Guy Louis Debord was a French Marxist theorist, filmmaker, member of the Letterist International, founder of a Letterist faction, founding member of the Situationist International. He was briefly a member of Socialisme ou Barbarie. Guy Debord was born in Paris in 1931. Debord's father, was a pharmacist who died due to illness when Debord was young. Debord's mother, Paulette Rossi, sent Guy to live with his grandmother in her family villa in Italy. During World War II, the Rossis began to travel from town to town; as a result, Debord attended high school in Cannes, where he began his interest in film and vandalism. As a young man, Debord opposed the French war in Algeria and joined in demonstrations in Paris against it. Debord studied Law at the University of Paris, but left early and did not complete his university education. After ending his stint at the University of Paris, he began his career as a writer. Debord joined the Letterist International when he was 19; the Letterists were led dictatorially by Isidore Isou until a agreed upon schism ended Isou's authority.
This schism gave rise to several factions of Letterists, one of, decidedly led by Debord upon Gil Wolman's unequivocal recommendation. In the 1960s, Debord led the Situationist International group, which influenced the Paris Uprising of 1968, during which he took part in the occupation of the Sorbonne; some consider his book The Society of the Spectacle to be a catalyst for the uprising, although a more significant text was Mustapha Khayati's "On the Poverty of Student Life", published in November 1966. In 1957, the Letterist International, the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, the London Psychogeographical Association gathered in Cosio d'Arroscia, Italy, to found the Situationist International, with Debord having been the leading representative of the Letterist delegation. Made up of a number of well-known artists such as Asger Jorn and Pinot Gallizio, the early days of the SI were focused on the formulation of a critique of art, which would serve as a foundation for the group's future entrance into further political critiques.
The SI was known for a number of its interventions in the art world, which included one raid against an international art conference in Belgium during 1958 that included a large pamphlet drop and significant media coverage, all of which culminated in the arrest of various situationists and sympathizers associated with the scandal. In addition to this action, the SI endeavored to formulate industrial painting, or, painting prepared en masse with the intent of defaming the original value associated with the art of the period. In the course of these actions, Debord was involved in the planning and logistical work associated with preparing these interventions, as well as the work for Internationale Situationniste associated with theoretical defense of the Situationist International's actions. In the early 1960s Debord began to direct the SI toward an end of its artistic phase expelling members such as Jorn, Gallizio and Constant—the bulk of the "artistic" wing of the SI—by 1965. Having established the situationist critique of art as a social and political critique, one not to be carried out in traditional artistic activities, the SI began, due in part to Debord's contributions, to pursue a more concise theoretical critique of capitalist society along Marxist lines.
With Debord's 1967 work, The Society of the Spectacle, excerpts from the group's journal, Internationale Situationniste, the Situationists began to formulate their theory of the spectacle, which explained the nature of late capitalism's historical decay. In Debord's terms, situationists defined the spectacle as an assemblage of social relations transmitted via the imagery of class power, as a period of capitalist development wherein "all, once lived has moved into representation". With this theory and the SI would go on to play an influential role in the revolts of May 1968 in France, with many of the protesters drawing their slogans from Situationist tracts penned or influenced by Debord. In 1972, Debord disbanded the Situationist International after its original members, including Asger Jorn and Raoul Vaneigem, quit or were expelled. Debord focused on filmmaking with financial backing from the movie mogul and publisher, Gérard Lebovici, until Lebovici's mysterious death. Debord was suspected of Lebovici's murder.
Distraught by the accusations and his friend's death, Debord took his films and writings out of production until after his death. He had agreed to have his films released posthumously at the request of the American researcher, Thomas Y. Levin. Debord's two most recognized films are Society of the Spectacle and "In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni". After dissolving the Situationist International, Debord spent his time reading, writing, in relative isolation in a cottage at Champot with Alice Becker-Ho, his second wife, he continued to correspond on political and other issues, notably with Lebovici and the Italian situationist Gianfranco Sanguinetti. He focused on reading material relating to war strategies, e.g. Clausewitz and Sun Tzu, he designed a war game with Alice Becker-Ho. Debord married twice, first to Michèle Bernstein and Alice Becker-Ho. Debord had affairs including Michèle Mochot-Bréhat. Bernstein wrote a vaguely fictional but detailed account of the open relationships Mochot and she had with Debord in her novel All The King's Horses.
