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Asclepeion

Asclepeions were healing temples located in ancient Greece, dedicated to Asclepius, the first doctor-demigod in Greek mythology. Asclepius was said to have been such a skilled doctor that he could raise people from the dead. So stemming from the myth of his great healing powers, pilgrims would flock to temples built in his honor in order to seek spiritual and physical healing. Asclepeions included controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing. Treatment at these temples centered around promoting healthy lifestyles, with a particular emphasis on a person’s spiritual needs. Characteristic of the Asclepeion was the practice of incubatio known as'temple sleep.' This was a process by which patients would go to sleep in the temple with the expectation that they would be visited by Asclepius himself or one of his healing children in their dream. During this time, they would be told what it is that they needed to do in order to cure their ailment.

At the least, they would wake up having not been directly visited by a deity and instead report their dream to a priest. The priest would interpret the dream and prescribe a cure a visit to the baths or a gymnasium; the preliminary treatment for admission into the Asclepions was purification. It consisted of a series of cleansing baths and purgations, accompanied by a cleansing diet, which lasted several days. Despite these methods being regarded as ‘faith healing,’ they were effective, as is evident by the numerous written accounts by patients attesting to their healing and providing detailed accounts of their cure. In the Asclepeion of Epidaurus, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there; some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, with the patient in a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis", not unlike anesthesia, induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium.

Asclepeions became home to future physicians as well. Hippocrates is said to have received his medical training at an asclepeion on the isle of Kos. Prior to becoming the personal physician to the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Galen treated and studied at the famed asclepeion at Pergamon. In Greek mythology and religion, Asclepius was the Grecian God of Medicine - descendant of the Greek God Apollo and mortal Coronis, his name means, "to cut open". It is said that he was so named as a result of his mother's childbirth experience, during which time her womb had to be cut open in order for Asclepius to be born. All traditional cultures have some personification of the Divine Healer or miracle working physician; the ancient Greeks had the god of medicine. In Homer's Iliad, Asclepius was a physician to soldiers wounded on the battlefield at Troy, but by Hippocrates' day, he had become elevated to the status of a god. Asclepius’ father Apollo was himself a patron god of medicine, it was through Apollo that the wise and peaceful centaur, learned the art of healing.

Under Apollo’s mentorship, Chiron grew in his craft so much so that Apollo himself entrusted Chiron to train his son, Asclepius. Through his studies, Asclepius became so deft at medicine the art of surgery, that he was able to return the living from the dead, his abilities drew attention and jealousy from the other gods. As one story goes, Asclepius was killed by Zeus at the request of Hades, the god of the underworld, who feared Asclepius was stealing souls away from him. Before his death, Asclepius had several children, including: Machaon, Podalirius and Panacea, who themselves were regarded as effective healers. Starting around 350 BC, the cult of Asclepius became popular, he was admired for serving people despite their class and social status, not a common practice by Olympians. Doctors claiming to be the direct descendants of Asclepius referred to themselves as “Asclepiads.” Asclepius is further survived in modern times with the symbol of a snake wrapped around a staff, seen throughout all medical infrastructures as well as the American Medical Association in modern times, is reminiscent of the staff that Asclepius carried.

Over 300 asclepieia have been discovered throughout ancient Greece. Among the most famous of the temples were Trikke, island of Kos, Athens and Pergamon; these temples were located in secluded locations surrounded modern spas or mountain sanatoriums. Characteristic of these temples were the presence of dogs and nonvenomous snakes, known as Aesculapian snake, who would frequent the halls and dormitories and who played an important role in healing activities. Asclepius may first have been worshipped as a hero in Trikka, Greece. Ancient mythographers regarded Trikka as the place of Asclepius' birth, but to date archaeological excavations have yet to uncover his sanctuary there. Epidaurus, on the other hand, was the first place to worship Asclepius as a god, beginning sometime in the 5th century BC; the asclepeion at Epidaurus is both well preserved. There is an asclepeion located on the south slopes of the Acropolis of Athens which dates to around 420 BC. Located on the Argolid plain of the east Peloponnese in Greece, Epidaurus was the main asclepeion.

The healing temple was named after the son of Apollo. At t

Rommel: The Desert Fox

Rommel: The Desert Fox is a 1950 biography of German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel by Desmond Young. The book was the first biography of Rommel and enjoyed immense popularity in Britain; the book led the Western Allies the British, to depict Rommel as the "good German" and "our friend Rommel", contributing to the formation of the Rommel myth. Young was once taken prisoner by Rommel's troops. Young extensively interviewed Rommel's widow and collaborated with several individuals, close to Rommel, including Hans Speidel, with the support of British journalist and historian Basil Liddell Hart. Speidel, Rommel's former chief of staff, had written in 1946 that he planned to turn Rommel into "the hero of the German people" and a role model for them. Rommel was a suitable candidate, since his suicide following the failed 20 July plot had led to the assumption that he had opposed Nazism. Young subscribed to this view, subtly conveying that Rommel served the regime but was not part of it; the Desert Fox met with enthusiastic reception in Britain.

