Ordnance Survey National Grid
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, different from using Latitude and Longitude. It is often called British National Grid, the Ordnance Survey devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys. Grid references are commonly quoted in other publications and data sources. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system is used to provide references for worldwide locations. European-wide agencies use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System system, the grid is based on the OSGB36 datum, and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962. It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which, up to the end of World War Two, had issued only to the military. The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain, more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the GPS, the British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin at 49° N, 2° W.
Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly, the distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W. 2° 0′ 5″ W. OSGB36 was used by Admiralty nautical charts until 2000 after which WGS84 has been used, a geodetic transformation between OSGB36 and other terrestrial reference systems can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true, the definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02. This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy, the difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place.
The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB36 are the same as for WGS84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB36 equivalents, the smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland and the greatest in Kent. But Great Britain has not shrunk by 100+ metres, a point near Lands End now computes to be 27.6 metres closer to a point near Duncansby Head than it did under OSGB36. For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, there are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain, S, T, N and H. The O square contains an area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide
A tower mill is a type of vertical windmill consisting of a brick or stone tower, on which sits a wooden cap or roof, which can rotate to bring the sails into the wind. This rotating cap on a masonry base gave tower mills great advantages over earlier post mills, as they could stand much higher, bear larger sails. Windmills in general had been known to civilization for centuries, and it represented a modification or a demonstration of improving and adapting technology that had been known by humans for ages. Although these types of mills were effective, some argue that, owing to their complexity, other early examples come from Yorkshire and Buckinghamshire. Other sources pin its earliest inception back in 1180 in the form of an illustration on a Norman deed, the Netherlands has six mills recorded before the year 1407. One of the earliest tower mills in Britain was Chesterton Mill, the large part of its development continued through the late Middle Ages, towards the end of the 15th century tower mills began appearing across Europe in greater numbers.
The origins of the mill can be found in a growing economy of Europe. The spread of tower mills came with an economy that called for larger. The tower mill was seen as an object, being painted and designed with aesthetic appeal in mind. In England around 12 eight-sailers, more than 50 six- and 50 five-sailers were built in the late 18th century and 19th century, of the eight sailed mills only Pocklingtons Mill in Heckington survived in fully functional state. A few of the other ones exist as four-sailed mills, as residences, as ruins, in Lincolnshire some of the six-sailed and five-sailed slender tower mills with their white onion-shaped cap and a huge fantail are still there and working today. Another fine six-sailer can be found in Derbyshire – Englands only sandstone towered windmill at Heage of 1791, select tower mills found around Holland were constructed on a wooden frame so as to rotate the entire foundation of the mill along with the cap. These towers were constructed out of wood rather than masonry as well. A movable head which could pivot to react to the wind patterns was the most important aspect of the tower mill.
This ability gave the advantage of a larger and more stable frame that could deal with harsh weather, only moving a cap was much easier than moving an entire structure. In the earliest tower mills the cap was turned into the wind with a long tail-pole which stretched down to the ground at the back of the mill, an endless chain was used which drove the cap through gearing. Like other windmills tower mills have normally four blades, more than four blades to increase the sail surface. Therefore, engineer John Smeaton invented the cast-iron Lincolnshire cross to make sail-crosses with five, the cross was named after Lincolnshire where it was most widely used
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle, in the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done, the reduced-pressure steam is exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. Specialized devices such as hammers and steam pile drivers are dependent on the steam pressure supplied from a separate boiler. The use of boiling water to mechanical motion goes back over 2000 years. The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained the first patent for an engine in 1606. In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam pump that used steam in direct contact with the water being pumped, Saverys steam pump used condensing steam to create a vacuum and draw water into a chamber, and applied pressurized steam to further pump the water.
Thomas Newcomens atmospheric engine was the first commercial steam engine using a piston. In 1781 James Watt patented an engine that produced continuous rotary motion. Watts ten-horsepower engines enabled a range of manufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines could be sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained, by 1883, engines that could provide 10,000 hp had become feasible. The stationary steam engine was a key component of the Industrial Revolution, the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD is considered to be the first recorded steam engine. Torque was produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, in the Spanish Empire, the great inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained a patent for the first steam engine in history in 1603. Thomas Savery, in 1698, patented the first practical, atmospheric pressure and it had no piston or moving parts, only taps. It was an engine, a kind of thermic syphon, in which steam was admitted to an empty container.