Just before Debord's death, he film
Jacqueline de Jong
Jacqueline de Jong is a Dutch painter and graphic artist. She was born in the Dutch town of Hengelo to Jewish parents. Faced with the German invasion, they went into hiding. After an abortive escape attempt to England, her father Hans remained in Amsterdam while her mother and she made for Switzerland, accompanied by the Dutch painter Max van Dam. At the border they were captured by the French police, but just as they were about to be deported to the Drancy internment camp, they were rescued by the resistance, who helped them over the border; when they returned to the Netherlands following the war, Jacqueline could not speak Dutch. From 1947 on she went to school in Enschede. In 1957 she went to Paris and was employed in the boutique at Christian Dior in the meantime studying French and drama. After leaving for London spring 1958 studying drama at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, she returned to Amsterdam September 1958 – 1961 and was employed by the Stedelijk Museum, the home of Modern Art there.
She visited London in 1959 where she met Danish painter Asger Jorn, the founder of the CoBrA group, They became companions. He was forty-five years old, compared to her twenty years, she joined the Situationist International in 1960, started to participate in conferences and the Central committee. After the expulsion of Constant Nieuwenhuys and his group, she became the Dutch Section of the organization, she did not accept the way the German section known as Gruppe SPUR, had been expelled and resigned. The cleft between the Debordists and the Second Situationist International grew, however she refused to join either faction, instead stating that people should act as situationists. Between 1962 and 1968 she edited and published The Situationist Times involving Gaston Bachelard, Roberto Matta, Wifredo Lam and Jacques Prévert in this project. In 1968 she was in Paris and distributing revolutionary posters. From starting her activities as a painter and graphic artist she keeps on exhibiting all over Europe and the U.
S. A, she realized wall paintings for the Amsterdam Town Hall and a separation installation for the Nederlandse Bank. In 1970 she left Asger Jorn and moved to Amsterdam with Hans Brinkman on a gallery owner and organiser of exhibitions and international Fairs, they divorced in 1989. In 1990 she became the companion of lawyer Thomas H. Weyland. From 1995 Tom Weyland was on the editorial board of the International Journal of Cultural Property, they got married in 1998 in Airopolie. They gave several lectures on'intellectual right, copyright, détournement and modification' in the Netherlands and U. K. In 1996 they bought their property in the Bourbonnais France where she has her vegetable garden and grows the potatoes which became Art ("Potatoe language" in 2003 van Abbe Museum Eindhoven invited by Jennifer Tee, "Baked Potatoes" 2006 Albisola Italy invited by Roberto Ohrt and the Golden and Platina jewellery "Pommes de Jong" 2008-2011. In 2003 a retrospective exhibition of her work was shown at the Cobra Museum for Contemporary Art in Amstelveen, the Netherlands and the KunstCentret Silkeborg Bad Denmark, whereas a monography was published'Undercover in de Kunst/in Art' Edition Ludion, Belgium.
