Hever village is a village and civil parish in the Sevenoaks District of Kent, England. The parish is located on a tributary of the River Medway, east of Edenbridge, it is 5 miles by 1-mile in extent, 3,062 acres in area. The parish includes the villages of Four Elms, Hever itself, Markbeech, has a population of 1,136, increasing to 1,231 at the 2011 Census; the place-name'Hever' is first attested in a Saxon charter of 814, where it appears as'Heanyfre'. Hever contains Hever Castle, the childhood home of Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII. There are one at each village. All are one united benefice. In the parish church of St Peter is the tomb of Thomas Boleyn, the father of Anne Boleyn and grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I. Hever parish council The three churches
Penshurst is a historic village and civil parish located in a valley upon the northern slopes of the Kentish Weald, at the confluence of the River Medway and the River Eden, within the Sevenoaks district of Kent, England. The village is situated between the market town of Tonbridge and the spa town of Royal Tunbridge Wells, some 6 miles south of Sevenoaks. Penshurst and its neighbouring village, recorded a combined population of some 1,628 at the 2011 Census; the majority of the parish falls within the High Weald Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the village is itself a conservation zone, with controls on the landscape ensuring the protection of its woodland and fields. There are several listed buildings in the village; the village is the home of two historic estates. Penshurst Place owned by King Henry VIII, sits at the centre of the village in the valley, while Swaylands is situated at the top of Rogues Hill on the outskirts of the village; the village grew up around the ancestral home of the Sidney family.
There are many Tudor-looking buildings in the village. Henry Stafford the first Baron Stafford was born here in 1501; the Leicester Arms, once part of the Penshurst Estate, was owned by Sir William Sidney, grandfather of poet and statesman Sir Philip Sidney. His other grandson, the Viscount De L’isle, was appointed Earl of Leicester in 1618 and it was shortly after this that The Leicester Arms known as The Porcupine, was renamed in his honour; the pub and hotel is now owned privately. Penshurst railway station, on the Tonbridge to Redhill railway line, is some 2 miles north of the village, at the hamlet of Chiddingstone Causeway. Penshurst Airfield was located close within the parish of Leigh, it opened in 1916 as a military airfield, served as a civil airfield from 1919-36. It was reopened as RAF Penshurst in 1940, closed in 1946. To the south of the village, within the parish, are the settlements of Saint's Hill and Smart's Hill. Penshurst Place is a 14th century manor house built in 1341; the 2,500 acre estate, once the property of King Henry VIII, was left to his son King Edward VI and granted to Sir William Sidney in 1552.
The Sidney family have been in continuous occupation for more than 460 years since. The house and its extensive gardens are now open to the public; the historic banqueting hall at Penshurst Place has been used as a filming location for many Hollywood films, including The Secret Garden and The Other Boleyn Girl, as well as the BBC television series Merlin and Wolf Hall. The ancient historic parkland provides scenic walks to many visitors each year, contributing to Penshurst's tourism industry; the two walking trails across the estate - the Parkland and the Riverside Walks, both take in part of the Eden Valley walk. With over 7 miles of the Rivers Medway and Eden flowing through the Estate, several lakes, both game and coarse fishing are popular at Penshurst Place; the parish church, dedicated to St John the Baptist, is one of the two churches in the civil parish. The Grade I listed church houses many memorials and tombs, including those of a Viceroy of India, two Field Marshals and two winners of the Victoria Cross.
The Sidney family of Penshurst Place, including Sir Philip Sidney, courtier and soldier of the Elizabethan era William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle, Governor-General of Australia The Hardinge family, including Field Marshal Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge, British Army officer and politician Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, Viceroy of India Frances Hardinge, author George Drummond of Drummonds Bank Sandy Gall, a former ITN newscaster Penshurst Parish Council Historic images of Penshurst "Discover-the-Garden-of-England" - the section on Penshurst
Bough Beech is a hamlet in the county of Kent, is south of the Bough Beech Reservoir. It is located three miles east of Edenbridge and five miles south west of Sevenoaks, it is in the civil parish of Chiddingstone. The reservoir is a nature reserve, in particular for bird watching; the reservoir is owned by the SES Water Company, who supply tap water to settlements west of the reservoir. The hamlet of Bough Beech is close to the Redhill to Tonbridge Line and has a pub,'The Wheatsheaf'. Bough Beech Wildlife Reserve and Visitor Centre Bough Beech Reservoir ornithology Bough Beech Local Information Wheatsheaf pub in Bough Beech
Fawkham is a village and civil parish in the Sevenoaks District of Kent, England. The population of the civil parish as of the 2011 census is 578; the main settlement in the parish is Fawkham Green, 2 miles south of Longfield and 1 mile from Brands Hatch motor racing circuit. The M20 motorway crosses the parish. Fawkham is 8 miles 8 miles from Dartford and 12 miles from Sevenoaks, it is near its border with Dartford district. It was in Dartford Rural District along with the neighbouring parishes. In medieval times the parish was part of Axstane Hundred; the 12th-century parish church is a Grade I listed building. The ecclesiastical parish of Fawkham is part of the united benefice of Hartley. Longfield railway station was called Fawkham Station until 1961. Fawkham parish council website
Edenbridge is a town and civil parish in the Sevenoaks district of Kent, England. Its name derives from Old English Eadhelmsbrigge, it is located on the Kent /Surrey border on the upper floodplain of the River Medway and gives its name to the latter's tributary, the River Eden. The town has a population of around 9,000; the old part of the town grew along a section of the otherwise disused Roman road, the London to Lewes Way at the point where it crossed the river. Iron slag from iron smelting in the surrounding area was used in building the road. In the Middle Ages it became a centre of the Wealden iron industry. There are many mediaeval timber buildings in the town. With the coming of the railways the town expanded and the community of Marlpit Hill, north of the original settlement, is now part of the town. Owing to its position on the River Eden floodplain, the centre of the town is prone to severe flooding; the worst flood occurred in 1958, before any flood defences were built, led to enormous damage to Edenbridge High Street.
