Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
The Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, commonly known as Drury Lane, a West End theatre, is a Grade I listed building in Covent Garden, London. The building faces Catherine Street and backs onto Drury Lane, the building is the most recent in a line of four theatres which were built at the same location, the earliest of which dated back to 1663, making it the oldest theatre site in London still in use. According to the author Peter Thomson, for its first two centuries, Drury Lane could reasonably have claimed to be Londons leading theatre. For most of time, it was one of a handful of patent theatres. The first theatre on the site was built at the behest of Thomas Killigrew in the early 1660s, when theatres were allowed to reopen during the English Restoration. Initially known as Theatre Royal in Bridges Street, the proprietors hired a number of prominent actors who performed at the theatre on a regular basis, including Nell Gwyn. In 1672 the theatre caught fire and Killigrew built a theatre on the same plot, renamed the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane.
This building lasted nearly 120 years, under the leaderships of Colley Cibber, David Garrick and Richard Brinsley Sheridan, in 1791, under Sheridans management, the building was demolished to make way for a larger theatre which opened in 1794. This new Drury Lane survived for 15 years before burning down in 1809, the building that stands today opened in 1812. It has been the residency of a number of known actors including, Edmund Kean, comedian Dan Leno. From the Second World War, the theatre has primarily hosted long runs of musicals and my Fair Lady, 42nd Street and Miss Saigon, the theatres longest-running show. The theatre is owned by the composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, soon after, Charles issued Letters Patent to two parties licensing the formation of new acting companies. One of these went to Thomas Killigrew, whose company became known as the Kings Company, the new playhouse, architect unknown, opened on 7 May 1663 and was known from the placement of the entrance as the Theatre Royal in Bridges Street.
It went by names as well, including the Kings Playhouse. The building was a wooden structure,112 feet long and 59 feet wide. Set well back from the streets, the theatre was accessed by narrow passages between surrounding buildings. The King himself frequently attended the productions, as did Samuel Pepys. The day after the Theatre Royal opened, Pepys attended a performance of Francis Beaumont, performances usually began at 3 pm to take advantage of the daylight, the main floor for the audience, the pit, had no roof in order to let in the light
Richard Andrew Palethorpe Todd OBE was an Irish-born British soldier and stage and film actor. Richard Todd was born as Richard Andrew Palethorpe-Todd in Dublin and his father, Andrew William Palethorpe Todd, was an Irish physician and an international Irish rugby player who gained three caps for his country. Richard spent a few of his years in India, where his father. Later his family moved to Devon and Todd attended Shrewsbury School, upon leaving school, Todd trained for a potential military career at Sandhurst before beginning his acting training at the Italia Conti Academy. This change in career led to estrangement from his mother, when he learned at age 19 that she had committed suicide, he did not grieve long for her, he admitted in life. He first appeared professionally as an actor at the Open Air Theatre and he played in regional theatres and co-founded the Dundee Repertory Theatre in 1939. He appeared as an extra in films like Good Morning, Boys, A Yank at Oxford, at the beginning of World War II Todd enlisted into the British Army, receiving a commission in 1941.
Initially, he served in the Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry before joining the Parachute Regiment, on 6 June 1944, as a captain, he participated in Operation Tonga during the D-Day landings. Todd was among the first British officers to land in Normandy as part of Operation Overlord and his Battalion parachuted in after the initial glider-borne forces had landed with the objective of capturing the Pegasus Bridge near Caen. During the operation he met Major John Howard on the bridge, after the war, Todd returned to acting in repertory theatre in England. He was cast in the lead in For Them That Trespass, the film was a minor hit and Todds career was launched. This led to his being cast in role in the Warner Bros. film adaptation of the play. Todd was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor for the role in 1949 and he was voted favourite British male film star in Britains National Film Awards. The film was the tenth most popular movie at the British box office in 1949, Todd was now in much demand.