Together with Tom she realized The Weyland de Jong Foundation early 2009. The main aim is to support avant-garde artists of all disciplines and art-scientists having reached the age of 50 and over. Weyland died in May 2009. Lecture and Exhibition were planned and are realized 2009-2012, her Archive was purchased by Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Yale University USA in 2011. An exhibition at the occasion on the 50th birthday of The Situationist Times is planned in NYC at the Boo-Hooray Gallery, at the Beinecke Library and in Paris at Librairie Lecointre-Drouet in the year 2012. De Jong, Jacqueline. Undercover In the Arts. Ludion. Wark, McKenzie. 50 Years of Recuperation of the Situationist International. Princeton Architectural Press. Schelvis, Jules. "Sobibor". In Scholtz, Wim. Max van Dam Joods Kunstenaar 1910 – 1943. Vereniging het Museum. Www.jacquelinedejong.com Official website
Class conflict is the political tension and economic antagonism that exists in society consequent to socio-economic competition among the social classes. As a means of effecting radical social and political changes for the social majority, class struggle is a central tenet of the philosophic works of Karl Marx and Mikhail Bakunin. Class conflict can take many different forms: direct violence, such as wars fought for resources and cheap labor. Additionally, political forms of class conflict exist; the conflict can be direct, as with a lockout aimed at destroying a labor union, or indirect, as with an informal slowdown in production protesting low wages by workers or unfair labor practices by capital. In the past the term class conflict was a term used by socialists and Marxists, who define a class by its relationship to the means of production—such as factories and machinery. From this point of view, the social control of production and labor is a contest between classes, the division of these resources involves conflict and inflicts harm.
It can involve ongoing low-level clashes, escalate into massive confrontations, in some cases, lead to the overall defeat of one of the contending classes. However, in more contemporary times this term is striking chords and finding new definition amongst capitalistic societies in the United States and other Westernized countries; the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin argued that the class struggle of the working class and poor had the potential to lead a social revolution involving the overthrow of ruling elites, the creation of libertarian socialism. This was only a potential, class struggle was, he argued, not always the only or decisive factor in society, but it was central. By contrast, Marxists argue that class conflict always plays the decisive and pivotal role in the history of class-based hierarchical systems such as capitalism and feudalism. Marxists refer to its overt manifestations as class war, a struggle whose resolution in favor of the working class is viewed by them as inevitable under plutocratic capitalism.
Where societies are divided based on status, wealth, or control of social production and distribution, class structures arise and are thus coeval with civilization itself. It is well documented since at least European Classical Antiquity and the various popular uprisings in late medieval Europe and elsewhere. One of the earliest analysis of these conflicts is Friedrich Engels' The Peasant War in Germany. One of the earliest analyses of the development of class as the development of conflicts between emergent classes is available in Peter Kropotkin's Mutual Aid. In this work, Kropotkin analyzes the disposal of goods after death in pre-class or hunter-gatherer societies, how inheritance produces early class divisions and conflict. Bill Moyers, for example, gave a speech at Brennan Center for Justice in December 2013, titled "The Great American Class War," referring to the current struggle between democracy and plutocracy in the U. S. Chris Hedges wrote a column for Truthdig called "Let's Get This Class War Started,", a play on Pink's song "Let's Get This Party Started."Historian Steve Fraser, author of The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power, asserts that class conflict is an inevitability if current political and economic conditions continue, noting that “people are fed up… their voices are not being heard.
And I think that can only go on for so long without there being more and more outbreaks of what used to be called class struggle, class warfare.” The typical example of class conflict described is class conflict within capitalism. This class conflict is seen to occur between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, takes the form of conflict over hours of work, value of wages, division of profits, cost of consumer goods, the culture at work, control over parliament or bureaucracy, economic inequality; the particular implementation of government programs which may seem purely humanitarian, such as disaster relief, can be a form of class conflict. In the USA class conflict is noted in labor/management disputes; as far back as 1933 representative Edward Hamilton of ALPA, the Airline Pilot's Association, used the term "class warfare" to describe airline management's opposition at the National Labor Board hearings in October of that year. Apart from these day-to-day forms of class conflict, during periods of crisis or revolution class conflict takes on a violent nature and involves repression, restriction of civil liberties, murderous violence such as assassinations or death squads.
