Battle of Assandun
The Battle of Assandun was fought between Danish and English armies on 18 October 1016. There is disagreement whether Assandun may be Ashdon near Saffron Walden in north Essex or, as long supposed, Ashingdon near Rochford in southeast Essex, England, it ended in victory for the Danes, led by Canute the Great, who triumphed over the English army led by King Edmund Ironside. The battle was the conclusion to the Danish reconquest of England. During the battle, Eadric Streona, the Ealderman of Mercia, left the battle allowing the Scandanavians to break through the English lines and win a crushing victory. Eadric Streona had defected to Cnut when he landed in England but after his defeat at the Battle of Otford he came back to the English, but this was a trick as he would betray them at Assandun; the battle is mentioned in Knýtlinga saga which quotes a verse of skaldic poetry by Óttarr svarti, one of Canute's court poets. King Knut fought the third battle, a major one, against the sons of Æthelred at a place called Ashington, north of the Danes' Woods.
In the words of Ottar: At Ashington, you worked well in the shield-war, warrior-king. During the course of the battle, Eadnoth the Younger, Bishop of Dorchester, was killed by Cnut's men whilst in the act of saying mass on behalf of Edmund Ironside's men. According to Liber Eliensis, Eadnoth's hand was first cut off for a ring, his body cut to pieces; the Ealdorman Ulfcytel Snillingr died in the battle. Following his defeat, Edmund was forced to sign a treaty with Canute. By this treaty, all of England except Wessex would be controlled by Canute and when one of the kings should die the other would take all of England, that king's son being the heir to the throne. After Edmund's death on 30 November, Canute built a church, chapel or holy site after winning the battle to commemorate the soldiers who died in battle. A few years in 1020 the completion took place of the memorial church known as Ashingdon Minster, on the hill next to the presumed site of the battle in Ashingdon; the church still stands to this day.
Canute attended the dedication of Ashingdon Minster with his bishops and appointed his personal priest, Stigand, to be priest there. The church is now dedicated to Saint Andrew but is believed to have been dedicated to Saint Michael, considered a military saint: churches dedicated to him are located on a hill. There is another possible location of the battle. There have been Anglo-Saxon coins in the area. Historians have argued inconclusively over the two sites for years. There is some strong evidence: a couple of Anglo-Saxon wills that show Ashdon as the battle site; the 10th-century wooden village church, itself built on the site of a pre-Christian temple, was rebuilt in stone in the early 11th century, about the right time for Canute's conquest. Little remains of the earlier structures, which were obliterated by the construction of the current church of All Saints during the late 13th to early 15th centuries. Benton, Philip; the History of Rochford Hundred
The River Cam is the main river flowing through Cambridge in eastern England. After leaving Cambridge, it flows north and east into the Great Ouse to the south of Ely at Pope's Corner; the Great Ouse connects the Cam to the North Sea at King's Lynn: The total distance from Cambridge to the sea is about 40 mi and is navigable for punts, small boats, rowing craft. The Great Ouse connects to England's canal system via the Middle Level Navigations and the River Nene. In total, the Cam runs for around 69 kilometres from its furthest source to its confluence with the Great Ouse; the original name of the river was the Granta and its present name derives from the city of Cambridge rather than the other way around: After the city's present name developed in Middle English, the river's name was backformed to match. This was not universally applied and the upper stretch of the river continues to be informally known as the Granta, it has been said that the river is the "Granta" above the Silver Street Bridgemap 11 and the "Cam" below it.
The Rhee tributary is formally known as the Cam, the Granta has a tributary on its upper stretch known as the Granta. The Cam has no connection with the much smaller River Cam in Gloucestershire. An organisation called the Conservators of the River Cam was formed in 1702, charged with keeping the river navigable; the Conservators are responsible for the two locks in and north east of Cambridge: Jesus Lockmap 7 and Baits Bite Lock.map 3 The stretch north of Jesus Lock is sometimes called the lower river. The stretch between Jesus Lock and Baits Bite Lock is much used for rowing. There are many residential boats on this stretch, their occupants forming a community who call themselves the Camboaters. Navigation on the lowest section of the Cam and including Bottisham Lock,map 2 is the responsibility of the Environment Agency; the stretch above Jesus Lock is sometimes known as the middle river. Between Jesus Lock and the Mill Pond,map 12 it passes through the Backsmap 10 below the walls of many of the colleges.
