Tewodros II was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death in 1868. He was born Kassa Hailegiorgis, his rule is placed as the beginning of modern Ethiopia, ending the decentralized Zemene Mesafint. Tewodros II's origins were in the Era of the Princes, but his ambitions were not those of the regional nobility, he sought to reform its administration and church. He sought to restore Solomonic hegemony, he considered himself the Elect of God. Tewodros II's first task was to bring Shewa under his control. During the Era of the Princes, Shewa was more than most provinces, an independent entity, its ruler styling himself Negus, a royal title denoting monarchy. In the course of subduing the Shewans, Tewodros imprisoned a Shewan prince, Menelik II, who would become emperor himself. Despite his success against Shewa, Tewodros faced constant rebellions in other provinces, he committed suicide at the Battle of Magdala, during the British Expedition to Abyssinia. In the first six years of his reign, the new ruler managed to put down these rebellions, the empire was peaceful from about 1861 to 1863, but the energy and manpower necessary to deal with regional opposition limited the scope of Tewodros's other activities.
Tewodros II never realized his dream of restoring a strong monarchy, although he took many important initial steps. He sought to establish the principle that judges must be salaried appointees, he established a professional standing army, rather than depending on local lords to provide soldiers for his expeditions. He introduced the collection of books in the form of a library, tax codes, as well as a centralized political system with respective administrative districts, he intended to reform the church but he was confronted by strong opposition when he tried to impose a tax on church lands to help finance government activities. His confiscation of these lands gained him enemies in the church and little support elsewhere. Tewodros was a talented military campaigner. Kassa was the son of a Christian nobleman of the Qwara district of the province of Dembiya named Hailegiorgis Woldegiorgis, his paternal grandfather, Dejazmatch Woldegiorgis, was a respected figure of his time. Dembiya was part of the large territory known as Ye Maru Qemas, or "the taste of the honey".
It was the personal fief of Dejazmach Maru, a powerful warlord, relative of Kassa Hailu. Kassa's mother, Woizero Atitegeb Wondbewossen, was of the upper nobility, was from Sayint, her mother Woizer Tishal was a member of a noble family of Begemder, while her paternal grandfather, Ras Wodajo, was a powerful and influential figure. Tewodros II, in his reign, claimed that his father was descended from Emperor Fasilides by way of a daughter; when Kassa was young, his parents divorced and Woizero Atitegeb moved back to Gondar taking her son with her. Not long after their departure, news reached them. Popular legend states that Kassa's paternal relatives split up the entire paternal inheritance, leaving young Kassa and his mother with nothing and in dire circumstances financially. In these hard times, his enemies came with a saying that his mother, Woizero Atitegeb, was reduced to selling "Kosso", a native herbal remedy used to purge patients of intestinal worms. There is no evidence that Woizero Atitegeb was a Kosso seller, several writers such as have stated outright that it was a false rumor spread by her detractors.
Evidence indicates that Woizero Atitegeb was well to do, indeed had inherited considerable land holdings from her own illustrious relatives to lead a comfortable life. Kassa's youth was not lived lavishly, but he was far from a pauper. Kassa was sent to school between Gondar and Lake Tana. In this asylum he took refuge until it was sacked by a defeated Galla chief named Dejazmatch Maru, who by burning and cutting to pieces children, took cowardly vengeance on their victories parents! Kassa escaped and fled to the protection of his kinsman, Dejazmatch Kenfu his uncle but believed to be his half-brother, he became familiar with the Bible and Ethiopian literature. For his time, Kassa was a well-educated man, he received instruction on the techniques of Ethiopian warfare from Kenfu. When Kenfu died, his two sons were defeated by another Dajazmach, Dajazmach Goshu of Damot and Gojjam, Kassa was forced to make another start in life, offered his services to Goshu. Kassa Hailu was born into a country rife with civil war, he defeated many regional noblemen and princes before becoming emperor during time known as the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of the Princes".