Although Thomas Jefferson led the United States as president from 1801–1809 and is considered one of the founding fathers, he died with immense amounts of debt. Regarding the interaction between social classes, he wrote, I am convinced that those societies which live without government enjoy in their general mass an infinitely greater degree of happiness than those who live under the European governments. Among the former, public opinion is in the place of law, & restrains morals as powerfully as laws did anywhere. Among the latter, under pretence of governing they have divided their nations i
Anti-art is a loosely used term applied to an array of concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Somewhat paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point of art; the term is associated with the Dada movement and is accepted as attributable to Marcel Duchamp pre-World War I around 1914, when he began to use found objects as art. It was used to describe revolutionary forms of art; the term was used by the Conceptual artists of the 1960s to describe the work of those who claimed to have retired altogether from the practice of art, from the production of works which could be sold. An expression of anti-art may or may not take traditional form or meet the criteria for being defined as a work of art according to conventional standards. Indeed, works of anti-art may express an outright rejection of having conventionally defined criteria as a means of defining what art is, what it is not. Anti-artworks may reject conventional artistic standards altogether, or focus criticism only on certain aspects of art, such as the art market and high art.
Some anti-artworks may reject individualism in art, whereas some may reject "universality" as an accepted factor in art. Additionally, some forms of anti-art reject art or reject the idea that art is a separate realm or specialization. Anti-artworks may reject art based upon a consideration of art as being oppressive of a segment of the population. Anti-art artworks may articulate a disagreement with the supposed notion of there being a separation between art and life. Indeed, anti-art artworks may voice a question as to whether "art" exists or not. "Anti-art" has been referred to as a "paradoxical neologism", in that its obvious opposition to art has been observed concurring with staples of twentieth-century art or "modern art", in particular art movements that have self-consciously sought to transgress traditions or institutions. Anti-art itself is not a distinct art movement, however; this would tend to be indicated by the time it spans—longer than that spanned by art movements. Some art movements though, are labeled "anti-art".
The Dada movement is considered the first anti-art movement. Theodor W. Adorno in Aesthetic Theory stated that "...even the abolition of art is respectful of art because it takes the truth claim of art seriously". Anti-art has become accepted by the artworld to be art, although some people still reject Duchamp's readymades as art, for instance the Stuckist group of artists, who are "anti-anti-art". Anti-art can take the form of art or not, it is posited that anti-art need not take the form of art, in order to embody its function as anti-art. This point is disputed; some of the forms of anti-art which are art strive to reveal the conventional limits of art by expanding its properties. Some instances of anti-art are suggestive of a reduction to what might seem to be fundamental elements or building blocks of art. Examples of this sort of phenomenon might include monochrome paintings, empty frames, silence as music, chance art. Anti-art is often seen to make use of innovative materials and techniques, well beyond—to include hitherto unheard of elements in visual art.
These types of anti-art can be readymades, found object art, détournement, combine paintings, happenings, performance art, body art. Anti-art can involve the renouncement of making art entirely; this can be accomplished through an art strike and this can be accomplished through revolutionary activism. An aim of anti-art understate individual creativity; this may be accomplished through the utilization of readymades. Individual creativity can be further downplayed by the use of industrial processes in the making of art. Anti-artists may seek to undermine individual creativity by producing their artworks anonymously, they may refuse to show their artworks. They may refuse public recognition. Anti-artists may choose to work collectively, in order to place less emphasis on individual identity and individual creativity; this can be seen in the instance of happenings. This is sometimes the case with "supertemporal" artworks. Anti-artists will sometimes destroy their works of art; some artworks made by anti-artists are purposely created to be destroyed.
This can be seen in auto-destructive art. André Malraux has developed a concept of anti-art quite different from that outlined above. For Malraux, anti-art began with the'Salon' or'Academic' art of the nineteenth century which rejected the basic ambition of art in favour of a semi-photographic illusionism. Of Academic painting, Malraux writes,'All true painters, all those for whom painting is a value, were nauseated by these pictures – "Portrait of a Great Surgeon Operating" and the like – because they saw in them not a form of painting, but the negation of painting'. For Malraux, anti-art is still much with us, though in a different form, its descendants are commercial cinema and television, popular music and fiction. The'Salon', Malraux writes,'has been expelled from painting, but elsewhere it reigns supreme'. Anti-art is a tendency in the theoretical understanding of art and fine art; the philosopher Roger Taylor puts forward that art is a bourgeois ideology that has its origins with capitalism in "Art, an Enemy of the People".