Following publication, Rommel's former British opponents described Rommel as a brilliant commander and a resistance fighter, with one senior military figure comparing Rommel to legendary commander Belisarius. The book was not without its detractors. A review in Time magazine noted the legendary status Rommel had achieved in his lifetime and quoted another review that described Rommel as "the British army's favorite German general"; the Time reviewer concluded that the book was "just this side of hero worship" and, quoting Labour politician Ernest Bevin, alluded to it being an example of the "trade union of generals" in action. Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck wrote a foreword to the book honouring Rommel "as a soldier and a man", Field Marshal Archibald Wavell included him "among the chosen few, among the brave, the true." The reviewer noted Young's obvious admiration for the German generals and remarked that the book may well "have been written by ". Writing in The Daily Telegraph, under the title "Rommel: A Flattering and Unconvincing Portrait", the conservative journalist Malcolm Muggeridge wrote that the 1951 movie based on the book represented "a tendency towards collective schizophrenia whereas'chivalry' towards a captured brigadier is in no wise incompatible with a foreign policy of perfidy and the brutal disregard for all the elementary decencies of civilised behaviour".

Richard Crossman, a Labour MP, objected to the portrayal of Rommel as an anti-Nazi, writing: As a nation, we deceive ourselves into believing that there are two sorts of Germans—the Good German and the Bad German. The "Bad Germans" are Nazis, anti-democratic, perpetrators of atrocities; the "Good Germans" are real gentlemen. Ergo, since Rommel was a clean fighter, he must have been anti-Nazi, men like him would make good allies of democracy against the Russians; the historian Hugh Trevor-Roper commented that "the danger now is not that'our friend Rommel' is becoming not a magician or a bogy-man, but too much of a hero". He pointed out Rommel's early proximity to Hitler and described Rommel as representative of the Wehrmacht officer corps' support for "Hitler's politics and Hitler's war"; the 1951 movie The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel, based on Young's biography, portrayed Rommel sympathetically, as a loyal, humane soldier and a firm opponent to Hitler's policies. The movie exaggerated Rommel's disputed role in the conspiracy against Hitler, while omitting Rommel's early association with the dictator.

Critical and public reception in the US was muted, but the movie was a success in Britain, along with a less-known 1953 movie The Desert Rats, in which Mason reprised his portrayal of Rommel. Patrick Major argues; the British popular history focused on the fighting in that theatre to the exclusion of all others. He states that The Desert Fox had a "catalytic effect" in creating an image of the German military that would be acceptable to the British public; the film received nearly universally positive reviews in Britain, while protests at the cinemas broke out in Vienna and Milan. Liddell Hart watched the movie with a group of high-ranking British officers and reported being "pleasantly surprised"; the Rommel myth refers to a view that Rommel was an apolitical, brilliant commander and a victim of the Third Reich due to his participation in the 20 July plot against Adolf Hitler. The myth was created, with Rommel's participation, as a component of Nazi propaganda to praise the Wehrmacht and instill optimism in the German public.

Starting in 1941, it was picked up and disseminated in the West by the British press as the Allies sought to explain their apparent inability to defeat the Axis forces in North Africa. British military and political figures contributed to the Rommel myth by embracing the heroic image portrayed by German propaganda as Rommel resumed his offensive in January 1942 against British forces weakened by re-deployments to the Far East. Speaking before Parliament, Winston Churchill addressed the British defeats and described Rommel as an "extraordinary bold and clever opponent" and a "great field commander". Following the war, the Western Allies the British, depicted Rommel as the "good German" and "our friend Rommel", his reputation for conducting a clean war was used to advance West German rearmament and the Federal Republic of Germany's reconciliation with

Richard Schaefer

Richard Schaefer is a Swiss professional boxing promoter. He was the former CEO of Golden Boy Promotions, which he left in 2014. In 2016 he founded his own boxing promotional company Ringstar Sports. Schaefer grew up in Switzerland, he is a Swiss national. Upon graduation from the Swiss Banking School, a division of the Swiss Finance Institute, he became manager of the Swiss Bank office in Los Angeles in 1994. Two years Swiss Bank took over UBS; the surviving entity was UBS. Schaefer was placed in charge of operations for the western United States. In 1997, he was named deputy CEO of all UBS private banking operations in the United States. At the time, UBS oversaw two trillion dollars in assets with private banking at the core, he stunned his wife and three kids and gave up banking in 2000 to join Oscar De La Hoya's fledgling business organization, to help the young boxer "build up a business empire." Schaefer first focused on the business of managing fighters, but soon switched tracks to the more lucrative event promotion business, lining up deals for the several major boxing matches for the past 15 years.

More Schaefer has branched out into real estate. Schaefer has other links to Hispanic culture as well: His wife is from Mexico. In 2016, Schaefer founded his own boxing. Schaefer announced the World Boxing Super Series in March 2017. Golden Boy Promotions Boxrec Promoting Record