He was leant out to a new company, Constellation Films, to appear in a thriller, alfred Hitchcock used him in Stage Fright, opposite Marlene Dietrich and Jane Wyman - Hitchcocks first British film in 1939. Associated British put him in a drama, Portrait of Clare, neither did Flesh and Blood, for London Films, in which Todd had a duel role. Director King Vidor offered Todd a lead in a Hollywood movie, far more popular was The Story of Robin Hood and His Merrie Men, which Todd played the title role for the Disney Corporation. Associated British put him in another thriller,24 Hours of a Womans Life, the Rank Organisation borrowed him for a thriller, Venetian Bird, directed by Ralph Thomas
Victoria Palace Theatre
Victoria Palace Theatre is a West End theatre in Victoria Street, in the City of Westminster, opposite Victoria Station. The proprietor, John Moy, enlarged the building, and by 1850 it became known as Moys Music Hall, Alfred Brown took it over in 1863, refurbished it, and renamed it the Royal Standard Music Hall. The hotel was demolished in 1886, by time the main line terminus, Victoria Station. The railways were at this time building grand hotel structures at their termini, added to this was the integration of the electric underground system and the building of Victoria Street. The owner of the hall, Thomas Dickey, had it rebuilt along more ambitious lines in 1886 by Richard Wake. The Royal Standard was demolished in 1910, and in its place was built, at a cost of ₤12,000 and it was designed by prolific theatre architect Frank Matcham, and opened November 6,1911. The original design featured a roof that helped cool the auditorium during intervals in the summer months. Under impresario Alfred Butt, the Victoria Palace Theatre continued the musical tradition by presenting mainly varieties.
Perhaps because of its music hall linkage, the plays were not always taken seriously, in 1934, the theatre presented Young England, a patriotic play written by the Rev. Walter Reynolds, 83. It received such amusingly bad reviews that it became a cult hit, intended by its author as a serious work celebrating the triumph of good over evil and the virtues of the Boy Scout Movement, it was received as an uproarious comedy. Before long, audiences had learned the key lines and were joining in at all the choicest moments, the scoutmistress rarely said the line I must go and attend to my girls water without at least fifty voices in good-humoured support. A return to revue brought new success, me and My Girl was a hit in its original production at the theatre, opening in 1937 starring Lupino Lane. In 1939, songs from this show formed the first live broadcast of a performance by the BBC, in early 1945, towards the end of the war in Europe, variety was presented under the stewardship of Lupino Lane. The long-running Black and White Minstrel Show played through the 1960s until 1972, in 1982, a production of The Little Foxes, saw Elizabeth Taylor making her London stage debut.
Another unusually long-running show at the theatre was Buddy – The Buddy Holly Story, after this, the theatre presented mostly revivals of well-known musicals. In 2005, Billy Elliot the Musical opened, garnering rave reviews, the theatre was purchased by Sir Stephen Waley-Cohen since 1991. In 2014, it was sold to Delfont Mackintosh Theatres, at the opening in 1911, a gilded statue of ballerina Anna Pavlova had been installed above the cupola of the theatre. This was taken down for its safety during World War II, in 2006, a replica of the original statue was restored in its place
Lyceum Theatre, London
The Lyceum Theatre is a 2, 100-seat West End theatre located in the City of Westminster, on Wellington Street, just off the Strand. The origins of the date to 1765. From 1816 to 1830, it served as The English Opera House, after a fire, the house was rebuilt and reopened on 14 July 1834 to a design by Samuel Beazley. The building was unique in that it has a balcony overhanging the dress circle and it was built by the partnership of Peto & Grissell. The theatre played opera, adaptations of Charles Dickens novels and James Planchés fairy extravaganzas, from 1871 to 1902, Henry Irving appeared at the theatre in, Shakespeare, usually starring opposite Ellen Terry. In 1904 the theatre was almost completely rebuilt and richly ornamented in Rococo style by Bertie Crewe and it played mostly melodrama over the ensuing decades. The building closed in 1939 and was set to be demolished, but it was saved and converted into a Mecca Ballroom in 1951, styled the Lyceum Ballroom, the Lyceum was closed in 1986 but restored to theatrical use in 1996 by Holohan Architects.