Ten years in 1968, despite the Eden having been dredged to prevent the same occurrence, the town was once again flooded after heavy storms. Although there were no fatalities, a helicopter was needed to save a man from his flooded home. Local legend has it that he hadn't noticed the flood waters rising, having been too engrossed in The Forsyte Saga on television. More adequate flood defences have been built since with the local community now well prepared to deal with possible flooding. Edenbridge has had four mills over the centuries, Haxted Mill and Honour's Mill on the River Eden, Christmas Mill on a tributary of the Eden, a windmill to the south of the town. All four mill buildings now converted to other uses. There are two railway stations serving Edenbridge; the earliest, on the South Eastern Railway route from Redhill to Tonbridge, was opened on 26 May 1842. The station named Edenbridge, is located in Marlpit Hill. To the west of that station the route crosses what was once the London and South Coast Railway main line from London to Tunbridge Wells and Eastbourne, opened on 2 January 1888.
The crossing of the two lines takes place at a mid-break in the Edenbridge Tunnel on the SER line. Here lies the second station, named Edenbridge Town; the line serving it is now truncated at Uckfield. There is no connection here between the two routes: Edenbridge is not a junction. All services at both stations are operated by Southern. Services to Edenbridge Town station run to and from London Bridge, whereas services at Edenbridge station run to and from Redhill/Tonbridge. Edenbridge is twinned with Mont-Saint-Aignan in France; the bypass, built in the early 2000s to relieve traffic pressure on the old, narrow High Street is named Mont St Aignan Way. There are two banks in the town, a post office next to the church and a number of major retail chains. Despite being a small town, Edenbridge boasts its own hospital - The Edenbridge War Memorial Hospital. A cottage hospital built to care for soldiers returning from The First World War, a purpose built building was established to the south of the town in 1931.
With an Out Patients Department, Physiotherapy facilities and a Minor Injuries Unit the hospital is a major part of the fabric of the town. In recent years the hospital has been faced with closure many times, on each occasion it has been saved by local campaigners and townspeople, who see the hospital as an essential part of the community; the 13th-century Anglican parish church is dedicated to St Paul. The Grade II * - listed; the Eden Church, a Baptist chapel on the High Street, was registered for marriages in 1860. The church contains examples of medieval graffiti including ritual protection marks such as the VV symbol. Roman Catholics worship at St Lawrence's Church, registered in 1933. In the parish is the hamlet of Marsh Green. Two places of worship are located here: St John's United Reformed Church and a Kingdom Hall which serves the Oxted Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses, it was registered for marriages in 1999. The Grade II-listed former Ebenezer Chapel, used by Independent Calvinists and by Strict Baptists, stands on Edenbridge High Street.
It is now a community centre. In the Marlpit Hill area of the town, St Paulinus' Church Centre was used for worship and as a village hall, but has an uncertain future. Nearby, Marlpit Hill Baptist Church has been demolished. Tom Chatfield, lives in the town Walter Galpin Alcock and composer, was born in Edenbridge Ralph Alger Bagnold, desert explorer, lived in Edenbridge in his final years. David Henry Bartleet, was vicar of Edenbridge Tony Burns, football player and manager, was born in Edenbridge Lennox Cato, expert on the Antiques Roadshow lives in the town Anthony Catt, was born in Edenbridge Mike Manley, CEO of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles John Surtees, racing driver, had his workshop in Edenbridge Henry Surtees, racing driver and son of John, lived in Edenbridge. William Taillour, Lord Mayor of London in 1468 lived in Edenbridge Rob Cross, professional darts player, lives in the town. List of places of worship in Sevenoaks Marlpit Hill community website
Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames, with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury, leader of the Church of England, since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century. Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway, it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. Between London and the Strait of Dover, which separates it from mainland Europe, Kent has seen both diplomacy and conflict, ranging from the Leeds Castle peace talks of 1978 and 2004 to the Battle of Britain in World War II.