During this era, regional princes, noble lords of diverse ethnic and religious backgrounds vied with each other for power and control of the Gondarine Emperor. A puppet Emperor of the Solomonic dynasty was enthroned in Gondar by one nobleman, only to be dethroned and replaced by another member of the Imperial dynasty when a different regional prince was able to seize Gondar and the reins of power. Regions such as Gojjam and Shewa were ruled by their own branches of the Imperial dynasty and, in Shewa, the local prince went as far as assuming the title of King. In Wollo, competing royal powerful Or
Qene known as Säm əna Wärq is a unique style of poetry from Ethiopia, rich and deep in meaning, which demands critical thinking and analysis of the poetry to understand its meaning. It demands having not only a strong Amharic, Tigrigna, or Ge’ez vocabulary, but familiarity with the culture from where the particular poem originates or the background against which it was written, it is believed. Since most of Saint Yared’s works are based on the Bible, thus it can be assumed that the Bible is the original source of Qəne composition; some parts of the Bible such as the Psalms and the Song of Songs are written in poetry form. Some books of the Bible such as the Song of Songs and the teachings of Jesus use a lot of metaphorical and allegorical language similar to the Säm əna Wärq mode of Qəne. Saint Yared’s non-sparing use of the content and style of the Bible helped in making his compositions acceptable and popular; some of his compositions are still used as prayers in their original form. Although Saint Yared was the earliest composer of Qəne, he does not appear to have set the forms and meters for the genre.
There are, in fact, several possible candidates deemed responsible. One possibility lies with Qəne scholars during the reign of Emperor Eskender - Hawira, Eskendera and Abidira. Another explanation – referred to as the Wadla claim – attributes it to an early 15th-century scholar from Wadla named Yohannəs Geblawi, and there is the Gonj claim - attributing the deed to a certain Täwanäy who flourished after the 15th century. Täwanäy is alleged to have learned his Qəne alongside Wäldä Mariam from a certain Eliab, who in turn learned it from alongside Lehib from Sämrä Ab, who in turn learned it from Yohannəs Geblawi. Oral traditions mention a certain Däqä Est’ifa as the scholar responsible for setting the meters for Qəne. Däqä Est’ifa is alleged to have acquired seven crafts from Greece - six having to do with magic, the seventh Qəne - and returned to Ethiopia during the reign of Emperor Bä'edä Mariam, he is said to have taught the seventh craft to Prince Eskinder, Menkera and another Eskinder. Däqä Est’ifa was quite popular at his former pupil Emperor Eskinder's court.
One tradition claims he seduced the Emperor's wife and used one of his other crafts to vanish with her. Shortly thereafter, the Emperor set fire to the house Däqä Est’ifa and the Empress were hiding in. However, Däqä Est’ifa used another of his crafts to again disappear with his lover - and is said to still roam the island. Yohannəs Geblawi, in contrast to Däqä Est’ifa's worldly crafts, is said to have acquired his Qəne during a spiritual meditation. Yohannəs was born at Geblon in Wadla, flourished at the time of Emperor Zar'a Yacob, he and is said to have taught near Mount Tabor at Amara Saynt. Yohannes taught Qəne to the monk Aba Wäldä Gabriel. Sämrä Kristos is said to have given Emperor Bä'edä Mariam Qəne lessons, he taught Lehib and Eliab, the latter of whom taught Qəne to Täwanäy and Dədəq Wäldä Mariam. Emperor Be'ede Mariam was so taken by the art of Qəne that he is said, on the advice of his teacher Sämrä Kristos, to have gone into a week-long meditation to determine its origin; the answer was revealed to him on the festival of the changing of water unto wine, when he composed the following Qəne by divine inspiration, ድህረ ተሰብረ አጽንኦ ለሰብእናን ንሁክት ለብሃዊ ክርስቶስ በማየ ሃዲስ ጥምቀት፡፡ After man's strength was shattered with grief, Christ the potter remade him with baptism.
As Be'ede Mariam's Qəne was composed during a gathering at the festival of Qana ZeGelila, its form and meter has been known as Gubaʾe Qana. Sämrä Kristos was said to have composed a Zäʾämlakəye Qəne, after which the Emperor composed a Mibäzhu Qəne - the tradition claims. One tradition claims Täwanäy as Däqä Est’ifa's student. However, Däqä Est’ifa flourished during the reign of Emperor Eskender - a period when third generation disciples of Yohannes Geblawi taught; this casts into doubt the alleged role of Däqä Est’ifa as the originator of Qəne - as the line of Yohannes Geblawi would have precedence. Furthermore, the more than fifty years that span between Däqä Est’ifa and Täwanäy would make it hard to take the latter as a disciple. Moreover, other accounts put Täwanäy's time at the early 18th century. Accordingly, along the Qəne line of Yohannes Geblawi, Sämrä Ab taught Eliab. Eliab, in turn, taught Täwanäy. Tradition holds that due to unfavorable conditions caused by the wars of Ahmad Gragn, Dədəq Wäldä Mariam and Täwanäy formed two separate Qəne styles - the Wadla and the Gonj schools, respectively.
