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Asheron's Call

Asheron's Call was a fantasy MMORPG for Microsoft Windows PCs, developed and published by Turbine Entertainment Software. Though it was developed by the Turbine team, it was published as a Microsoft title until 2004; the game was set on the island continent of Dereth and several surrounding smaller islands and archipelagos on the fictional planet of Auberean. The game was played in a large seamless 3D virtual world which could host thousands of players' characters at a time. Released on November 2, 1999, it was the third major MMORPG to be released, was developed at the same time as those earlier games: Ultima Online and EverQuest. After initial success, its subscription numbers dropped, its host servers remained online for over 17 years after the game's original launch. It was announced on December 20, 2016, that Asheron's Call would close all its servers on January 31, 2017. Despite several attempts by the community to purchase or lease the intellectual property for the game, it closed at 12 EST.

Set in a heroic fantasy world, Asheron's Call allows players to create a character, or avatar, from one of six in-game races. The player allocates a limited number of attribute points and selects skills for their character, with those base skills starting at a level determined by the character's attributes. Unlike many other games of the genre characters are not locked into a specific class, can reallocate selected skills to acquire other skills in the game. Gameplay involves earning experience points through a variety of activities, including engaging and defeating monsters in combat, fulfilling quests, interacting with NPCs; those earned experience points can be invested to improve the character's abilities by'spending' them on attributes or skills. Additional skill points are awarded after the character reaches certain levels, these skill points can be used to acquire or'train' new skills. In addition to earning experience and combat yield recoverable'loot', such as armor, health potions, spell scrolls.

Many types of loot can be improved or imbued with special spells and effects via Asheron's Call's'tinkering' crafting system. With their monthly updates, including supplementary content, occasional live'world events', Asheron's Call offered "episodic narrative content, periodic new quests, events that visibly affect the entire world." The game's currency is the Pyreal. The world itself is large at over 500 square miles. Unlike many other games in the genre, there are ` instances' on the world's surface; this means players can cross the world on foot, without loading screens or invisible barriers, any terrain that can be seen in the distance is a real object in the world. The world is dotted with a system of one-way portals which expedite travel; some of the portals lead to intricate dungeons. Many of the dungeons contain unique treasures; the original magic system had specific formulae for each spell that the caster had to discover through trial and error. Magic was rare; this system of spell components was phased out and replaced with a simpler system wherein magic casters would carry a "foci" for each of the magic schools they were trained in and a series of taper candles and scarabs.

Each spell is purchased or found as treasure. The old system was left in the game as an alternative. Players connect their avatars to ` lifestones'. Resurrected characters lose half their pyreals, one or more valuable items, a certain percentage of their constitution—their primary and secondary strengths and characteristics—in what is known as a "vitae penalty"; the player may bring their resurrected avatar to the place where the death occurred and recover the item from their own lingering'corpse'. In player-killer battles, the victor is allowed to take. Regardless, the resulting'vitae penalty' is removed by gaining a modest amount of additional experience, or'XP'. Player Killers are players who have chosen to change their characters' status in order to enable them to attack, or be attacked by, other PKs in Player vs Player combat. On most servers, players by default are prevented from attacking each other and must voluntarily change their status to'PK'. Asheron's Call features a unique allegiance and fealty system that creates formal links between players and rewards cooperative play.

A player of equal or lower level can swear allegiance to a player of the same or higher level, becoming a vassal of a patron. The patron earns a small percentage of bonus experience based on what the vassal makes, while the vassal is motivated to seek a patron in exchange for money, game knowledge or protection. Players may join together in fellowships, temporarily splitting the experience they gain amongst themselves. Characters can create many useful items using the Alchemy skill, such as oils that imbue missiles with elemental qualities and gems that increase resistance to different types of damage. Alchemists can create infusions that can be applied to food items to increase the amount of stamina recovered, or recover health or mana. Alchemy can be used to brew health and stamina potions. Players can craft ammunition and cook foods include cake, beer and rations; these can be combined with oils to increase health and stamina