This is the section of river most popular with tourists, with its picture-postcard views of elegant bridges, green lawns and graceful willows. This stretch has the unusual feature of the remains of a submerged towpath: the riverside colleges did not permit barge horses on the Backs, so the beasts waded up the Cam to the mill pulling their loads behind them. Access for mechanically powered boats is prohibited above'La Mimosa' Pub between 1 April and 30 September, when the middle and upper river are open only to manually propelled craft; the most common of these are the flat-bottomed punts. Between 1 October and 31 March powered boats are allowed as far as Mill Pool, but few people take advantage of this, as there are few public mooring places along the Backs, the river is too narrow and the bridges too low to afford easy passing or turning for many boats. Punts and canoes can be manhandled around the weir above the Mill Pool by means of the rollers, a slipway from lower to upper level. From the Mill Pool and its weir, the river can be followed upstream through Grantchester meadows to the village of Grantchestermap 14 and Byron's Pool,map 15 where it is fed by many streams.
The two principal tributaries of the Cam are the Granta and the Rhee, though both are known as the Cam. The Rhee begins just at Ashwell in Hertfordshire. Running north out of Ashwell, it forms the county boundary between Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire for around two kilometres the boundary between Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire for a further kilometre. At this point its course turns east and from here until it merges with the Granta it forms the parish boundary between a succession of villages, though until it reaches Barrington it remains at a distance of around a kilometre from any settlement of any size. Just after flowing under the Roman Ermine Street, it crosses the avenue of Wimpole Hall and a few kilometres it receives the waters of the minor River Mel that runs through Meldreth, it runs along the southern edge of the village of Barrington, where it still powers a water mill known as Bulbeck Mill. At Harston it passes Harston Mill, the site of a water mill from at least the 11th century until the need for mill died out in the mid-20th century, the parish church of All Saints.
It touches the eastern edge of the village of Haslingfield before joining the Granta at Hauxton Junction. From source to its confluence with the Granta it is 33.2 kilometres in length. The longer tributary, the Granta, starts in the parish of Debden to the east the village of Widdington in Essex. After running south west to descend from the hills of Uttlesford, it turns north just west of the village of Henham. From there until Great Shelford it follows the course of the West Anglia Main Line railway, its northward journey passes first through Newport, where it is joined by the streams known as Wicken Water and Debden Water. A couple of miles it forms a picturesque addition to views of the stately home as it flows past the front of Audley End House, is joined by the stream known as Fulfen Slade, it skirts the edges of a number of villages as it moves into Cambridgeshire, successively Littlebury, Little Chesterford, Great Chesterford, Hinxton and Whittlesford, powering a number of water mills along the way.
Forming the boundary between Great Shelford and Little Shelford, it turns west to flow past Hauxton to merge with the Rhee a mile south of Grantchester at Hauxton Junction. From source to its confluen
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great known as Canute, whose father was Sweyn Forkbeard, was King of Denmark and Norway. Yet after the deaths of his heirs within a decade of his own, the Norman conquest of England in 1066, this legacy was lost, he is popularly invoked in the context of the legend of King Canute and the tide, which misrepresents him as a deluded monarch believing he has supernatural powers, contrary to the original legend which portrays a wise king who rebuked his courtiers for their fawning behaviour. As a Danish prince, Cnut won the throne of England in 1016 in the wake of centuries of Viking activity in northwestern Europe, his accession to the Danish throne in 1018 brought the crowns of England and Denmark together. Cnut sought to keep this power-base by uniting Danes and English under cultural bonds of wealth and custom, as well as through sheer brutality. After a decade of conflict with opponents in Scandinavia, Cnut claimed the crown of Norway in Trondheim in 1028; the Swedish city Sigtuna was held by Cnut.