Holding a strong anti-essentialist position he states that art has not always existed and is not universal but peculiar to Europe, a claim, factually inaccurate as proven by many substantial archaeological findi
Jutland known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany. The names are derived from the Cimbri, respectively; as the rest of Denmark, Jutland's terrain is flat, with a elevated ridge down the central parts and hilly terrains in the east. West Jutland is characterised by open lands, heaths and peat bogs, while East Jutland is more fertile with lakes and lush forests. Southwest Jutland is characterised by the Wadden Sea, a large unique international coastal region stretching through Denmark and the Netherlands. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north, the Kattegat and Baltic Sea to the east and Germany to the south. Geographically and Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. Since the mid-20th century, it has become common to design an area as Central Jutland, but its definition varies a lot.
There are several historical subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydjylland and others. Politically, Jutland comprises the three contemporary Danish Administrative Regions of North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and the Region of Southern Denmark, along with portions of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein; the Danish part of Jutland is divided into three administrative regions: North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord, a narrow stretch of water bisecting the peninsula from coast to coast; the Limfjord was a long brackish water inlet, but a breaching North Sea flood in 1825 created a coast to coast connection. This area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or Jutland north of the Limfjord; the islands of Læsø, Anholt and Samsø in Kattegat and Als at the rim of the Baltic Sea are administratively and tied to Jutland, although the latter two are regarded as traditional districts of their own.
Inhabitants of Als, known as Alsinger, would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not Jutlanders. The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight; the largest cities in the Danish section of Jutland are as follows: Aarhus Aalborg Esbjerg Randers Kolding Horsens Vejle Herning Silkeborg FredericiaAarhus, Billund, Kolding, Vejle and Haderslev, along with a number of smaller towns, make up the suggested East Jutland metropolitan area, more densely populated than the rest of Jutland, although far from forming one consistent city. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmark's five regions, namely Nordjylland and the western half of Southern Denmark, which includes Funen; the five administrative regions came into effect on 1 January 2007, following a structural reform. The southern third of the peninsula is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein; the German parts are not seen as Jutland proper, but described more abstract as part of the Jutlandic Peninsula, Cimbrian Peninsula or Jutland-Schleswig-Holstein.
Schleswig-Holstein has two historical parts: the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, both of which have passed back and forth between Danish and German rulers. The last adjustment of the Danish–German border followed the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920 and resulted in Denmark regaining Northern Schleswig; the historical southern border of Jutland was the river Eider, which forms the border between the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, as well as the border between the Danish and German realms from c. 850 to 1864. Although most of Schleswig-Holstein is geographically part of the peninsula, most German residents there would not identify themselves with Jutland or as Jutlanders, but rather with Schleswig-Holstein; the medieval law Code of Jutland applied to Schleswig until 1900, when it was replaced by the Prussian Civil Code. Some used clauses of the Jutlandic Code still apply north of the Eider; the largest cities in the German part of the Jutland Peninsula are Flensburg. Geologically the Mid Jutland Region and the North Jutland Region as well as the Capital Region of Denmark are located in the north of Denmark, rising because of post-glacial rebound.
Jutland has been one of the three lands of Denmark, the other two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons and Charudes. Many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c. 450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the early part of the Christian era. To protect themselves from invasion by the Christian Frankish emperors, beginning in the 5th century, the pagan Danes initiated the Danevirke, a defensi
Gruppe SPUR was an artistic collaboration formed by the German painters Heimrad Prem, Helmut Sturm and Hans-Peter Zimmer and the sculptor Lothar Fischer in 1957. They published a journal of the same name Spur, they were the first German artistic group in decades to manifest a freedom of investigation with international relevance, recognized as an equal by the cultural avant-garde of several different countries, pursuing real artistic experiments of their time. By contrast, the German cultural landscape of was characterized by a total cultural void and by "the dullest conformism, in which the artists and intellectuals being honored were only retarded and timid imitators of imported, old ideas." For this, other criticisms, the Spur journal was subject to police and judicial prosecutions, was convicted "in the name of moral order", in order to make the Spur group, all those who wish to pursue the same route, succumb to the ambient conformism. The Spur group joined and collaborated with the Situationist International, a restricted group of international revolutionaries, between 1959 and 1961.