Since 1999, the theatre has hosted The Lion King, the building was leased out for dances and other entertainments, including musical entertainments by Charles Dibdin. Famed actor David Garrick performed there, in 1794, the composer Samuel Arnold Sr rebuilt the interior of the building, making it into a proper theatre, but through the opposition of the existing patent theatres, he was not granted a patent. Therefore, he leased it to other entertainments again, including Philip Astley and it was used as a chapel, a concert room, and for the first London exhibition of waxworks displayed by Madame Tussaud in 1802. It staged one of the earliest tableaux vivants, as part of William Dimonds The Peasant Boy in 1811, in 1816, Samuel Arnold rebuilt the house to a design by Beazley and opened it as The English Opera House, but it was destroyed by fire in 1830. The house was famous for hosting the London première of Mozarts opera Così fan tutte, during this period, the Sublime Society of Beef Steaks, which had been founded in 1735 by theatre manager Henry Rich, had its home at the theatre for over 50 years until 1867.
The members, who never exceeded twenty-four in number, met every Saturday night to eat beefsteaks, in 1834, the present house opened slightly to the west, with a frontage on Wellington Street, under the name Theatre Royal Lyceum and English Opera House. The theatre was designed by Beazley and cost £40,000. The new house championed English opera rather than the Italian operas that had played earlier in the century, composer John Barnett produced a number of works in the first few years of the theatre, including The Mountain Sylph, credited as the first modern English opera. It was followed by Fair Rosamund in 1837 and Farinelli in 1839, in 1841–43, composer Michael Balfe managed the theatre and produced National Opera here, but the venture was ultimately unsuccessful. For instance, an adaptation of Dickens Martin Chuzzlewit ran for over 100 performances from 1844–45 here, the Lyceum was managed by Madame Lucia Elizabeth Vestris and Charles James Mathews from 1847–55, who produced James Planchés extravaganzas featuring spectacular stage effects.
Their first big success was John Maddison Mortons Box and Cox, tom Taylors adaptation of A Tale of Two Cities, with Dickens himself as consultant, played in 1860, shortly after end of its serialisation and volume publication
The Adelphi Theatre /əˈdɛlfi/ is a London West End theatre, located on the Strand in the City of Westminster. The present building is the fourth on the site, the theatre has specialised in comedy and musical theatre, and today it is a receiving house for a variety of productions, including many musicals. The theatre was Grade II listed for preservation on 1 December 1987. It was founded in 1806 as the Sans Pareil, by merchant John Scott, Jane was a British theatre manager and playwright. Together, they gathered a company and by 1809 the theatre was licensed for musical entertainments, pantomime. She wrote more than fifty pieces in an array of genres, pantomimes, comic operettas, historical dramas. Jane Scott retired to Surrey in 1819, marrying John Davies Middleton, on 18 October 1819, the theatre reopened under its present name, which was adopted from the Adelphi Buildings opposite. In its early years, the theatre was known for melodrama and this is notable for being thought the first Dickens adaption performed.
In 1848, The Haunted Man and the Ghost’s Bargain was performed, the new theatre could seat 1,500 people, with standing room for another 500. The interior was lighted by a Strouds Patent Sun Lamp, a brilliant array of gas mantles passed through a chandelier of cut-glass, in the mid-19th century, John Lawrence Toole established his comedic reputation at the Adelphi. Also in the century, the Adelphi hosted a number of French operettas. In 1867, the Adelphi gave English comic opera a boost by hosting the first public performance of Arthur Sullivans first opera and Box. They built a new enlarged facade and part of this can still be seen today above the Crystal Rooms next door to the present Adelphi Theatre and this is now recorded on a plaque on the wall by the stage door. Outside a neighbouring pub, a sign says that the killer was one of the stage hands. It has been said that Terriss ghost haunts the theatre, Terriss daughter was Ellaline Terriss, a famous actress, and her husband, actor-manager Seymour Hicks managed the Adelphi for some years at the end of the 19th century.