The vacuum thus created was used to water from the sump at the bottom of the mine
Windmills are powered by their sails. Sails are found in different designs, from primitive common sails to the patent sails. The jib sail is found in Mediterranean countries and consists of a triangle of cloth wound round a spar. The mill must be stopped in order to adjust the reefing of the sail, though rare in the UK, at least two windmills are known to have had jib sails. The common sail is the simplest form of sail, in medieval mills, the sailcloth was wound in and out of a ladder-type arrangement of sails. Medieval sails could be constructed with or without outer sailbars, post-medieval mill sails have a lattice framework over which the sailcloth is spread. There are various reefs for the different spread of sails, these are full sail, dagger point, sword point, the mill must be stopped in order to adjust the reefing of the sail. Spring sails were invented by Scottish millwright Andrew Meikle in 1772, the sail is divided into a number of bays, each having a number of shutters. All the shutters are joined together by a bar.
Although automatic in operation, the mill must be stopped in order to adjust the reefing of the sail, roller reefing sails were invented by Stephen Hooper in 1789. As with spring sails, the sail is divided into a number of bays, the cloth is extended or retracted by a rod and lever system, and connected with a shutter bar on each sail. Adjustment of the roller reefing sail can be made without stopping the mill and this type of sail was popular in Yorkshire, although the only remaining mill with roller reefing sails intact is Ballycopeland Windmill in Northern Ireland. Patent sails were invented by William Cubitt in 1807 and they combine the shutters of the spring sail with automatic adjustment of the roller reefing sail. Their construction is similar to that of the spring sail, adjustment of patent sails can be made without stopping the mill. Air brakes In 1860, the English millwright Catchpole fitted an automatic air brake to the ends of patent sails and these were longitudinal shutters at the tip of each sail, which opened up if the wind got too strong, thus slowing the sail.
Spring patent sails have a spring to enable each sail to be adjusted individually, the system was not a common one. In the Netherlands, the common sail predominates, Dekker / Van Bussel system The Dutch millwright A. J. Dekker improved on the efficiency of the common sail. The stock is given an airfoil shape by completely covering it with galvanised steel plates, dekkerised sails provide enough surface area to be able to work the mill with no sailcloth spread if the wind is strong enough
Duck End Mill, Finchingfield
Duck End Mill, Letchs Mill or Finchingfield Post Mill is a grade II listed Post mill at Finchingfield, England which has been restored. Duck End Mill was built in the mid century, dates of 1756,17601773 and 1777 being recorded in the mill. It was originally built as an open trestle mill, the roundhouse being added in 1840, the mill was insured for £50 in 1790 and £100 in 1794. The mill was working until c,1890, and had an all wood windshaft to the last. This was replaced by the cast iron one from Gainsford End Mill, a replacement wooden windshaft has since been fitted. Duck End Mill is a post mill with a single storey roundhouse, the mill is winded by a tailpole. There was one pair of millstones, driven by an 8 feet 8 inches Brake Wheel, the body of the mill measures 16 feet 6 inches by 10 feet in plan. Essex Country Parks webpage on Finchingfield Post Mill, windmill World webpage on Duck End Mill
A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which runs on a gas fuel, such as coal gas, producer gas, landfill gas or natural gas. In the UK, the term is unambiguous, in the US, due to the widespread use of gas as an abbreviation for gasoline, such an engine might be called a gaseous-fueled engine or natural gas engine or spark ignited. Typical power ranges from 10 kW to 4,000 kW, there were many experiments with gas engines in the 19th century but the first practical gas-fuelled internal combustion engine was built by the Belgian engineer Étienne Lenoir in 1860. However, the Lenoir engine suffered from a low power output and his work was further researched and improved by a German engineer Nikolaus August Otto, who was to invent the first 4-stroke engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber. In 1867 Otto patented his design and it was awarded the Grand Prize at the 1867 Paris World Exhibition. This atmospheric engine worked by drawing a mixture of gas and air into a vertical cylinder.
When the piston has risen about eight inches, the gas and air mixture is ignited by a pilot flame burning outside. No work is done on the upward stroke, the work is done when the piston and toothed rack descend under the effects of atmospheric pressure and their own weight, turning the main shaft and flywheels as they fall. Its advantage over the steam engine was its ability to be started and stopped on demand. The atmospheric gas engine was in turn replaced by Ottos four-stroke engine, the changeover to four-stroke engines was remarkably rapid, with the last atmospheric engines being made in 1877. Liquid-fuelled engines soon followed using diesel or gasoline, the best-known builder of gas engines in the UK was Crossley of Manchester, who in 1869 acquired the UK and world rights to the patents of Otto and Langden for the new gas-fuelled atmospheric engine. In 1876 they acquired the rights to the more efficient Otto four-stroke cycle engine, there were several other firms based in the Manchester area as well.