After a series of core divergences during 1960-1, the Spur members were excluded from the SI on February 10, 1962. The events that led to the exclusion were: during the Fourth SI Conference in London, in a discussion about the political nature of the SI, Spur group disagreed with the core situationist stance of counting on a revolutionary proletariat; the betrayal of a common agreement on the Spur and SI publications. The exclusion was the recognition that the Spur group's "principles and goals" were in contrast with those of the SI; this split however was not a declaration of hostilities, as in other cases of SI exclusions. A few months after the exclusion, in the context of Judicial prosecution against the group by the German state, Debord expressed his esteem to the Spur group, calling it the only significant artistic group in Germany since WW2, at the level of the avant-gardes in other countries; the SPUR-artists met first at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich in Germany. They formed the group in 1957, which lasted until 1965.
Guy Debord remarked that while between 1920-1933 "Germany incontestably had the highest rank in the elaboration of art and, more the culture of our era", from the post-war era to 1960, "Germany has been characterized by a total cultural void and by the dullest conformism". The Spur journal was a flourishing exception to such void and conformism, as it was, for the first time in decades, an artistic group that manifested a certain freedom of investigation, as an "extremely worrisome symptom", this group was immediately the object of police and juridical persecutions. Helmet Sturim, Dieter Kunzelmann, Heimrad Prem and H. P. Zimmer each received 5 months in prison. Debord noted that Western Europe and the Scandinavian countries, had another level of intellectual tolerance, that such a trial was, at that moment, unthinkable in Paris or Copenhagen; that clumsy affair had harmed the reputation of the Federal German Republic. Debord asserted that the pretext by which the Spur group was brought to trial, was "to make the Spur group, all those who wish to pursue the same route, succumb to the ambient conformism."
Debord ridiculed that trial to the prosecutions of Baudelaire and Flaubert for pornography and immorality in the 19th century France: The Spur group collaborated with the Situationist International, a restricted group of international revolutionaries, between 1959 and 1961, when the Spur members joined the SI. After a series of core divergences during 1960-1, the Spur members were excluded from the SI on February 10, 1962. After this, despite the two organizations having a "sufficiently large objective opposition between their respective principles and goals," Guy Debord expressed esteem to Spur, considering it the highest expression of German art and culture of post WW2. However, after the exclusion and split, the two groups remained distinct and separated, each was only responsible for its own autonomous actions; the first contact with the Situationist International happened through Asger Jorn. Jorn, one of the most prominent members of the SI, discovered the SPUR-paintings at a gallery managed by art dealer Otto Van de Loo.
On, the Spur members come to join and became members of the Situationist International, forming the majority of the members of the German section of the SI. A major point of divergence come up from the Spur group during The Fourth SI Conference in London; the discussion of a report by Attila Kotányi, leads to posing the question: "To what extent is the SI a political movement?" Various responses state that the SI is political, but not in the ordinary sense. The discussion becomes somewhat confused. Debord proposes, in order to bring out the opinion of the Conference, that each person respond in writing to a questionnaire asking if he considers that there are "forces in the society that the SI can count on? What forces? In what conditions?" This questionnaire is filled out. When, a day the Spur members present a joint response to the questionnaire, in which they reject the concept of a proletarian revolution, it generates a sharp debate: This position was critiqued by Debord, Kotányi and Jorn; the majority of the S.