Another interesting tradition holds that both disciples made the trip to Däq Island to further their knowledge. While Dədəq Wäldä Mariam chanced upon mystical teachers that helped him further his Qəne, Täwanäy had no such luck. Instead, he fell into the carnal snares of mystical women; when he turned into an eagle and tried to fly away, they would stone him. When he turned into a worm to wiggle his way off the island, they would turn into chickens and peck at him, he managed to escape by turning into a flea and attaching himself to a sack of Gesho leaves destined for sale on the mainland! The notion of Täwanäy as the disciple of Däqä Est’ifa stems from his legendary exploits at Däq Island; the same tradition claims that by the time Täwanäy escaped from Däq, he had only retained a fraction of what Eliab had taught him. Hence, the Gonj school of Qəne associated with Täwanäy stres
The Awash is a major river of Ethiopia. Its course is contained within the boundaries of Ethiopia and empties into a chain of interconnected lakes that begin with Lake Gargori and end with Lake Abbe on the border with Djibouti, some 100 kilometres from the head of the Gulf of Tadjoura, it is the principal stream of an endorheic drainage basin covering parts of the Amhara and Somali Regions, as well as the southern half of the Afar Region. According to Huntingford, in the 16th century the Awash river was called the great Dir river and lay in the country of the Muslims; the Awash rises south of Mount Warqe, west of Addis Ababa in the woreda of Dandi, close to the town of Ginchi, West Shewa Zone, Oromia. After entering the bottom of the Great Rift Valley, the Awash flows south to loop around Mount Zuqualla in an easterly northeasterly direction, before entering Koka Reservoir. There, water is used for the irrigation of sugar cane plantations. Downstream, the Awash is passing the city of the Awash National Park.
It is joined on its left bank by its chief affluent, the Germama River, before turning northeast at 11° N 40° 30' E as far north as 12° before turning east to reach lake Gargori. According to materials published by the Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency, the Awash River is 1200 kilometers long. Frank Richardson Cana, in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition article Abyssinia, describes its middle portion as "a copious stream nearly 200 feet wide and 4 feet deep in the dry season, during the floods rising 50 or 60 feet above low-water mark, thus inundating the plains for many miles along both its banks."Other tributaries of the Awash include: the Logiya, Borkana, Hawadi and Durkham Rivers. Towns and cities along its course include Metehara, Awash and Asaita. Humans have lived in the valley of the Awash since the beginning of the species; the Middle Awash has been. The valley of the Awash from about 9 °; the valley of the Awash have been included as part of the territories of the historic provinces or kingdoms of Dawaro, Fatagar and Shewa.
Except for Shewa, these provinces disappeared with the arrival of groups of the Oromo in the 16th century. The first European to trace the course of the Awash to its end in the Aussa oasis was Wilfred Thesiger in 1933/1934, who started at the city of Awash, followed the river's course to its final end in Lake Abhebad, continued his expedition east to Tadjoura. In 1960, the Koka Dam was completed across the Awash River at a point around 75 kilometers from Addis Ababa. With its opening, it became a major source of hydroelectric power in the area; the resulting freshwater lake, Lake Gelila, has an area of about 180 square kilometers. Both lake and dam are threatened by increasing sedimentation; the Awash International Bank is named for the Awash River. The climate of the Awash River Basin is inﬂuenced by the movement of the intertropical convergence zone. During its movement northwards in March/April and its retreat southwards, ITCZ creates two rainy seasons, a shorter one around March, a longer one between June and September, which fall into one longer rainy season.
The rain-season tends to be bimodal towards eastern Ethiopia and unimodal towards western Ethiopia. The time between October and March is a dry season, called'Bega'. Semi-arid to arid conditions prevail in the Rift Valley. In contrast, the highlands receive more than 1600 mm of rainfall in ca. six months per year. Groundwater recharge varies between values exceeding 350 mm per year in the upper highlands and no recharge at the bottom of the rift valley. Groundwater is predominantly recharged at the escarpments and highlands above 1900 m a.s.l. where annual rainfall is higher than 1000 mm. Localized small-scale recharge is supposed to occur at the flanks of the rift valley volcanoes. Artificial groundwater recharge takes further place at irrigated plantations at the rift valley. Recharge from river channel losses and via infiltration from lakes plays a role in the Main Ethiopian Rift and in southern Afar; the dominating vegetation in the Awash Basin is part of the Seasonal Tropics ecozone. At high altitudes this ecozone forms individual humid alpine microclimates.