Dominion of England lent the Danes an important link to the maritime zone between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, where Cnut, like his father before him, had a strong interest and wielded much influence among the Norse–Gaels. Cnut's possession of England's dioceses and the continental Diocese of Denmark—with a claim laid upon it by the Holy Roman Empire's Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen—was a source of great prestige and leverage within the Catholic Church and among the magnates of Christendom. After his 1026 victory against Norway and Sweden, on his way back from Rome where he attended the coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor, Cnut, in a letter written for the benefit of his subjects, deemed himself "King of all England and Denmark and the Norwegians and of some of the Swedes"; the Anglo-Saxon kings used the title "king of the English". Cnut was ealles Engla landes cyning—"king of all England". Medieval historian Norman Cantor called him "the most effective king in Anglo-Saxon history".
Cnut was a son of the Danish prince Sweyn Forkbeard, the son and heir to King Harald Bluetooth and thus came from a line of Scandinavian rulers central to the unification of Denmark. Neither the place nor the date of his birth are known. Harthacnut I of Denmark was the semi-legendary founder of the Danish royal house at the beginning of the 10th century, his son, Gorm the Old, became the first in the official line. Harald Bluetooth, Gorm's son and Cnut's grandfather, was the Danish king at the time of the Christianization of Denmark; the Chronicon of Thietmar of Merseburg and the Encomium Emmae report Cnut's mother as having been a daughter of Mieszko I of Poland. Norse sources of the High Middle Ages, most prominently Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson give a Polish princess as Cnut's mother, whom they call Gunhild and a daughter of Burislav, the king of Vindland. Since in the Norse sagas the king of Vindland is always Burislav, this is reconcilable with the assumption that her father was Mieszko.
Adam of Bremen in Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum is unique in equating Cnut's mother with the former queen of Sweden, wife of Eric the Victorious and by this marriage mother of Olof Skötkonung. To complicate the matter and other sagas have Sweyn marrying Eric's widow, but she is distinctly another person in these texts, named Sigrid the Haughty, whom Sweyn only marries after Gunhild, the Slavic princess who bore Cnut, has died. Different theories regarding the number and ancestry of Sweyn's wives have been advanced, but since Adam is the only source to equate the identity of Cnut's and Olof Skötkonung's mother, this is seen as an error on Adam's part, it is assumed that Sweyn had two wives, the first being Cnut's mother, the second being the former Queen of Sweden. Cnut's brother Harald was the crown prince; some hint of Cnut's childhood can be found in the Flateyjarbók, a 13th-century source that says he was taught his soldiery by the chieftain Thorkell the Tall, brother to Sigurd, Jarl of mythical Jomsborg, the legendary Joms, at their Viking stronghold on the island of Wollin, off the coast of Pomerania.
His date of birth, like his mother's name, is unknown. Contemporary works such as the Chronicon and the Encomium Emmae, do not mention this. So, in a Knútsdrápa by the skald Óttarr svarti, there is a statement that Cnut was "of no great age" when he first went to war, it mentions a battle identifiable with Sweyn Forkbeard's invasion of England and attack on the city of Norwich, in 1003/04, after the St. Brice's Day massacre of Danes by the English, in 1002. If Cnut indeed accompanied this expedition, his birthdate may be near 990, or 980. If not, if the skald's poetic verse references another assault, such as Forkbeard's conquest of England in 1013/14, it may suggest a birth date nearer 1000. There is a passage of the Encomiast with a reference to the force Cnut led in his English conquest of 1015/16. Here it says all the Vikings were of "mature age" under Cnut "the king". A description of Cnut
Saffron Walden is a market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England, 12 miles north of Bishop's Stortford, 18 miles south of Cambridge and 43 miles north of London. It retains some buildings of the medieval period; the 2001 parish population of 14,313 had risen to 15,504 by the 2011 census. Archaeological evidence suggests continuous settlement on or near the site of Saffron Walden from at least the Neolithic period, it is believed that a small Romano-British settlement and fort – in the area round Abbey Lane – existed as an outpost of the much larger settlement of Cestreforda to the north. After the Norman invasion of 1066, a stone church was built. Walden Castle, dating from about 1140, may have been built on pre-existing fortifications. A priory, Walden Abbey, was founded under the patronage of Geoffrey de Mandeville, first Earl of Essex about 1136, on the site of what is now Audley End village; the abbey was separated from Walden by Holywell Field. After the dissolution of the monasteries, Sir Thomas Audley converted its cloisters into a dwelling.
