Ash (analytical chemistry)
In analytical chemistry, ashing or ash content determination is the process of mineralization for preconcentration of trace substances prior to a chemical analysis, such as chromatography, or optical analysis, such as spectroscopy. The residues after a sample is burnt - in contrast to the ash remaining after incomplete combustion - consist of metal oxides. Ash is one of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting of salty, inorganic constituents, it includes metal salts which are important for processes requiring ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+. It includes trace minerals which are required for unique molecules, such as chlorophyll and hemoglobin. A crucible can be used to determine the percentage of ash contained in an otherwise burnable sample of material such as coal, oil, rubber or plastics; the ISO mandates ash content determination for most foodstuffs. Examples include ISO 2171: Cereals, pulses and by-products — Determination of ash yield by incineration; some necessary apparatus include: crucible muffled furnace hot plate the sample A crucible and its lid are pre-weighed after thorough drying.
The sample is added to the dry crucible and lid and together they are weighed to determine the mass of the sample by difference. The sample is placed in the hot furnace long enough so that complete combustion of the sample occurs; the crucible and ash are re-weighed. The analysis of honey shows: Typical honey analysisFructose: 38% Glucose: 31% Sucrose: 1% Water: 17% Other sugars: 9% Ash: 0.17%In this example the ash would include all the minerals in honey. Oxides, e.g. Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, P2O5, K2O, SiO2 Carbonates: Na2CO3, K2CO3 Bicarbonates, e.g. NaHCO3 Sulfates: sulfate ash according to Ph. Eur
Cinereous is a colour, meaning ashy grey in appearance, either consisting of or resembling ashes, or a grey colour tinged with coppery brown. It is derived from cinis; the first recorded use of cinereous as a colour name in English was in 1661. Birds The colour name cinereous is used in the names of birds with ash grey plumage with a slight coppery brown tinge, including the cinereous antshrike, cinereous becard, cinereous bunting, cinereous conebill, cinereous finch, cinereous ground-tyrant, cinereous harrier, cinereous mourner, cinereous-breasted spinetail, cinereous tinamou, cinereous tyrant, cinereous vulture, cinereous warbling-finch. However, the colours of these birds may be brighter to the birds themselves since birds are tetrachromats and can see colours in the ultraviolet range that are invisible to humans, who are trichromats. Animal colouration List of colours The Free Dictionary
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter. A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms, elemental molecules made from one type of atom, or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms. A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles; this separation makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer. The interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible, as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image; the gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states, the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases. Bounding the lower end of the temperature scale lie degenerative quantum gases which are gaining increasing attention. High-density atomic gases super cooled to low temperatures are classified by their statistical behavior as either a Bose gas or a Fermi gas.
For a comprehensive listing of these exotic states of matter see list of states of matter. The only chemical elements that are stable diatomic homonuclear molecules at STP are hydrogen, nitrogen and two halogens: fluorine and chlorine; when grouped together with the monatomic noble gases – helium, argon, krypton and radon – these gases are called "elemental gases". The word gas was first used by the early 17th-century Flemish chemist Jan Baptist van Helmont, he identified the first known gas other than air. Van Helmont's word appears to have been a phonetic transcription of the Ancient Greek word χάος Chaos – the g in Dutch being pronounced like ch in "loch" – in which case Van Helmont was following the established alchemical usage first attested in the works of Paracelsus. According to Paracelsus's terminology, chaos meant something like "ultra-rarefied water". An alternative story is that Van Helmont's word is corrupted from gahst, signifying a ghost or spirit; this was because certain gases suggested a supernatural origin, such as from their ability to cause death, extinguish flames, to occur in "mines, bottom of wells and other lonely places".
In contrast, French-American historian Jacques Barzun speculated that Van Helmont had borrowed the word from the German Gäscht, meaning the froth resulting from fermentation. Because most gases are difficult to observe directly, they are described through the use of four physical properties or macroscopic characteristics: pressure, number of particles and temperature; these four characteristics were observed by scientists such as Robert Boyle, Jacques Charles, John Dalton, Joseph Gay-Lussac and Amedeo Avogadro for a variety of gases in various settings. Their detailed studies led to a mathematical relationship among these properties expressed by the ideal gas law. Gas particles are separated from one another, have weaker intermolecular bonds than liquids or solids; these intermolecular forces result from electrostatic interactions between gas particles. Like-charged areas of different gas particles repel, while oppositely charged regions of different gas particles attract one another. Gaseous compounds with polar covalent bonds contain permanent charge imbalances and so experience strong intermolecular forces, although the molecule while the compound's net charge remains neutral.