The Tropical Arid Lands ecozone predominates at low levels in the Rift. Primary vegetation underlies a strong anthropogenic impact. All over the upper and central Awash Basin, remains of different Savanna types are still visible, they range from thorn savannas in the lower rift, bush and open savannas above 800 m and woody savannas on the escarpments and the highlands. Forestry hardly exists inside the Awash River Basin, with a few exceptions of small eucalyptus plantations. Outside of Awash National Park the open and woody savannas have been completely cultivated with crops; this accounts for all escarpment terraces. Thereby the scattered tree cover remained similar to the primary state of the savannas, while the grass layer has been replaced by crops. Only highest altitudes still show connected woodlands. Reforestation was carried out on not cultivable altitudes with secondary coniferous forests; the cultivated crops are teff, sorghum and vegetables. Pastures ha
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian churches. One of the few pre-colonial Christian churches in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has a membership of between 45 and 50 million people, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia, it is a founding member of the World Council of Churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is in communion with the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, having gained autocephaly in 1959; the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was administratively part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria from the first half of the 4th century until 1959, when it was granted its own patriarch by Cyril VI, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. As one of the oldest Christian churches and a non-Chalcedonian church, it is not in communion with the Ethiopian Catholic Church. Ethiopia is the second country following only Armenia, to have proclaimed Christianity as state religion. Tewahedo is a Ge'ez word meaning "being made one".
This word refers to the Oriental Orthodox belief in the one unified nature of Christ. The Oriental Orthodox churches adhere to a Miaphysitic Christological view followed by Cyril of Alexandria, the leading protagonist in the Christological debates of the 4th and 5th centuries, who advocated "mia physis tou theou logou sesarkōmenē", or "one nature of the Word of God incarnate" and a "union according to hypostasis", or hypostatic union; the distinction of this stance was that the incarnate Christ has one nature, but that one nature is of the two natures and human, retains all the characteristics of both after the union. Miaphysitism holds that in the one person of Jesus Christ and humanity are united in one nature without separation, without confusion, without alteration and without mixing where Christ is consubstantial with God the Father. Around 500 bishops within the Patriarchates of Alexandria and Jerusalem refused to accept the dyophysitism doctrine decreed by the Council of Chalcedon in 451, an incident that resulted in the first major split in the main body of the Christian Church.
The Oriental Orthodox churches, which today include the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Malankara Orthodox Church of India, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, are referred to as "Non-Chalcedonian", sometimes incorrectly by outsiders as "monophysite". Monophysitism is a theology adopted by a 5th-century presbyter and archimandrite in Constantinople known as Eutyches and claims that Christ has "one single nature" where his divinity absorbed his humanity resulting in a "simple" mathematical "one" nature to which the Oriental Orthodox churches object. According to these, both natures in Christ are preserved after the union in "mia physis"—one nature. Tewahedo is a Ge'ez word meaning "being made one" or "unified"; this word refers to the Oriental Orthodox belief in the one single unified nature of Christ. This is in contrast to the "two Natures of Christ" belief, held by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Oriental Orthodoxy is known as "non-Chalcedonian", sometimes by outsiders as "monophysite". However, these Churches themselves describe their Christology as miaphysite. Many traditions claim that Christian teachings were introduced to the region after Pentecost. John Chrysostom speaks of the "Ethiopians present in Jerusalem" as being able to understand the preaching of Saint Peter in Acts, 2:38. Possible missions of some of the Apostles in the lands now called Ethiopia is reported as early as the 4th century. Socrates of Constantinople includes Ethiopia in his list as one of the regions preached by Matthew the Apostle, where a specific mention of "Ethiopia south of the Caspian Sea" can be confirmed in some traditions such as the Roman Catholic Church among others. Ethiopian Church tradition tells that Bartholomew accompanied Matthew in a mission which lasted for at least three months. Paintings depicting these missions are available in the Church of St. Matthew found in the Province of Pisa, in northern Italy portrayed by Francesco Trevisan and Marco Benefial.