Haywood v. National Basketball Association

Haywood v. National Basketball Association, 401 U. S. 1204, was a U. S. Supreme Court decision that ruled, 7–2, against the National Basketball Association’s old requirement that a player may not be drafted by an NBA team unless he waited four years following his graduation from high school. Spencer Haywood turned pro after his sophomore season at the University of Detroit, joining the American Basketball Association’s Denver Rockets and leading the league in scoring and rebounding in 1969-70 before jumping to the NBA the following season. Seattle SuperSonics owner Sam Schulman signed Haywood to a six-year, $1.5 million contract, ignoring the rule that a player cannot join the league until he is four years out of high school. As a result, the NBA threatened to disallow the contract and implement various punitive sanctions against the SuperSonics. Haywood challenged this decision by commencing an antitrust action against the NBA; as part of his claim against the NBA, Haywood argued that the conduct of the NBA was a "group boycott" and a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.

The central issue that had to be determined was whether the NBA draft policy was a restraint on trade and therefore was illegal in accordance with the Sherman Act. The case was filed in the United States District Court for the Central District of California, which issued an injunction in Haywood's favor, ruling: If Haywood is unable to continue to play professional basketball for Seattle, he will suffer irreparable injury in that a substantial part of his playing career will have been dissipated, his physical condition and coordination will deteriorate from lack of high-level competition, his public acceptance as a super star will diminish to the detriment of his career, his self-esteem, his pride will have been injured and a great injustice will be perpetrated on him; the NBA appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. Joined by the SuperSonics, Haywood appealed to the Supreme Court, which upheld the District Court, reinstated that court's injunction against the NBA, remanded the case to the District Court for further proceedings.

Shortly after the Supreme Court's decision, the league and Haywood reached an out-of-court settlement which allowed him to stay with the Sonics permanently. The decision allowed a significant number of high school graduates and college attendees to make themselves eligible for the NBA Draft before completing four years in college. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 401 Toolson v. New York Yankees, 346 U. S. 356 Silver v. New York Stock Exchange, 373 U. S. 341 Robertson v. National Basketball Association 556 F.2d 682 Clarett v. National Football League, 369 F.3d 124 Allison, John R.. "Professional Sports and the Antitrust Laws: Status of the Reserve System". Baylor Law Review. XXV. Wise, Aaron N.. International Sports Law and Business. New York: Kluwer Law International. Pp. 47–48. ISBN 90-411-0977-3. Text of Haywood v. National Basketball Association, 401 U. S. 1204 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Justia Library of Congress