Transient, randomly induced charges exist across non-polar covalent bonds of molecules and electrostatic interactions caused by them are referred to as Van der Waals forces. The interaction of these intermolecular forces varies within a substance which determines many of the physical properties unique to each gas. A comparison of boiling points for compounds formed by ionic and covalent bonds leads us to this conclusion; the drifting smoke particles in the image provides some insight into low-pressure gas behavior. Compared to the other states of matter, gases have low viscosity. Pressure and temperature influence the particles within a certain volume; this variation in particle separation and speed is referred to as compressibility. This particle separation and size influences optical properties of gases as can be found in the following list of refractive indices. Gas particles spread apart or diffuse in order to homogeneously distribute themselves throughout any container; when observing a gas, it is typical to specify a frame of length scale.
A larger length scale corresponds to a global point of view of the gas. This region must be sufficient in size to contain a large sampling of gas particles; the resulting statistical analysis of this sample size produces the "average" behavior of all the gas particles within the region. In contrast, a smaller length scale corresponds to a particle point of view. Macroscopically, the gas characteristics measured are either in terms of the gas particles themselves or their surroundings. For example, Robert Boyle studied pneumatic chemistry for a small portion of his career. One of his experiments related the macroscopic properties of volume of a gas, his experiment used a J-tube manometer which looks like a test tube in the shape of the letter J. Boyle trapped an inert gas in the closed end of the test tube with a column of mercury, thereby ma
A fireplace is a structure made of brick, stone or metal designed to contain a fire. Fireplaces are used for heating a room. Modern fireplaces vary depending on the design, they were used for heating a dwelling and heating water for laundry and domestic uses. A fire is contained in a firepit. A fireplace may have the following: a hearth, a firebox, a mantelpiece. On the exterior there is a corbeled brick crown, in which the projecting courses of brick act as a drip course to keep rainwater from running down the exterior walls. A cap, hood, or shroud serves to keep rainwater out of the exterior of the chimney; some chimneys have a spark arrestor incorporated into the cap. Organizations like the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington Department of Ecology warn that, according to various studies, fireplaces can pose a significant health risk; the EPA writes "Smoke may smell good, but it's not good for you." Manufactured fireplaces are made with sheet glass fire boxes. Electric fireplaces can be built-in replacements for wood or gas or retrofit with log inserts or electric fireboxes.
A few types are, wall mounted electric fireplaces, electric fireplace stoves, electric mantel fireplaces and fixed or free standing electric fireplaces. Masonry and prefabricated fireplaces can be fueled by wood, natural gas and propane fuel sources. Ventless Fireplaces are fueled by liquid propane, bottled gas or natural gas. In the United States, some states and local counties have laws restricting these types of fireplaces, they must be properly sized to the area to be heated. There are air quality control issues due to the amount of moisture they release into the room air, oxygen sensor and carbon monoxide sensors are safety essentials. Direct vent fireplaces are fueled by natural gas, they are sealed from the area, heated, vent all exhaust gasses to the exterior of the structure. Chimney and flue types: Masonry with or without tile-lined flue. Reinforced concrete chimneys. Fundamental design flaws made the design obsolete; these chimneys show vertical cracks on the exterior. Metal-lined flue: Double or triple walled metal pipe running up inside a new or existing wood-framed or masonry chase.
Newly constructed flues may feature a chase cover, a cap, a spark arrestor at the top to keep small animals out and to prevent sparks from being broadcast into the atmosphere. All fireplaces require trained gas service members to carry out installations. A wide range of accessories are used with fireplaces, which range between countries and historical periods. For the interior, common in recent Western cultures include grates, log boxes, pellet baskets, fire dogs, all of which cradle fuel and accelerate burning. A grate is a frame of iron bars, to retain fuel for a fire. Heavy metal firebacks are sometimes used to capture and re-radiate heat, to protect the back of the fireplace, as decoration. Fenders are low metal frames set in front of the fireplace to contain embers and ash. For fireplace tending, tools include pokers, tongs, shovels and tool stands. Other wider accessories can include log baskets, companion sets, coal buckets, cabinet accessories and more. Ancient fire pits were sometimes built in the ground, within caves, or in the center of a hut or dwelling.
Evidence of prehistoric, man-made fires exists on all five inhabited continents. The disadvantage of early indoor fire pits was that they produced toxic and/or irritating smoke inside the dwelling. Fire pits developed into raised hearths in buildings, but venting smoke depended on open windows or holes in roofs; the medieval great hall had a centrally located hearth, where an open fire burned with the smoke rising to the vent in the roof. Louvers were developed during the Middle Ages to allow the roof vents to be covered so rain and snow would not enter. During the Middle Ages, smoke canopies were invented to prevent smoke from spreading through a room and vent it out through a wall or roof; these could be placed against stone walls, instead of taking up the middle of the room, this allowed smaller rooms to be heated. Chimneys were invented in northern Europe in the 11th or 12th centuries and fixed the problem of fumes, more reliably venting smoke outside, they made it possible to give the fireplace a draft, made it possible to put fireplaces in multiple rooms in buildings conveniently.