I. seems to be against it, the Spur members are asked to formalize their position so it can be brought to a vote
Mémoires is an artist's book made by the Danish artist Asger Jorn in collaboration with the French artist and theorist Guy Debord. Printed in 1959, it is the second of two collaborative books by the two men whilst they were both members of the Situationist International; the book is a work of psychogeography, detailing a period in Debord's life when he was in the process of leaving the Lettrists, setting up Lettrism International, showing his'first masterpiece', Hurlements en Faveur de Sade, a film devoid of imagery that played white when people were talking on the soundtrack and black during the lengthy silences between. Credited to Guy-Ernest Debord, with structures portantes by Asger Jorn, the book contains 64 pages divided into three sections; the first section is called'June 1952', starts with a quote from Marx: Let the dead bury the dead, mourn them.... Our fate will be to become the first living people to enter the new life; the second section,'December 1952', quotes Huizinga, the third,'September 1953', quotes Soubise.
The work contains two separate layers. The first is printed with black ink, reproducing found text and graphics taken from newspapers and magazines; the second layer is printed using coloured inks, splashed across the pages. These sometimes connect images and text, sometimes cover them, sometimes are unconnected; the black layer contains fragments of text, maps of Paris and London, illustrations of siege warfare, cheap reproductions of old masters and questions such as'How do you feel about the world at the moment, Sir?' The coloured layer contains freefloating ink splashes, lines created by a matchstick loaded in ink, a Rorschach inkblob. Other pages deal with more personal themes, including a cartoon of the first showing of his film Hurlements en Faveur de Sade, with comments for and against, references to Dérive, which would become known as Situationist Drift, the habit of walking aimlessly through a city in an attempt to find its spirit. Détournement is employed in the book to disorient the reader by creating startling collaged juxtapositions.
Deriving from Dada, détournement would become a key situationist strategy. The last page is an orange swirl, above which reads the single sentence'I wanted to speak the beautiful language of my century.' The book is most famous for a dust jacket made of heavy-grade sandpaper. Credited to Debord, the sleeve was conceived in a conversation between Jorn and the printer, V. O. Permild: Long had asked me, if I couldn’t find an unconventional material for the book cover. Preferably some sticky asphalt or glass wool. Kiddingly, he wanted, that by looking at people, you should be able to tell whether or not they had had the book in their hands, he acquiesced by my final suggestion: sandpaper nr. 2: ‘Fine. Can you imagine the result when the book lies on a blank polished mahogany table, or when it's inserted or taken out of the bookshelf, it planes shavings off the neighbour's desert goat. Fin de Copenhague is the first collaboration between the two artists; the artists' book is credited to Asger Jorn, with Debord listed as "Technical Adviser in Détournement".
Printed by Permild and Rosengreen, the book was published by Jorn's Edition Bauhaus Imaginiste in May 1957, a few months before this group amalgamated with the Lettrist International to create the Situationists. In many ways similar to the book, the colour layers are more exuberant, the text more pointed. One page, for instance, asks in English: What do you want? Better and cheaper food? Lots of new clothes? A dream home with all the latest comforts and labour saving devices? A new car... a motor launch... a light aircraft of your own? Whatever you want, it's coming your way - plus greater leisure for enjoying it all. With electronics and nuclear energy, we are entering on the new Industrial Revolution which will supply our every need, easily... quickly... cheaply... abundantly. Other pages include text in French and Danish. One page declares,'There's No Whiteness.... Viva Free Algeria!' Each page is covered with a second layer of coloured ink drops and drips, most of which go right to left, emphasising the direction of the book from beginning to end.
The book ends with the text: Hurry! Hurry! Hurry! Tell us in not more than 250 words why your girl is the sweetest girl in town. Having just arrived in Copenhagen and Debord rushed into a newsagents, stole a huge amount of magazines and newspapers, spent a drunken afternoon collaging elements together; the next day they arrived at the printers with 32 collages, which were transferred to lithographic plates. Jorn sat at the top of a ladder over the zinc plates, dropping cup after cup of Indian ink onto them; the plates were etched and printed over the black texts and images. The cover was a embossed image of an advertisement for a razor blade; the situationist concept of the spectacle runs through both books. It is the omnipresent celebration of a choice made in the sphere of production, the consummate result of that choice. In form as in content the spectacle serves as total justification for the conditions and aims of the existing s