Outline of Palau

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Palau: Palau – island country and a United States Associated State located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is geographically part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of around 21,000 is spread across 250 islands forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands. The most populous island is Koror; the capital Ngerulmud is located in Melekeok State on the nearby island of Babeldaob. The islands share maritime boundaries with Indonesia, the Philippines, the Federated States of Micronesia. Pronunciation: Common English country name: Palau Official English country name: The Republic of Palau Common endonym: Official endonym: Adjectival: Palauan Demonym: Etymology: Name of Palau ISO country codes: PW, PLW, 585 ISO region codes: See ISO 3166-2:PW Internet country code top-level Geography of Palau Palau is: an island country Location: Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere Pacific Ocean North Pacific Ocean Oceania Micronesia Time zone: UTC+09 Extreme points of Palau High: Mount Ngerchelchuus on Babeldaob 242 m Low: North Pacific Ocean 0 m Land boundaries: none Coastline: North Pacific Ocean 1,519 km Population of Palau: 20,000 - 211th most populous country Area of Palau: 459 km2 Atlas of Palau Environment of Palau Climate of Palau Renewable energy in Palau Geology of Palau Protected areas of Palau Biosphere reserves in Palau National parks of Palau Wildlife of Palau Fauna of Palau Birds of Palau Mammals of Palau Islands of Palau Lakes of Palau Mountains of Palau Volcanoes in Palau Rivers of Palau Waterfalls of Palau World Heritage Sites in Palau: None Regions of Palau List of ecoregions in Palau Ecoregions in Palau Administrative divisions of Palau States of Palau Municipalities of Palau States of Palau Municipalities of Palau Capital of Palau: Ngerulmud Cities of Palau Demographics of Palau Politics of Palau Form of government: Capital of Palau: Ngerulmud Elections in Palau Political parties in Palau Government of Palau Executive Branch, consisting of one Head of Government Legislative Branch Upper House:Senate Lower House:House of Delegates Judiciary Branch Head of state: President of Palau Parliament of Palau - Olbiil Era Kelulau Upper house: Senate of Palau Lower house: House of Delegates Court system of Palau Supreme Court of Palau National Court Court of Common Pleas Land Court Foreign relations of Palau Diplomatic missions in Palau Diplomatic missions of Palau United States-Palau relations The Republic of Palau is a member of: Law of Palau Cannabis in Palau Constitution of Palau Crime in Palau Human rights in Palau LGBT rights in Palau Freedom of religion in Palau Law enforcement in Palau Military of Palau Command Commander-in-chief: Ministry of Defence of Palau Forces Army of Palau Navy of Palau Air Force of Palau Special forces of Palau Military history of Palau Military ranks of Palau Local government in Palau History of Palau Timeline of the history of Palau Current events of Palau Military history of Palau Culture of Palau Architecture of Palau Cuisine of Palau Festivals in Palau Languages of Palau Media in Palau National symbols of Palau Coat of arms of Palau Flag of Palau National anthem of Palau People of Palau Public holidays in Palau Records of Palau Religion in Palau Christianity in Palau Hinduism in Palau Islam in Palau Judaism in Palau Sikhism in Palau World Heritage Sites in Palau: None Art in Palau Cinema of Palau Literature of Palau Music of Palau Television in Palau Theatre in Palau Sports in Palau Football in Palau Palau at the Olympics Economy of Palau Economic rank, by nominal GDP: 186th Agriculture in Palau Banking in Palau National Bank of Palau Communications in Palau Internet in Palau Companies of Palau Currency of Palau: Dollar ISO 4217: USD Energy in Palau Energy policy of Palau Oil industry in Palau Mining in Palau Tourism in Palau Visa policy of Palau Transport in Palau Palau Stock Exchange Education in Palau Health care in Palau Transportation in Palau Airports in Palau Rail transport in Palau Roads in Palau Water supply and sanitation in Palau Palau Index of Palau-related articles List of international rankings List of Palau-related topics Member state of the United Nations Outline of Oceania Palauan language Wikimedia Atlas of Palau Official Site of the Honorary Consulate of the Republic of Palau to the United Kingdom of Great Britain & NI Official Site of the Republic of Palau Palau National Congress - Olbiil Era Kelulau, Senate Palau at Curlie Palau travel guide from Wikivoyage

Urban decay

Urban decay is the sociological process by which a functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude. It may feature deindustrialization, depopulation or deurbanization, economic restructuring, abandoned buildings and infrastructure, high local unemployment, increased poverty, fragmented families, low overall living standards and quality of life, political disenfranchisement, elevated levels of pollution, a desolate cityscape, known as greyfield or urban prairie. Since the 1970s and 1980s, urban decay has been associated with Western cities in North America and parts of Europe. Since major structural changes in global economies and government policy created the economic and the social conditions resulting in urban decay; the effects counter the development of most of North America. In contrast, North American and British cities experience population flights to the suburbs and exurb commuter towns. Another characteristic of urban decay is blight—the visual and physical effects of living among empty lots and condemned houses.

Urban decay has no single cause. During the Industrial Revolution, from the late eighteenth century to the early nineteenth century, rural people moved from the country to the cities for employment in manufacturing industry, thus causing the urban population boom. However, subsequent economic change left many cities economically vulnerable. Studies such as the Urban Task Force, the Urban White Paper, a study of Scottish cities posit that areas suffering industrial decline—high unemployment, a decaying physical environment —prove "highly resistant to improvement". Changes in means of transport, from the public to the private—specifically, the private motor car—eliminated some of the cities' public transport service advantages, e.g. fixed-route buses and trains. In particular, at the end of World War II, many political decisions favored suburban development and encouraged suburbanization, by drawing city taxes from the cities to build new infrastructure for towns; the manufacturing sector has been a base for the prosperity of major cities.