The stage door of the current Adelphi is in Maiden Lane, william Terriss would have a Theatre named after him, the Terriss Theatre in Rotherhithe, known as the Rotherhithe Hippodrome. The adjacent, numbers 409 and 410 Strand, were built in 1886–87 by the Gatti Brothers as the Adelphi Restaurant, the frontage remains essentially the same, but with plate glass windows, like the theatre, is a Grade II listed building. On 11 September 1901, the theatre was opened as the Century Theatre
Dame Edith Margaret Emily Ashcroft, DBE, commonly known as Peggy Ashcroft, was an English actress whose career spanned more than sixty years. Born to a comfortable middle-class family, Ashcroft was determined from an age to become an actress. She was working in theatres even before graduating from drama school. Ashcroft maintained her leading place in British theatre for the fifty years. Well regarded in Shakespeare, Ashcroft was known for her commitment to modern drama, appearing in plays by Bertolt Brecht, Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter. Ashcroft was born in Croydon, the child and only daughter of William Worsley Ashcroft, a land agent. The biographer Michael Billington writes that Violetta Ashcroft was of Danish and German-Jewish descent, Ashcrofts father was killed on active service in the First World War. Ashcroft was determined, and at the age of sixteen, she enrolled at the Central School of Speech and Drama, run by Elsie Fogerty, from whom her mother had taken lessons some years before.
The schools emphasis was on the voice and elegant diction, which did not appeal to Ashcroft or to her fellow pupil Laurence Olivier and she learned more from reading My Life in Art by Constantin Stanislavski, the influential director of the Moscow Art Theatre. She graduated from the Central School in 1927 with London Universitys Diploma in Dramatic Art, never much drawn to the West End or stardom, she learned her craft with mostly small companies in fringe theatres. Her first notable West End role was Naemi in Jew Süss in 1929, in the same year she married Rupert Hart-Davis, an aspiring actor, a well-known publisher. He described the marriage as a sad failure, we were too young to know what we wanted. After much agony we parted and were duly divorced, nowadays Peggy and I lunch together perhaps once or twice a year in a Soho restaurant and have a lovely nostalgic-romantic talk of shared memories of long ago. She is a person and the best actress living. In 1930 Ashcroft was cast as Desdemona in a production of Othello at the Savoy Theatre, the production was not well received, but Ashcrofts notices were excellent.
During the run she had an affair with Robeson, which. Priestley, put an end to her first marriage, Hart-Davis was granted a divorce in 1933, on the grounds of Ashcrofts adultery with the director Theodore Komisarjevsky. Among those impressed by Ashcrofts performance as Desdemona was John Gielgud and he recalled, When Peggy came on in the Senate scene it was as if all the lights in the theatre had suddenly gone up
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, and limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people. The International Fire Code, portions of which have adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction. It specifies, For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms and it requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating. Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the size of the venue. For sports venues, the decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors, chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area.
Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide, in contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed. Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be used, the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums generally advertise their seating capacity, seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas. The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as covers, a restaurant that can seat 99 is said to have 99 covers, seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Use of the term public capacity indicates that a venue is allowed to more people than it can actually seat.
Again, the total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law
Palace Theatre, London
The Palace Theatre is a West End theatre in the City of Westminster in London. Its red-brick facade dominates the west side of Cambridge Circus behind a plaza near the intersection of Shaftesbury Avenue. Richard DOyly Carte, producer of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas and it was designed by Thomas Edward Collcutt and intended to be a home of English grand opera. The theatre opened as the Royal English Opera House in January 1891 with a production of Arthur Sullivans opera Ivanhoe. Although this ran for 160 performances, followed briefly by André Messagers La Basoche and he leased it to Sarah Bernhardt for a season and sold the opera house within a year at a loss. It was converted into a music hall and renamed the Palace Theatre of Varieties. In 1897, the theatre began to screen films as part of its programme of entertainment, in 1904, Alfred Butt became manager and continued to combine variety entertainment, including dancing girls, with films. Herman Finck was musical director at the theatre from 1900 until 1920, the Marx Brothers appeared at the theatre in 1922, performing selections from their Broadway shows.