Tangye Ltd. of Smethwick, near Birmingham, sold its first gas engine, a 1 nominal horsepower two-cycle type, in 1881, output ranges from about 10 kW micro CHP to 18 MW. Rolls-Royce with the Bergen Engines and many other manufacturers base their products on an engine block. GE Jenbacher and Waukesha are the two companies whose engines are designed and dedicated to gas alone. Typical applications are baseload or high-hour generation schemes, including combined heat and power (for typical performance figures see, landfill gas, mines gas, for typical biogas engine installation parameters see. For parameters of a gas engine CHP system, as fitted in a factory. Gas engines are used for standby applications, which remain largely the province of diesel engines
London Borough of Lambeth
Lambeth is a London borough in south London, which forms part of Inner London. Its name was recorded in 1062 as Lambehitha and in 1255 as Lambeth, Lambeth was part of the large, ancient parish of Lambeth St Mary, the site of the archepiscopal Lambeth Palace, in the hundred of Brixton in the county of Surrey. It was an elongated north-south parish with 2 miles of River Thames frontage opposite the cities of London, Lambeth became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It remained a parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, until 1889, Surrey included the present-day London borough of Lambeth. Young was commissioned to make recommendations to the government on the shape of the future London boroughs. However, Wandsworths suggestion to merge Lambeth with the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea was rejected by both councils involved, in 1979, the administration of Edward Knight organised the boroughs first public demonstration against the Thatcher government. In 1985 Knights Labour administration was subjected to rate-capping, with its budget restricted by the government and most of the Labour councillors protested by refusing to propose budgets.
As a result of the protest,32 councillors were ordered to repay interest lost by the due to budgeting delays and were disqualified from office. In 1991, Joan Twelves administration failed to collect the poll tax, the following year, Twelves and 12 other councillors were suspended from the local Labour Party by regional officials for advocating non-payment of the poll tax and other radical ideas. Twelves equally-militant deputy leader at this time was John Harrison, from 1978 to 2002 the council comprised 64 members, elected from 20 three-member and two two-member wards. Before this, the council had 60 members elected from 20 three-member wards, just before the 2010 election, its political balance was 37 Labour members,18 Liberal Democrats, seven Conservatives and one Green, giving Labour an eleven-member majority. In the 2010 Lambeth Council election, Labour gained seats and the Liberal Democrats, Conservatives, in 2014 the Liberal Democrats lost their seats, Conservatives were reduced to three and the Greens to one.
Labour, gaining seats from the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats, had 59 seats, in the 2016 European Union referendum, Lambeth at 78. 62% had the highest share of Remain vote in the United Kingdom, second to Gibraltars 95. 9%. Lambeth is a long, thin borough, about 3 miles wide and 7 miles long, Brixton is its civic centre, and there are other town centres. The largest shopping areas are Streatham, Vauxhall, Clapham, in the northern part of the borough are the central London districts of the South Bank and Lambeth, in the south are the suburbs of Gipsy Hill, West Dulwich and West Norwood. Vauxhall and South Lambeth are central districts in the process of redevelopment with high-density business, Streatham is between suburban London and inner-city Brixton, with the suburban and developed areas of Streatham, Streatham Hill and Streatham Vale. Despite the boroughs population density, Lambeth has open spaces and around the South Bank, a tourist area has developed around the former Greater London Council headquarters of County Hall and the Southbank Centre and National Theatre.
Also on the river is the London Eye and Shell Centre, nearby is St Thomas Hospital, Lambeth Palace and the Florence Nightingale Museum
Alford is a town in Lincolnshire, about 11 miles north-west of the coastal resort of Skegness, at the foot of the Lincolnshire Wolds, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Its population was 3,459 in the 2011 Census, an electoral ward of the same name exists. It stretches east to the coast, with a population of 4,531, alfords retail outlets cater mainly for local demand. Shops include a pharmacy, a grocery, two butchers and DIY and homeware stores, there is a large shop which specialises in dolls houses and their contents. There are two supermarkets, in Church Street and West Street, the five public houses are the Half Moon Hotel, Windmill Hotel, George and White Hart. Two of these still operate - the Half Moon having a tea shop and is the venue for many local activities. The Anchor is in the process of being renovated, the town has branches of Lloyds Bank and the Yorkshire Building Society. National Health and private dentists are located in South Street and Merton Lodge, a crematorium opened on the outskirts in 2008.
Market day in Alford is Tuesday, the main market is held in the Market Place, with stalls of groceries and other small items. Alfords Craft Market has been held every August bank holiday since the 1970s in the grounds of the manor house, the cattle market closed in 1987. A smaller weekly market is held in the Corn Exchange every Tuesday and Friday, since Christmas 2005, European markets have been held on public holidays. Traders from the near continent mainly sell food items, Beechings Way Industrial Estate in the south-west of the town includes companies for printing and manufacturing, a builders merchant, and a postal sorting office. The estate is built on the right-of-way of the East Lincolnshire Railway line from Grimsby to Boston, the naming of the industrial estate as Beechings Way is a wry reminder of Richard Beeching, who masterminded the nationwide cutbacks in the publicly owned British Railways. The towns former largest employer, known as C. S. Martin and Finnveden Powertrain Ltd, following redundancies, the factory now operates as Gnutti Carlo UK Ltd.
