Ascenso MX is the second tier of professional football in Mexico of the Mexican football league system. The champion of the competition is promoted to Liga MX; the bottom team is relegated to Liga Premier. It is sponsored by BBVA through its Mexican subsidiary BBVA Bancomer, thus known as Ascenso BBVA MX. Known as Primera División A the league rebranded in 2009 its name and competition format to Liga de Ascenso, it was rebranded in 2012 as Ascenso MX. The major changes: clubs do not need a FMF certification to be promoted and that the competition no longer used group stages. In 1994, in order to create a premier league, the Mexican Football Federation decided to upgrade the Second Division to "Primera División A" to bring closer together the level of play in the two tiers and Primera A; the project was under the direction of José Antonio García Rodríguez, the president of the top-tier Primera Division. He envisioned the new division to be joined by the best teams of the Segunda and include teams from the United States.
FIFA did establish a new league with the best Segunda División sides. The inaugural 1994-1995 season began with 15 teams: Acapulco, Atlético Celaya, Atlético San Francisco, Atlético Yucatán, Caimanes de Tabasco, Coras de Tepic, Gallos de Aguascalientes, Halcones de Querétaro, Inter Tijuana, Reboceros de La Piedad, Pachuca, San Luis, Zacatepec. Cobras de Ciudad Juárez declined to participate due to financial problems. In 2006, the number of teams increased from 20 to 24, geographically separated into two groups for preliminary competition. In 2009, the major changes were: the name change from Primera División to Liga de Ascenso; the league was reduced to 17 teams and the groups were eliminated. Apertura 2010 had 18 teams participating. In 2012 the league was rebranded as Ascenso MX. In 2013 Alebrijes de Oaxaca was the 16th team of Ascenso MX. Alebrijes was formed by consolidating Segunda División side Tecamachalco which had won promotion to Ascenso MX in 2012, but did not fulfill infrastructural requirements set by the Mexican Football Federation.
In August 2013, Club Zacatepec was promoted to Ascenso MX in place of relegated Pumas Morelos. In Ascenso MX editions 2011–2016, no team was relegated to Segunda División de México Liga Premier de Ascenso. On June 6, 2016, returned to relegation to the Segunda División de México Liga Premier de Ascenso for the 2016–17 season. Loros UdeC and Murciélagos F. C. were relegated in the next two seasons. In 2018–19 season, Tampico Madero F. C. finished in the last place of the relegation table, but the team remained in Ascenso MX after paying a bail. 2019–20 season had 14 clubs competing. However, the Clausura 2020 tournament will have 12 teams competing due to the dissolution of Potros UAEM and Loros UdeC. † Teams in the Liga MX †† Teams in the Liga Premier ††† Teams in the Amateur Levels †††† Defunct teams BBVA México is the league's current sponsor, uses the brand name Ascenso BBVA MX. The official match ball is manufactured by Voit; the current managers in Ascenso MX are: † Teams in the Liga MX †† Teams in the Liga Premier ††† Teams in the Amateur Levels †††† Defunct teams Notes: 1976–77: Tampico Madero bought San Luis's spot in first division 1977–78: Deportivo Neza is bought Laguna and took its spot.
1981–82: Tampico Madero bought Atletas Campesinos and took over its spot 1983–84: Ángeles de Puebla bought Oaxtepec and took over its spot 1988–89: Tiburones Rojos de Veracruz bought Potros Neza and took over its spot 1992–93: U. T. Neza changes its name to Toros Neza 1998–99: Puebla bought U. D Curtidores and took over its spot 1999–00: Irapuato gained automatic promotion as they won both tournaments. 2001–02: Veracruz gained automatic promotion due to expansion in first division 2009-10: Necaxa gained automatic promotion as they won both tournaments. 2012–13: Veracruz bought La Piedad's spot in first division 2013–14: Zacatepec bought Cruz Azul Hidalgo's spot in Ascenso MX. 2017–18: Tapachula were not certified to be promoted to Liga MX. Official website
Iconography, as a branch of art history, studies the identification and the interpretation of the content of images: the subjects depicted, the particular compositions and details used to do so, other elements that are distinct from artistic style. The word iconography comes from the Greek εἰκών and γράφειν. A secondary meaning is the production or study of the religious images, called "icons", in the Byzantine and Orthodox Christian tradition; this usage, which many consider incorrect, is found in works translated from languages such as Greek or Russian, with the correct term being "icon painting". In art history, "an iconography" may mean a particular depiction of a subject in terms of the content of the image, such as the number of figures used, their placing and gestures; the term is used in many academic fields other than art history, for example semiotics and media studies, in general usage, for the content of images, the typical depiction in images of a subject, related senses. Sometimes distinctions have been made between iconology and iconography, although the definitions, so the distinction made, varies.