In 1925, the musical comedy No, No, Nanette opened at the Palace Theatre, followed by other musicals, the Sound of Music ran for 2,385 performances at the theatre, opening in 1961. Jesus Christ Superstar ran from 1972 to 1980, and Les Misérables played at the theatre for nineteen years, in 1983, Andrew Lloyd Webber purchased and by 1991 had refurbished the theatre. Monty Pythons Spamalot played at the theatre from 2006 until January 2009, between February 2012 and June 2013, it hosted a production of Singin in the Rain. In June 2016, the play Harry Potter and the Cursed Child opened at the theatre, commissioned by impresario Richard DOyly Carte in the late 1880s, it was designed by Thomas Edward Collcutt. Carte intended it to be the home of English grand opera, much as his Savoy Theatre had been built as a home for English light opera, beginning with the Gilbert and Sullivan series. The foundation stone, laid by his wife Helen in 1888, can still be seen on the façade of the theatre, the theatres design was considered to be novel.
The upper levels are supported by heavy steel cantilevers built into the back walls, the tiers, staircases, landings are all constructed of concrete to reduce the risk and damage that might be done by fire. The theatre opened as the Royal English Opera House in January 1891 with Arthur Sullivans Ivanhoe, No expense was spared to make the production a success, including a double cast and every imaginable effect of scenic splendour. It ran for 160 performances, but when Ivanhoe finally closed in July, Carte had no new work to replace it, one opera is not enough to sustain an opera house venture. It was, as critic Herman Klein observed, the strangest comingling of success, towards the end of the run of Ivanhoe I was already preparing the Flying Dutchman with Eugène Oudin in the name part
The Vaudeville Theatre is a West End theatre on the Strand in the City of Westminster. As the name suggests, the theatre held mostly vaudeville shows and it opened in 1870 and was rebuilt twice, although each new building retained elements of the previous structure. The current building opened in 1926, and the capacity is now 690 seats, rare thunder drum and lightning sheets, together with other early stage mechanisms survive in the theatre. A notable innovation was the concealed footlights, which would shut off if the glass in front of them was broken, the owner, William Wybrow Robertson, had run a failing billiard hall on the site but saw more opportunity in theatre. He leased the new theatre to three actors, Thomas Thorne, David James, and H. J. Montague, the original theatre stood behind two houses on the Strand, and the entrance was through a labyrinth of small corridors. It had a capacity of 1,046, rising in a horseshoe, over a pit. The cramped site meant that facilities front and backstage were limited, the first theatre piece in the world to achieve 500 consecutive performances was the comedy Our Boys by H. J.
Byron, which started its run at the Vaudeville in 1875. The production went on to surpass the 1,000 performance mark and this was such a rare event that London bus conductors approaching the Vaudeville Theatre stop shouted Our Boys. Instead of the name of the theatre, in 1882, Thomas Thorne became the sole lessee, and in 1889 he demolished the houses to create a foyer block in the Adamesque style, behind a Portland Stone facade on the Strand. Once again, the architect was C. J. Phipps, the theatre was refurbished to have more spacious seating and an ornate ceiling. It reopened on 13 January 1891 with a performance of Jerome K. Jeromes comedy, Woodbarrow Farm and this foyer is preserved today, as is the four storey frontage. Dramatist W. S. Gilbert presented one of his plays here and Guildenstern, that year, Elizabeth Robins and Marion Lea directed and starred in Ibsens Hedda Gabler at the theatre, and his Rosmersholm had its London premiere here. In 1892, Thorne passed the lease to restaurateurs Agostino and Stefano Gatti, the first production at the new theatre was a revival of Our Boys.