When the industries have relocated outside of cities, some have experienced population loss with associated urban decay, riots. Cut backs on police and fire services may result, while lobbying for government funded housing may increase. Increased city taxes encourage residents to move out. Rent controls are enacted due to public pressure and complaints regarding the cost of living. Proponents of rent controls argue that rent controls combat inflation, stabilize the economic characteristics of a city's population, prevent rent gouging, improve the quality of housing. Economists have documented that rent control affects the supply and demand relationship in housing markets which can contribute to urban blight and does not provide the benefits its proponents advocate. Rent control contributes to urban blight by reducing new construction and investment in housing and deincentivizing maintenance. If a landlord's costs to perform maintenance consume too large a proportion of profit, revenue minus costs, from rent, the landlord will feel pressure to drastically reduce or eliminate maintenance entirely.

This effect has been observed in New York City, a 2009 study by a lobbying firm found 29% of rent-controlled buildings were categorized as either deteriorated or dilapidated in contrast with 8% of non-rent-controlled housing. In the United States, the white middle class left the cities for suburban areas due to African-American migration north toward cities after World War I. American cities declare blighted status once determined that urban renewal strategies are the most appropriate means to encourage the private investment for reversing deteriorating downtown conditions; some historians differentiate between the first Great Migration, numbering about 1.6 million Black migrants who left Southern rural areas to migrate to northern and midwestern industrial cities, after a lull during the Great Depression, a Second Great Migration, in which 5 million or more African-Americans moved, including many to California and various western cities. Between 1910 and 1970, Blacks moved from 14 states of the South Alabama, Louisiana and Texas to the other three cultural regions of the United States.

More townspeople with urban skills moved during the second migration. By the end of the Second Great Migration, African Americans had become an urbanized population. More than 80 percent lived in cities. A majority of 53 percent remained in the South, while 40 percent lived in the North and 7 percent in the West. From the 1930s until 1977, African-Americans seeking borrowed capital for housing and businesses were discriminated against via the federal-government–legislated discriminatory lending practices for the Federal Housing Administration via re


Soulseek is a peer-to-peer file-sharing network and application. The term Soulseek might refer to one of the two networks, or one of the three official user client interfaces. Soulseek is used to exchange music, although users are able to share a variety of files. Soulseek was created by an Israeli programmer from Safed. Two independent networks have made up Soulseek since both run by the same management; the older and now the less used one is accessed by Soulseek client 156. There are five times more users on the network accessed by clients 157/Qt than 156 as of August 2011. New developments are on the SoulseekQt client interface. Work on Client 157 stopped in 2008. SoulseekQt has somewhat different functionality compared to the 157 client interface; as a peer to peer file sharing program, the accessible content is determined by the users of the Soulseek client, what files they choose to share. The network has had a diverse mix of music, including underground and independent artists, unreleased music, such as demos and mixtapes, live tracks, live DJ sets, but releases from major and independent labels can be found.

Soulseek depends on a pair of central servers. One server supports the original client and network Version 156, with the other supporting the newer network. While these central servers are key to coordinating searches and hosting chat rooms, they do not play a part in the transfer of files between users, which takes place directly between the users concerned.. Users can search for items. Searches may use wildcards/patterns or terms to be excluded. For example, searching for blue suede -shoes will return a list of files whose names containing the strings blue and suede, but files containing the string shoes in their names will be excluded. A feature specific to the Soulseek search engine is the inclusion of the folder names and file paths in the search list; this allows users to search by folder name. For example, typing in experimental will return all the files that are contained in folders having that name, providing quick access to bands and albums in a determined musical genre; the list of search results shows details, such as the full name and path of the file, its size, the user, hosting the file, together with that users' average transfer rate, in the case of mp3 files, brief details about the encoded track itself, such as bit rate, etc.