They did not come into general use however, as they were expensive to build and maintain. In 1678 Prince Rupert, nephew of Charles I, raised the grate of the fireplace, improving the airflow and venting system; the 18th century saw two important developments in the history of fireplaces. Benjamin Franklin developed a convection chamber for the fireplace that improved the efficiency of fireplaces and wood stoves, he improved the airflow by pulling air from a basement and venting out a longer area at the top. In the 18th century, Count Rumford designed a fireplace with a tall, shallow firebox, better at drawing the smoke up and out o
Potash is some of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. The name derives from pot ash, which refers to plant ashes soaked in water in a pot, the primary means of manufacturing the product before the industrial era; the word potassium is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 90 million tonnes per year for use in manufacturing. Various types of fertilizer-potash constitute the single largest industrial use of the element potassium in the world. Potassium was first derived in 1807 by electrolysis of caustic potash. Potash refers to potassium compounds and potassium-bearing materials, the most common being potassium chloride; the term potash comes from the Middle Dutch word potaschen. The old method of making potassium carbonate was by collecting or producing wood ash, leaching the ashes and evaporating the resulting solution in large iron pots, leaving a white residue called pot ash. 10% by weight of common wood ash can be recovered as pot ash.
Potash became the term applied to occurring potassium salts and the commercial product derived from them. The following table lists a number of potassium compounds which use the word potash in their traditional names: All commercial potash deposits come from evaporite deposits and are buried deep below the earth's surface. Potash ores are rich in potassium chloride, sodium chloride and other salts and clays, are obtained by conventional shaft mining with the extracted ore ground into a powder. Other methods include dissolution evaporation methods from brines. In the evaporation method, hot water is injected into the potash, dissolved and pumped to the surface where it is concentrated by solar induced evaporation. Amine reagents are added to either the mined or evaporated solutions; the amine coats the KCl but not NaCl. Air bubbles cling to the amine + KCl and float it to the surface while the NaCl and clay sink to the bottom; the surface is skimmed for the amine + KCl, dried and packaged for use as a K rich fertilizer—KCl dissolves in water and is available for plant nutrition.
Potash deposits can be found all over the world. At present, deposits are being mined in Canada, China, Israel, Chile, the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom and Brazil, with the most significant deposits present in Saskatchewan, Canada. Excessive respiratory disease has been a concern for potash miners throughout history due to environmental hazards, such as radon and asbestos. Potash miners are liable to develop silicosis. Based on a study done between 1977 and 1987 cardiovascular disease among potash workers, the overall mortality rates were low, but a noticeable difference in above ground workers was documented. Potash has been used in bleaching textiles, making glass, making soap, since about AD 500. Potash was principally obtained by leaching the ashes of sea plants. Beginning in the 14th century potash was mined in Ethiopia. One of the world's largest deposits, 140 to 150 million tons, is located in the Tigray's Dallol area. Potash was one of the most important industrial chemicals.
It was refined from the ashes of broadleaved trees and produced in the forested areas of Europe and North America. The first U. S. patent of any kind was issued in 1790 to Samuel Hopkins for an improvement "in the making of Pot ash and Pearl ash by a new Apparatus and Process". Pearl ash was a purer quality made by calcination of potash in kiln. Potash pits were once used in England to produce potash, used in making soap for the preparation of wool for yarn production; as early as 1767, potash from wood ashes was exported from Canada, exports of potash and pearl ash reached 43,958 barrels in 1865. There were 519 asheries in operation in 1871; the industry declined in the late 19th century when large-scale production of potash from mineral salts was established in Germany. In 1943, potash was discovered in Canada, in the process of drilling for oil. Active exploration began in 1951. In 1958, the Potash Company of America became the first potash producer in Canada with the commissioning of an underground potash mine at Patience Lake.
The underground mine was flooded in 1987 and was reactivated for commercial production as a solution mine in 1989. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, potash production provided settlers in North America a way to obtain badly needed cash and credit as they cleared wooded land for crops. To make full use of their land, settlers needed to dispose of excess wood; the easiest way to accomplish this was to burn any wood not needed for construction. Ashes from hardwood trees could be used to make lye, which could either be used to make soap or boiled down to produce valuable potash. Hardwood could generate ashes at the rate of 60 to 100 bushels per acre. In 1790, ashes could be sold for $3.25 to $6.25 per acre in rural New York State – nearly the same rate as hiring a laborer to clear the same area. Potash making became a major industry in British North America. Great Britain was always the most important market; the American potash industry followed the woodsman's ax across the country. After about 1820, New York replaced New England as the most important source.
Potash production was always