When referring to movies, genres are recognizable through their iconography, motifs that become associated with a specific genre through repetition. Early Western writers who took special note of the content of images include Giorgio Vasari, whose Ragionamenti, interpreting the paintings in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, reassuringly demonstrates that such works were difficult to understand for well-informed contemporaries. Lesser known, though it had informed poets and sculptors for over two centuries after its 1593 publication, was Cesare Ripa's emblem book Iconologia. Gian Pietro Bellori, a 17th-century biographer of artists of his own time and analyses, not always many works. Lessing's study of the classical figure Amor with an inverted torch was an early attempt to use a study of a type of image to explain the culture it originated in, rather than the other way round. Iconography as an academic art historical discipline developed in the nineteenth-century in the works of scholars such as Adolphe Napoleon Didron, Anton Heinrich Springer, Émile Mâle all specialists in Christian religious art, the main focus of study in this period, in which French scholars were prominent.
They looked back to earlier attempts to classify and organise subjects encyclopedically like Cesare Ripa and Anne Claude Philippe de Caylus's Recueil d'antiquités égyptiennes, étrusques, grècques, romaines et gauloises as guides to understanding works of art, both religious and profane, in a more scientific manner than the popular aesthetic approach of the time. These early contributions paved the way for encyclopedias and other publications useful in identifying the content of art. Mâle's l'Art religieux du XIIIe siècle en France translated into English as The Gothic Image, Religious Art in France of the Thirteenth Century has remained continuously in print. In the early-twentieth century Germany, Aby Warburg and his followers Fritz Saxl and Erwin Panofsky elaborated the practice of identification and classification of motifs in images to using iconography as a means to understanding meaning. Panofsky codified an influential approach to iconography in his 1939 Studies in Iconology, where he defined it as "the branch of the history of art which concerns itself with the subject matter or meaning of works of art, as opposed to form," although the distinction he and other scholars drew between particular definitions of "iconography" and "iconology", has not been accepted, though it is still used by some writers.
In the United States, to which Panofsky immigrated in 1931, students such as Frederick Hartt, Meyer Schapiro continued under his influence in the discipline. In an influential article of 1942, Introduction to an "Iconography of Mediaeval Architecture", Richard Krautheimer, a specialist on early medieval churches and another German émigré, extended iconographical analysis to architectural forms; the period from 1940 can be seen as one where iconography was prominent in art history. Whereas most iconographical scholarship remains dense and specialized, some analyses began to attract a much wider audience, for example Panofsky's theory that the writing on the rear wall in the Arnolfini Portrait by Jan van Eyck turned the painting into the record of a marriage contract. Holbein's The Ambassadors has been the subject of books for a general market with new theories as to its iconography, the best-sellers of Dan Brown include theories, disowned by most art historians, on the iconography of works by Leonardo da Vinci.
Technological advances allowed the building-up of huge collections of photographs, with an iconographic arrangement or index, which include those of the Warburg Institute and the Index of Medieval Art at Princeton. These are now being digitised and made available online on a restricted basis. With the arrival of computing, the Iconclass system, a complex way of classifying the content of images, with 28,000 classification types, 14,000 keywords, was developed in the Netherlands as a standard classification for recording collections, with the idea of assembling huge databases that will allow the retrieval
All Hell Breaks Loose is the debut studio album by hard rock band Black Star Riders, released in May 2013. Black Star Riders evolved from the touring version of Thin Lizzy, assembled by guitarist Scott Gorham after the death of Thin Lizzy's leader Phil Lynott. Black Star Riders formed in December 2012, when members of the most recent line-up of Thin Lizzy decided to record new material, but chose not to release it under the Thin Lizzy name. In May 2010, Gorham announced the latest incarnation of the group, which had toured sporadically with various line-ups since 1996, after Lynott's death in 1986; as the band toured throughout 2011 and 2012, they composed new material for possible release as a Thin Lizzy studio album, demos were recorded in June 2012. In October 2012, it was announced that the new material would not be recorded under the Thin Lizzy name, that a new band name would be used for the new songs. According to Gorham, this was "out of respect to Phil Lynott and the legacy he created", though he confirmed that the new material would feature the classic Thin Lizzy sound.