The earliest account of an Ethiopian converted to the faith in the New Testament books is a royal official baptized by Philip the Evangelist, one of the seven deacons: Then the angel of the Lord said to Philip, Start out and go south to the road that leads down from Jerusalem to Gaza. So he was on his way when he caught sight of an Ethiopian; this man was a eunuch, a high official of the Kandake Queen of Ethiopia in charge of all her treasure. The passage continues by describing ho
Amharic is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages. It is spoken as a first language by the Amharas and as a lingua franca by other populations residing in major cities and towns of Ethiopia; the language serves as the official working language of Ethiopia, is the official or working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system. With 21,811,600 total speakers as of 2007, including around 4,000,000 L2 speakers, Amharic is the second-most spoken Semitic language in the world, after Arabic. Amharic is written left-to-right using a system that grew out of the Ge'ez script, called, in Ethiopian Semitic languages, Fidäl, "writing system", "letter", or "character" or abugida, from the first four symbols, which gave rise to the modern linguistic term abugida. There is no agreed way of romanising Amharic into Latin script; the Amharic examples in the sections below use one system, common, though not universal, among linguists specialising in Ethiopian Semitic languages.
Amharic has been the working language of courts, language of trade and everyday communications, the military, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church since the late 12th century and remains the official language of Ethiopia today. As of the 2007 census, Amharic is spoken by 21.6 million native speakers in Ethiopia and 4 million secondary speakers in Ethiopia. Additionally, 3 million emigrants outside of Ethiopia speak the language. Most of the Ethiopian Jewish communities in Ethiopia and Israel speak Amharic. In Washington DC, Amharic became one of the six non-English languages in the Language Access Act of 2004, which allows government services and education in Amharic. Furthermore, Amharic is considered a holy language by the Rastafari religion and is used among its followers worldwide, it is the most spoken language in the Horn of Africa. The Amharic ejective consonants correspond to the Proto-Semitic "emphatic consonants" transcribed with a dot below the letter; the consonant and vowel tables give these symbols in parentheses where they differ from the standard IPA symbols.
The Amharic script is an abugida, the graphemes of the Amharic writing system are called fidel. Each character represents a consonant+vowel sequence, but the basic shape of each character is determined by the consonant, modified for the vowel; some consonant phonemes are written by more than one series of characters: /ʔ/, /s/, /sʼ/, /h/. This is because these fidel represented distinct sounds, but phonological changes merged them; the citation form for each series is the consonant + ä form. The Amharic script is included in Unicode, glyphs are included in fonts available with major operating systems; as in most other Ethiopian Semitic languages, gemination is contrastive in Amharic. That is, consonant length can distinguish words from one another. Gemination is not indicated in Amharic orthography, but Amharic readers do not find this to be a problem; this property of the writing system is analogous to the vowels of Arabic and Hebrew or the tones of many Bantu languages, which are not indicated in writing.
Ethiopian novelist Haddis Alemayehu, an advocate of Amharic orthography reform, indicated gemination in his novel Fǝqǝr Ǝskä Mäqabǝr by placing a dot above the characters whose consonants were geminated, but this practice is rare. Punctuation includes the following: ፠ section mark ፡ word separator ። full stop ፣ comma ፤ semicolon ፥ colon ፦ preface colon ፧ question mark ፨ paragraph separator Simple Amharic sentencesOne may construct simple Amharic sentences by using a subject and a predicate. Here are a few simple sentences: Like most languages, Amharic grammar distinguishes person and gender; this includes personal pronouns such as English I, Amharic እኔ ǝne. As in other Semitic languages, the same distinctions appear in three other places in their grammar. Subject–verb agreementAll Amharic verbs agree with their subjects; because the affixes that signal subject agreement vary with the particular verb tense/aspect/mood, they are not considered to be pronouns and are discussed elsewhere in this article under verb conjugation.
Object pronoun suffixesAmharic verbs have additional morphology that indicates the person and gender of the object of the verb. While morphemes such as -at in this example are sometimes described as signaling object agreement, analogous to subject agreement, they are more thought of as object pronoun suffixes because, unlike the markers of subject agreement, they do not vary with the tense/aspect/mood of the verb. For arguments of the verb other than the subject or the object, there are two separate sets of related suffixes, one with a benefactive meaning, the other with an adversative or locative meaning. Morphemes such as -llat and -bbat in these examples will be referred to in this article as prepositional object pronoun suffixes because they correspond to prepositional phrases such as for her and on her, to distinguish them from the direct object pronoun suffixes such as -at'her'. Possessive suffixesAmharic has a further set of morphemes that are suffixed to nouns, signalling possession: ቤት bet'
Shewa romanized as Shua, is a historical region of Ethiopia an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire. The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center; the nucleus of Shewa is part of the mountainous plateau in what is the central area of Ethiopia, but prior to the Zemene Mesafint and after the loss of Bale with the invasion of Ahmed Al-Ghazi, Shewa was part of Ethiopia's southeasternmost frontier. Shewa was as defensible as any highland, its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven; the towns of Debre Berhan, Ankober, Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times. Most of northern Shewa, made up of the districts of Menz, Yifat and Bulga, is populated by Christian Amharas, while southern is inhabited by the Gurages and eastern Shewa have large Oromo and Arggoba Muslim populations.