England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history. France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county. Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty: the North Downs and The High Weald; the name Kent is believed to be of British Celtic origin and was known in Old English as Cent, Cent lond, Centrice.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia, today a province of Spain; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730 and recorded as Cent in 835; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. In 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity; the Diocese of Canterbury became England's first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained England's centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or "unconquered"; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy. The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067.
Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent, into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. Men and women from east of the Medway are Men of Kent, those from the west are Kentishmen or Kentish Maids. During the medieval and early modern period, Kent played a major role in several of England's most notable rebellions, including the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, led by Wat Tyler,Jack Cade's Kent rebellion of 1450, Wyatt's Rebellion of 1554 against Queen Mary I; the Royal Navy first used the River Medway in 1547. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham. By 1618, storehouses, a ropewalk, a drydock, houses for officials had
Chartwell is a country house near the town of Westerham, Kent in South East England. For over forty years it was the home of Winston Churchill, he bought the property in September 1922 and lived there until shortly before his death in January 1965. In the 1930s, when Churchill was excluded from political office, Chartwell became the centre of his world. At his dining table, he gathered those who could assist his campaign against German re-armament and the British government's response of appeasement. During the Second World War Chartwell was unused, the Churchills returning after he lost the 1945 election. In 1953, when again Prime Minister, the house became Churchill's refuge when he suffered a devastating stroke. In October 1964, he left for the last time, dying at his London home, 28, Hyde Park Gate, on 24 January 1965; the origins of the estate reach back to the 14th century. It passed as a substantial, brick-built manor. In 1848, it was purchased by John Campbell Colquhoun; the Campbell Colquhouns enlarged the house and the advertisement for its sale at the time of Churchill's purchase described it as an "imposing" mansion.
Between 1922 and 1924, it was rebuilt and extended by the society architect Philip Tilden. From the garden front, the house has extensive views over the Weald of Kent, "the most beautiful and charming" Churchill had seen, the determining factor in his decision to buy the house. In 1946, when financial constraints forced Churchill to again consider selling Chartwell, it was acquired by the National Trust with funds raised by a consortium of Churchill's friends led by Lord Camrose, on condition that the Churchills retain a life-tenancy. After Churchill's death, Lady Churchill surrendered her lease on the house and it was opened to the public by the Trust in 1966. A Grade I listed building, for its historical significance rather than its architectural merit, Chartwell has become among the Trust's most popular properties; the site had been built upon at least as early as the 16th century, when the estate was called Well Street. The origin of the name is the Chart Well, a spring to the north of the current house, Chart being an Old English word for rough ground.
Henry VIII was reputed to have stayed in the house during his courtship of Anne Boleyn at nearby Hever Castle. Elements of the Tudor house are still visible, the Historic England listing for Chartwell notes that 16th century brickwork can be seen in some of the external walls. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the house was used as a farmhouse and its ownership was subject to frequent change. In 1848, it was purchased by John Campbell Colquhoun, a former MP; the original farmhouse was enlarged and modified during their ownership, including the addition of the stepped gables, a Scottish baronial genuflection to the land of their fathers. By the time of the sale to Churchill, it was, in the words of Oliver Garnett, author of the 2008 guidebook to the house, an example of "Victorian architecture at its least attractive, a ponderous red-brick country mansion of tile-hung gables and poky oriel windows". Churchill first saw Chartwell in July 1921, shortly before the house and estate were to be auctioned.
He returned the same month with his wife Clementine, attracted to the property, although her enthusiasm cooled during subsequent visits. In September 1922, when the house had failed to sell at auction, he was offered it for £5,500, he paid £5,000, after his first offer of £4,800, made because "the house will have to be largely rebuilt, the presence of dry rot is a serious adverse factor", was rejected. The seller was Captain Archibald John Campbell Colquhoun, who had inherited the house in June 1922 on the death of his brother. Campbell Colquhoun had been a contemporary of Churchill's at Harrow School in the 1880s. On completion of the sale in September 1922, Churchill wrote to him. I have been searching for two years for a home in the country and the site is the most beautiful and charming I have seen"; the sale was concluded on 11 November 1922. The previous 15 months had been and professionally calamitous. In June 1921, Churchill's mother had died, followed three months by his youngest child, Marigold.
In late 1922, he fell ill with appendicitis and at the end of the year lost his Scottish parliamentary seat at Dundee. Philip Tilden, Churchill's architect, began work on the house in 1922 and the Churchills rented a farmhouse near Westerham, Churchill visiting the site to observe progress; the two-year building programme, the ever-rising costs, which escalated from the initial estimate of £7,000 to over £18,000, a series of construction difficulties relating to damp, soured relations between architect and client, by 1924 Churchill and Tilden were on speaking terms. Legal arguments, conducted through their respective lawyers, rumbled on until 1927. Clementine's anxieties about the costs, both of building and subsequently living at Chartwell continued. In September 1923 Churchill wrote to her, "My beloved, I beg you not to worry about money, or to feel insecure. Chartwell is to be our home we must endeavour to live there for many years." Churchill moved into the house in April 1924, a letter dated 17 April of that year to Clementine begins, "This i