The resulting search list may be sorted in a variety of ways and individual files chosen for download. The Soulseek protocol search algorithms are not published, as those algorithms run on the server. Soulseek does not support multi-source downloading or "swarming" like other post-Napster clients, must fetch a requested file from a single source. All Soulseek clients contain a ban feature whereby selected users may be banned from requesting files; this is in response to users who might be free-riding or who might be causing a nuisance for other reasons, such as a personal argument through the chat facilities or just taking up a user's bandwidth by downloading too many files, or on the whim of the banning user. Banning can be a contentious subject, was the subject of much discussion in the user forums in the early days. Users with download privileges can still be banned. While Soulseek, like other P2P clients, allows a user to download individual files from another by selecting each one from a list of search results, a Download Containing Folder option simplifies the downloading of entire albums.

For example, a user who wishes to facilitate the distribution of an entire album may place all tracks relating to the album together in a folder on the host PC, the entire contents of that folder can be downloaded automatically one after the other using this one command. The Soulseek client features two file transfer monitoring windows where the progress of files being uploaded and downloaded can be monitored and controlled. Users may complete a profile which contains basic free-form text information together with a list of things they like, a list of things they dislike, optionally an image file; these items may be viewed by other users when selecting the username from a list of members in a chat room or a list of files returned by a search. The list of items a user likes may be used to obtain global rankings for that item in the Soulseek community or to obtain recommendations from other users who have the same items in their list of things they like; the Soulseek 156, 157 and Qt clients provide a "wishlist" feature which functions like a stored search.

Search terms are input as entries in a wishlist and each wishlist entry is periodically executed as a search automatically by the client software, returning results as appropriate. While the Soulseek software is free, a donation scheme exists to support the programming effort and cost of maintaining the servers. In return for donations, users are granted the privilege of being able to jump ahead of non-donating users in a queue when downloading files (but only if th

Oklahoma State University–Oklahoma City

Oklahoma State University–Oklahoma City is a public university in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. It is part of the Oklahoma State University System. Founded in 1961 as a branch of Oklahoma State University–Stillwater, its name changed from Oklahoma State University Technical Institute to its current designation in 1990; the school certificates. Classes are held weekdays and weeknights, on-campus and hybrid, with intersession courses available; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. OSU-OKC offers: Bachelor of Technology degree program Associate in applied science degree programs Associate in science degree programs Certificate programs Cooperative agreement programs General education programs Computer industry certifications Developmental education classesCommunity leaders and professionals serve on advisory committees for each campus division, providing input on workforce changes; the academic divisions are: Agriculture Technologies & Business Administration Health Sciences Human Services Initial College Studies Liberal Arts Science, Engineering & Mathematics The Office of Student Development’s mission is to enhance student success by offering a wide range of opportunities to develop personally and professionally through an enhanced collegiate experience.

The Staff at OSU-OKC is dedicated to help students reach their education goals. OSU-OKC’s Advisement Center is a personalized approach to academic advisement, which reflects OSU-OKC’s student-centered philosophy]; the Office of Financial Aid and Scholarships operates to provide OSU-OKC students with a means of financing their educational goals. OSU-OKC is committed to providing educational opportunities and support services to students with disabilities based upon the documentation of a disability covered under the Americans with Disabilities Act, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the ADA Amendments Act of 2008. OSU-OKC is committed to providing full access to students pursuing their educational and career goals. Service learning at OSU-OKC is an educational opportunity that allows the students to apply classroom learning within the community in which they go to school, work and/or live. Students conduct a service learning project with the approval and guidance of their class instructor.

The service learning project may or may not be required as part of the student’s grade, depending upon the instructor’s discretion. To assist with service learning involvement, Services Learning Fairs are held each fall and spring semester on campus. Volunteer agencies attend this event to provide information the opportunities available and to assist students with signing up. CSEP provides broad based training in the areas of safety, emergency preparedness and precision driver training. Official website