The monastery of Debre Libanos, founded by Saint Tekle Haymanot, is located in the district of Selale known in Amharic as Grarya, a former province of Abyssinia. Eastern Shewa first appears in the historical record as a Muslim state, which G. W. B. Huntingford believed was founded in 896, had its capital at Walalah, it is believed to have been part of the Kingdom of Aksum for over a millennium that became the site of Muslim kingdoms. This state was absorbed by the Sultanate of Ifat around 1285. Three urban centers thought to be part of the Muslim kingdom of Eastern Shewa were discovered by a group of French archaeologists. Yekuno Amlak based his uprising against the Zagwe dynasty from an enclave in Shewa, settled by Amhara Christians, he claimed Solomonic forebears, direct descendants of the pre-Zagwe Axumite emperors, who had used Shewa as their safe haven when their survival was threatened by Gudit and other enemies. This is the reason why the region got the name "Shewa" which means'rescue' or'save'.
This claim is supported by the Kebra Nagast, a book written under one of the descendants of Yekuno Amlak, which mentions Shewa as part of the realm of Menelik I. Aksum and its predecessor Dʿmt were limited to Northern Ethiopia and Eritrea during the 1st millennium BCE. However, Shewa became a part of the Amhara-Abyssinian empire upon the rise of the Amhara Solomonic dynasty as well as the Adal empire. In the 16th century, still an Islamic moiety, the rest of Christian Abyssinia were conquered by the forces of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi of the Adal Sultanate, Shewa came under Muslim Adal rule; the region came under pressure from the Oromo expansion,who succeeded during the first decades of the next century in settling the areas around Shewa. Presently, the Oromos of Wollo and Arsi in particular are predominantly Muslim. Little is known about the details of the history of Shewa until 1800; the Amhara Shewan ruling family was founded in the late 17th century by Negasi Krestos, who consolidated his control around Yifat.
Traditions recorded about his ancestry vary: one tradition, recorded in 1840, claims his mother was the daughter of Ras Faris, a follower of Emperor Susenyos I who had escaped into Menz. Thus the ruling family of Shewa were considered the junior branch of the Solomonic dynasty after the senior Gondar branch. Negassie's son, Sebestyanos assumed the title of Meridazmach, unique to Shewa, his descendants continued to bear this title until Sahle Selassie of Shewa was declared king of Shewa in the 1830s. His grandson, Sahle Maryam would succeed as Emperor of all Ethiopia at the end of the century under name Menelik II; the title of "King of Shewa" was subsumed into the imperial title of "Emperor of Ethiopia" when Menelik became Emperor. Shewan kings spread their control towards the south and east, through lowland and desert, succeeded in invading and subjecting some regions under their rule; the emperors of Ethiopia had long claimed these southern regions, various direct and tributary relations had existed prior to the invasion of Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi though these regions such as the Hadiya kingdom and Bale kingdom were independent entities.
The Oromo migrations following the Imam's defeat had cut off these old relationships and had drastically changed the demographics of the area by rolling back the Amhara expansion and migration, creating new relationships. The kingdom of Shewa that Menelik II brought into the Ethiopian realm had been somewhat expanded, thus added to the total area of the empire; the northern migration of Oromos into Shewa since the 1500s changed its demography and strengthened Shewa's position against its rival Gondar in the empire. Having influenced Gondar in the 1700s, Oromos in Shewa gained power in the 1800s the Tulama. Ras Gobana was notable for forming alliances and militarily extending Shoan domain to the south. Ethiopia reached further frontiers through expansion to the east and south, resulting in the Shewan region as the physical center of the modern country. In recent times, Shewa was a Governorate-General under the monarchy, was an Administrative Region of Ethiopia under t