This became the site of Audley End House. The market was moved from nearby Newport to Saffron Walden during de Mandeville's tenure, increasing the town's influence; this Tuesday market was held from 1295. The town’s first charter was granted in about 1300, to what was known as Chepyng Walden; the town at that time was confined to the castle's outer bailey, but in the 13th century the Battle or Repel Ditches were built or extended to enclose a larger area to the south. The focus of the town moved southwards to Market Square; the main trading item in medieval times was wool, a guild hall was built by the wool-staplers in the market place. This was demolished in 1847 to make way for a corn exchange. In the 16th–17th centuries the saffron crocus was grown, thanks to the town's favourable soil and climate; the flower was valuable, as the extract from the stigmas was used in medicines, as a condiment, in perfume, as an aphrodisiac, as an expensive yellow dye. The industry gave Walden its name; the town and surrounding area, like much of East Anglia, was Puritan during the 17th century.
The population was influenced by the missionary John Eliot. By 1640, Samuel Bass's family and a number of others had departed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony as part of the Great Migration. Saffron Walden was at the centre of the Eastern Association during the English Civil War. While the town was the headquarters of the New Model Army, Lieutenant-General of Horse, Oliver Cromwell paid a 19-day visit in May 1647, taking part in debates to seek a settlement between Parliament and the army, he is thought to have stayed at the Sun Inn. By the end of the 18th century saffron was no longer in demand and the industry was replaced by malt and barley. More than 40 maltings stood in the town by the end of the century; the trade was less lucrative than saffron, but the town continued to grow through the 19th century, had a cattle market, corn exchange and other civic buildings. During this time Quakers became economically active in the area; the influential Gibsons – one of the founding families of Barclays Bank – aided the construction of several public buildings that remain today, such as the museum and town hall.
In the 1900s the Saffron Walden branch railway line from Audley End station, on the mainline from London to Cambridge, was extended to Bartlow. The branch succumbed to the Beeching cuts in the 1960s. Heavy industry arrived after the Second World War. Acrows Ltd, makers of falsework, built premises to the east of the town and became a significant employer and economic influence in the area. For a short time there was a dedicated railway station for the works known as Acrow Halt. Light industry was added to the south of the town at Shire Hill; as the agricultural economy continued to mechanise, the new employment opportunities were welcome and migration into the town from surrounding villages led to a major expansion of housing estates in the 1970s and 1980s. Saffron Walden's unofficial coat of arms showed the saffron crocus within the walls of the castle in the form of an heraldic pun – as in, "Saffron walled-in". In 1961, a formal coat of arms was granted by the College of Arms and this was adapted in 1974 into its current form.
The town has three ceremonial maces. The large mace was given to Saffron Walden by James II in 1685 and provides an early recording of the unofficial coat of arms. Made of silver gilt, it is 4 feet long. Two smaller silver maces were bought by the corporation in 1549 to commemorate the granting of a new town charter by Edward VI; this purchase is recorded in the town's Guild of Holy Trinity accounts and reads, "For 2 new maces, weying 18 ownces one quarter and half at 8s. The ownce 7l.7s". The 12th-century Walden Castle, built or expanded by Geoffrey de Mandeville, the first Earl of Essex, is in ruins. After the medieval period, the castle fell into disuse and much of the flint was taken and used in the construction of local houses and the wall surrounding the Audley End estate. All that remains is the ruined basement. Near to the castle is a turf maze, a series of circular excavations cut into the turf of the common, it is the largest example of this style of maze in England, the main part is about 100 feet in diameter.