The lease briefly passed into the hands of Weedon Grossmith in 1894, the theatre became known for a series of successful musical comedies. Seymour Hicks and his wife Ellaline Terriss starred in a series of Christmas entertainments here, the foyer of the theatre had become infamous as the site of an argument in 1897 between Richard Archer Prince and Terrisss father, actor William Terriss. Soon after that argument, the deranged Prince stabbed William Terriss to death at the door of the Adelphi Theatre in Maiden Lane. Prince was a young actor whom Terriss had tried to help. Hicks and Terriss starred here in Quality Street, a comedy by J. M. Barrie, which opened at the Vaudeville in 1902 and held the stage for another long run of 459 performances
The Gielgud Theatre is a West End theatre, located on Shaftesbury Avenue in the City of Westminster, London, at the corner of Rupert Street. The house currently has 986 seats on three levels, the theatre was designed by W. G. R. Sprague and opened on 27 December 1906 as the Hicks Theatre, named after Seymour Hicks, the first play at the theatre was a hit musical called The Beauty of Bath co-written by Hicks. Another big success was A Waltz Dream in 1908, in 1909, the American impresario Charles Frohman became manager of the theatre and renamed the house the Globe Theatre – a name that it retained for 85 years. Call It a Day opened in 1935 and ran for 509 performances, in 1987 Peter Shaffers play Lettice and Lovage opened, starring Maggie Smith, and became a hit. The Globes theatre cat, named Beerbohm, became enough to receive a front page obituary in the theatrical publication. Refurbished in 1987, the theatre has presented several Alan Ayckbourn premieres, including Man of the Moment. During reconstruction of Shakespeares Globe theatre on the South Bank, in 1994 the theatre was renamed the Gielgud Theatre in honour of John Gielgud, another refurbishment was completed in 2008.
The theatre opened on 27 December 1906 as the Hicks Theatre in honour of actor and playwright Seymour Hicks, sprague in Louis XVI style, the theatre originally had 970 seats, but over the years boxes and other seats have been removed. The theatre is a pair with the Queens Theatre, which opened in 1907 on the adjacent street corner, the first play at the theatre was a musical called The Beauty of Bath by Hicks and Cosmo Hamilton. An astonishing event occurred midway through the run of the next major work, a musical titled The Dashing Little Duke. Hicks wife, Ellaline Terriss, played the title role, when she missed several performances due to illness, Hicks stepped into the role — possibly the only case in the history of musical theatre where a husband succeeded to his wifes role. In 1909, the American impresario Charles Frohman became sole manager of the theatre, the reopening production was His Borrowed Plumes, written by Lady Randolph Churchill, Winston Churchills mother. During the First World War, the musical Peg O My Heart was a success at the theatre, Noël Coward debuted his Fallen Angels here in 1925.
Call It a Day by Dodie Smith opened in 1935 and ran for 509 performances and classic plays, as well as musicals, were seen at the theatre in the decades that followed. In 1938, actor John Gielgud directed and starred in a revival of The Importance of Being Earnest that was regarded at the time as the production of the 20th century. Gielgud took his production of The Ladys Not for Burning, by Christopher Fry, likewise, in 1960, A Man For All Seasons had its stage premiere here. In 1987 Peter Shaffers play Lettice and Lovage had a hit London premiere, starring Maggie Smith and Margaret Tyzack, one of several Coward revivals in recent decades, Design for Living, starring Rachel Weisz, transferred to the theatre in 1995
The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, song and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, the specific place of the performance is named by the word theatre as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον, itself from θεάομαι. Modern theatre, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musical theatre, there are connections between theatre and the art forms of ballet and various other forms. The city-state of Athens is where western theatre originated, participation in the city-states many festivals—and mandatory attendance at the City Dionysia as an audience member in particular—was an important part of citizenship. The Greeks developed the concepts of dramatic criticism and theatre architecture, Actors were either amateur or at best semi-professional. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama, tragedy and the satyr play, the origins of theatre in ancient Greece, according to Aristotle, the first theoretician of theatre, are to be found in the festivals that honoured Dionysus.