He confirmed that the decision was taken by himself and Thin Lizzy drummer Brian Downey, with the support of the other members of the band, that the Thin Lizzy estate had been uncomfortable about new Thin Lizzy studio recordings. Vocalist Ricky Warwick acknowledged that a portion of Thin Lizzy fans were against the idea of Thin Lizzy studio recordings without Lynott. With a line-up consisting of Gorham, other Thin Lizzy touring members Damon Johnson and Marco Mendoza, experienced drummer Jimmy DeGrasso, Black Star Riders recorded their debut album during January 2013 with producer Kevin Shirley. Fifteen songs were recorded, composed by Johnson with Warwick providing the lyrics, with input from Gorham and Thin Lizzy keyboard player Darren Wharton. Twelve tracks were used for the album, including one bonus track for a special edition CD; this special edition CD includes a DVD outlining the process of making the album. Recording was completed on 20 January, the photography for the album and promotional material was completed at that time, with American music photographer Robert John.
Shirley mixed the album in February 2013. Warwick confirmed that the recording process was simple, with few overdubs, minimal use of Pro Tools and no use of Auto-Tune; the lead vocals were recorded along with the band using a'live-in-the-studio' method. Regarding the title of the album, Warwick revealed: "I was watching a documentary about World War II bombers and saw the name painted on the side of one of the aircraft; the name just resonated with me and it seem to encapsulate the turmoil that we, as a society, are experiencing. The past few years have been such a wild ride and now with the release of the album, it sounded like a bad-ass album title that summed up what Black Star Riders is all about." The cover art features a painting of a girl by Gil Elvgren. The first single was "Bound for Glory", which received its first airplay on 21 March, on Ken Bruce's mid-morning show on BBC Radio 2 in the UK; the single was released on 24 March, with Gorham stating: "When it came time to pick one of these songs as a single, we had a hard time.
There are so many great tracks here and everyone had their favourites. But in the end, we all agreed that "Bound for Glory" is the perfect choice and represents what Black Star Riders is all about." Warwick added that Gorham was not keen on the song as he thought it sounded too much like Thin Lizzy, that it had not been demoed with the full band. During recording and Johnson came up with the harmony guitar line that features in the song, he explained that the character'Johnny Wong' in the song was named after the proprietor of a Chinese restaurant in Plymouth visited by Gorham and Mendoza. The girl named'Mary' in second verse was based upon an ex-girlfriend of Warwick's, who had a poster of Phil Lynott on her wall. Warwick intended the line "Elvis in the backroom and Jesus on the wall" to mention Lynott, but Gorham asked him to change it. Ricky Warwick – vocals, guitar Scott Gorham – lead guitar, rhythm guitar Damon Johnson – lead guitar, rhythm guitar Marco Mendoza – bass guitar Jimmy DeGrasso – drums, percussion The album met positive reviews, with Allmusic critic Thom Jurek praising its "classic hard rock attack" and the "trademark twin guitar sound of" Thin Lizzy.
He cited it as an album filled "naturally with creativity and inspiration". New Noise Magazine critic Brandon Ringo noted that the name change suited the band, however " so good, it doesn’t matter what they call it, it’s a fantastic rock n’ roll record". Sputnikmusic and The Guardian's Michael Hann were less enthusiastic in their reviews, with the former claiming it "isn't fantastic" and sounds "generic" in places, the latter stating the songs were "not always scaling the heights". Scott Gorham won the Riff Lord Award at the 2013 Metal Hammer Golden Gods Awards ceremony for his work on the album