The earliest record of it dates from 1699. It has been extensively restored several times, most in 1979; the oldest inhabited building in the town is believed to be the former maltings at 1 Myddleton Place. The 15th-century building with a courtyard garden was used by the Youth Hostel Association from 1947 to 2010, it is now used for functions. Pevsner described it as: "without doubt, the best medieval house of S
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Saffron Walden (UK Parliament constituency)
Saffron Walden is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2017 by Kemi Badenoch, a Conservative. 1885-1918: The Municipal Borough of Saffron Walden, the Sessional Divisions of Freshwell, Hinckford North, Walden, part of the Sessional Division of Hinckford South, the part of the Municipal Borough of Sudbury in the county of Essex, the civil parish of Thaxted. 1918-1950: The Municipal Borough of Saffron Walden, the Urban District of Halstead, the Rural Districts of Belchamp, Dunmow, Saffron Walden, Stansted. 1950-1974: The Municipal Borough of Saffron Walden, the Urban District of Halstead, the Rural Districts of Dunmow and Saffron Walden, in the Rural District of Braintree the civil parishes of Bardfield Saling and Great Bardfield. 1974-1983: The Municipal Borough of Saffron Walden, the Urban District of Halstead, the Rural Districts of Dunmow and Saffron Walden. 1983-1997: The District of Uttlesford, the District of Braintree wards of Bumpstead, Castle Hedingham, Colne Engaine and Greenstead Green, Earls Colne, Halstead St Andrews, Halstead Trinity, Sible Hedingham, Stour Valley Central, Stour Valley North, Stour Valley South, Upper Colne, Yeldham.
1997-2010: The District of Uttlesford, the District of Braintree wards of Bumpstead, Castle Hedingham, Colne Engaine and Greenstead Green, Halstead St Andrews, Halstead Trinity, Sible Hedingham, Stour Valley Central, Stour Valley North, Stour Valley South, Upper Colne, Yeldham. 2010-present: The District of Uttlesford, the Borough of Chelmsford wards of Boreham and The Leighs and The Walthams, Chelmsford Rural West, Writtle. The 2010 redistribution removed the area around Halstead in Braintree district from the constituency and replaced it with the northern wards of the Borough of Chelmsford; this constituency was created on different, larger boundaries under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885. Aside from the towns much of the area is rural small villages; this has been a Conservative safe seat based on election results since 1922, in which period the majorities have been marginal, but with the seat now boasting a majority of over 24,000, with Labour finishing second in the seat in the 2017 UK General Election, the first time this has happened since 1970.
The constituency is by far the largest and most rural in Essex, covers the entire north-west corner of the county: an area of 400 square miles. It borders Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire, extends deep into the middle of Essex near Chelmsford. Three medium-sized market towns, Saffron Walden and Halstead are in the constituency. All three have historic links, are busy and regionally visitor-drawing towns in the South East; the largest single source of employment in the constituency is Stansted Airport, while there are a host of small businesses, many of them high-tech, along and at the ends of the London-Cambridge corridor. In statisticsThe constituency consists of Census Output Areas of two local government districts with similar characteristics. Uttlesford district forms the bulk, has a working population whose income is close to the national average and much lower than average reliance upon social housing. At the end of 2012 the unemployment rate in the constituency stood at 1.6% of the population claiming jobseekers allowance, compared to the regional average of 2.4%.
The borough contributing to the bulk of the seat has a low 10.1% of its population without a car, 17.7% of the population without qualifications and a high 31.9% had level 4 qualifications or above. In terms of tenure 71.6% of homes are owned outright or on a mortgage as at the 2011 census across the Uttlesford district. Since the snap election in 2017, this safe Conservative seat has been represented by Kemi Badenoch, it was held for many years by former Chancellor of the Exchequer Rab Butler and by former Deputy Speaker of the House of Commons Sir Alan Haselhurst. General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place from 1939 and by the end of this year, the following candidates had been selected.