The performances were given in semi-circular auditoria cut into hillsides, capable of seating 10, the stage consisted of a dancing floor, dressing room and scene-building area. Since the words were the most important part, good acoustics, the actors wore masks appropriate to the characters they represented, and each might play several parts. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, no tragedies from the 6th century BCE and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in during the 5th century BCE have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides, the origins of tragedy remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE it was institution alised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating Dionysus. As contestants in the City Dionysias competition playwrights were required to present a tetralogy of plays, the performance of tragedies at the City Dionysia may have begun as early as 534 BCE, official records begin from 501 BCE, when the satyr play was introduced.
More than 130 years later, the philosopher Aristotle analysed 5th-century Athenian tragedy in the oldest surviving work of dramatic theory—his Poetics, Athenian comedy is conventionally divided into three periods, Old Comedy, Middle Comedy, and New Comedy. Old Comedy survives today largely in the form of the surviving plays of Aristophanes. New Comedy is known primarily from the papyrus fragments of Menander. Aristotle defined comedy as a representation of people that involves some kind of blunder or ugliness that does not cause pain or disaster. In addition to the categories of comedy and tragedy at the City Dionysia, finding its origins in rural, agricultural rituals dedicated to Dionysus, the satyr play eventually found its way to Athens in its most well-known form. Satyrs themselves were tied to the god Dionysus as his loyal companions, often engaging in drunken revelry
The Apollo Theatre is a Grade II listed West End theatre, on Shaftesbury Avenue in the City of Westminster, in central London. The only complete theatre design of architect Lewin Sharp, the Apollo was specifically designed for theatre and named after the Greek god of the arts. It was constructed by builder Walter Wallis of plain London brick in keeping with the neighbouring streets, the structure encloses a four-level auditorium, with three cantilevered balconies and a first-floor central loggia, decorated in the Louis XIV Style by Hubert van Hooydonk. In keeping with European style, each level has its own foyer, owing to the death of Queen Victoria the previous month, it became the first London theatre to be completed in the Edwardian period. The capacity on the night,21 February 1901, was 893. The capacity today is 775 seats, with the balcony on the 3rd tier considered the steepest in London, owing to a relatively unsuccessful opening, impresario Tom B. Davis took a lease on the building, and hence management of operations, from 1902.
The theatre was renovated by Ernest Schaufelberg in 1932, with a private foyer, Prince Littler took control of the theatre in 1944. Stoll Moss Group purchased the theatre in 1975, selling it to Andrew Lloyd Webbers Really Useful Group, nica Burns and Max Weitzenhoffer purchased the theatre and several others in 2005, creating Nimax Theatres, which still owns the theatre. It brought down a lighting rig and a section of balcony, there were 720 people in the audience at the time. The incident was preceded by heavy rain, the emergency services responded with 25 ambulance crews, an air ambulance rapid response team,8 fire engines with more than 50 firefighters, and the Metropolitan Police. Casualties were taken to the foyers of the adjacent Gielgud and Queens theatres, the London Ambulance Service stated that they had treated 76 injured people, with 58 taken to four London hospitals, some on commandeered buses. Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust said 34 adults and 5 children were treated in accident.
The venue reopened on 26 March 2014, with an adaptation of Let the Right One In produced by the National Theatre of Scotland. The owners were able to reopen the theatre by sealing the fourth level and balcony with a temporary floor, the opening caused a public uproar, with a selected audience for the first performance, on Thursday 21 February 1901, and the first public performance scheduled for 22 February. The Times refused to review the private opening, instead waiting until the first public production on the following day, the opening production was the American musical comedy The Belle of Bohemia, which survived for 72 performances—17 more than it had accomplished when produced on Broadway. The production was followed by John Martin-Harveys season, including A Cigarette Makers Romance and The Only Way, george Edwardes produced a series of successful Edwardian musical comedies, including Kitty Grey, Three Little Maids and The Girl from Kays. Between 1908 and 1912 the theatre hosted H. G.
Pelissiers The Follies, after this it staged a variety of works, including seasons of plays by Charles Hawtrey in 1913,1914 and 1924, and Harold Brighouses Hobsons Choice in 1916. Inside the Lines by Earl Derr Biggers ran for 421 performances in 1917, gilbert Dayles What Would a Gentleman Do