There is a daytime, Monday-to-Friday bus service to Skegness, a single Wednesday service on to Boston, Alford is known for its Grade I listed five-sailed windmill, a tower mill built in 1837 by Sam Oxley, an Alford millwright. In its heyday it was capable of grinding 4 to 5 tons of corn per day, after two years standing idle, it was restored to full working order in 1957. It is used commercially to produce organic flour and cereal. It is the only surviving in Alford
Museum of London
The Museum of London documents the history of London from prehistoric to modern times. It is a few minutes north of St Pauls Cathedral, overlooking the remains of the Roman city wall and on the edge of the oldest part of London. It is primarily concerned with the history of London and its inhabitants throughout time. The museum is controlled and funded by the City of London Corporation. The museum is the largest urban history collection in the world and it hosts more than one million visitors each year. In March 2015, the announced plans to move from its Barbican site to nearby Smithfield Market. The move, contingent upon raising an estimated £70 million, is planned to be complete by 2021, the amalgamation of the collections previously held by the City Corporation at the Guildhall Museum and of the London Museum, which was located in Kensington Palace, was agreed in 1964. The Museum of London Act, allowing for the merger, was passed in the following year, fragments of the Roman London Wall can be seen just outside the museum.
The museum had a £20 million redevelopment which was completed in May 2010 and this is its biggest investment since opening in 1976. The re-design, by London-based architects Wilkinson Eyre, tells the story of London, the transformation includes four new galleries. The Galleries of Modern London increased the exhibition space by 25 percent. The Expanding City gallery covers the period 1660s to 1850, the new galleries place a renewed emphasis on contemporary London and contemporary collecting. World City is the gallery which tells Londons story from 1950 to the present day. Fashion looms large here – from formal suits of the 1950s, through to the Mary Quant dress of the swinging 1960s, hippy chic in the 1970s, fashion comes right up to date with a pashmina from Alexander McQueens 2008 collection. The Sackler Hall contains an elliptical LED curtain where the work of up-and-coming young filmmakers is screened in a bi-annual Museum of London Film Commission, a temporary exhibition space, Inspiring London, features a changing programme of displays on the theme of creativity and inspiration.
In 2003, the Museum of London Docklands was opened in a 19th-century grade I listed warehouse near Canary Wharf on the Isle of Dogs, in November 2007, it opened the capitals first permanent gallery examining Londons involvement in the transatlantic slave trade, Sugar & Slavery. Once part of the Museum of London, Museum of London Archaeology became an independent charity in November 2011, regulated by the Charity Commission for England, MOLA now has its own Board of Trustees but the Museum of London and MOLA continue to work together. MOLA employs around 190 archaeologists working on most of the archaeological sites in London
The Horniman Museum and Gardens is a British museum in Forest Hill, England. Commissioned in 1898, it opened in 1901 and was designed by Charles Harrison Townsend in the Arts and Crafts style and it is a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture and Sport and is constituted as a company and registered charity under English law. The museum was founded in 1901 by Frederick John Horniman, Frederick had inherited his fathers Hornimans Tea business, which by 1891 had become the worlds biggest tea trading business. In 1911, a building to the west of the main building, originally containing a lecture hall. This was designed by Townsend, a new extension, opened in 2002, was designed by Allies and Morrison. The Horniman specialises in anthropology, natural history and musical instruments and has a collection of 350,000 objects, the ethnography and music collections have Designated status. One of its most famous exhibits is the collection of stuffed animals. It has a noted for its unique layout.
Composed of more than 117,000 individual tesserae, it measures 10 feet by 32 feet, the three figures on the far left represent Art and Music, standing by a doorway symbolising birth, while the armed figure represents Endurance. The two kneeling figures represent Love and Hope, while the central figure symbolises Humanity, charity stands to the right bearing figs and wine, followed by white-haired Wisdom holding a staff, and a seated figure representing Meditation. Finally, a figure symbolising Resignation stands by the right-hand doorway, a 20-foot red cedar totem pole stands outside the museums main entrance. It was carved in 1985 as part of the American Arts Festival by Nathan Jackson, the carvings on the pole depict figures from Alaskan legend of a girl who married a bear, with an eagle at the top. There is a pole in the Royal Albert Memorial museum in Exeter. It is displayed in their World Cultures galleries, the Horniman Museum contains the CUE building. This opened in 1996 and was designed by local architects Archetype using methods developed by Walter Segal, the building has a grass roof and was constructed from sustainable materials.
Official website Forest Hill image gallery urban75 photo feature Review and Visitor Information for the Horniman Museum