control of cars, safeties.
His elevator ran faster and with larger loads than hyd