New York Law School
New York Law School is a private law school in New York City. NYLS has a full-time day program, a part-time evening program, a two-year accelerated J. D. honors program. New York Law School's faculty includes 54 full-time and 59 adjunct professors. Notable faculty members include Edward A. Purcell Jr. an authority on the history of the United States Supreme Court, Nadine Strossen, constitutional law expert and president of the American Civil Liberties Union from 1991 to 2008. Prominent NYLS alumni include Maurice R. Greenberg, former Chairman and CEO of American International Group Inc. and current Chairman and CEO of C. V. Starr and Co. Inc.. Other past graduates include United States Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan II and Wallace Stevens, the Pulitzer Prize-winning poet. According to ABA-required disclosures, 88.2% of the NYLS class of 2015 had obtained employment 10 months after graduation, 69% of the 2015 class had obtained long-term, full-time JD-required or JD-Advantage employment.
During the winter of 1890, a dispute arose at Columbia Law School over an attempt to introduce the Case Method of study. The Case Method had been pioneered at Harvard Law School by Christopher Columbus Langdell; the dean and founder of Columbia Law School, Theodore Dwight, opposed this method, preferring the traditional method of having students read treatises rather than court decisions. Because of this disagreement, Dwight and a number of other faculty and students of Columbia Law School left and founded their own law school in Lower Manhattan the following year. On June 11, 1891, New York Law School was chartered by the State of New York, the school began operation shortly thereafter. By this time, Theodore Dwight was in poor health, was not able to be involved with the law school, so the position of dean went to one of the other professors from Columbia Law School, George Chase. New York Law School held its first classes on October 1, 1891, in the Equitable Building at 120 Broadway, in Lower Manhattan's Financial District.
In 1892, after only a year in operation, it was the second-largest law school in the United States. Steady increases in enrollment caused the law school to acquire new facilities in 1899, at 35 Nassau Street, only blocks away from the law school's previous location. Continuous growth led the law school to acquire a building of its own in 1908, at 172 Fulton Street, in the Financial District. New York Law School would remain at this site until 1918, when it closed for World War I; when New York Law School reopened in 1919, it was located in another building at 215 West 23rd Street, in Midtown. However, George Chase contracted an illness that resulted in him running New York Law School for the last three years of his life from his bed. New York Law School continued without Chase, seeing its enrollment peak in the mid-1920s, but it saw a steady decline after that. At the onset of the Great Depression, the law school began seeing a serious decline in enrollment, which forced the law school to accept a much lower quality of students than they had accepted.
With much fewer and poorer performing students, the law school moved to smaller facilities at 253 Broadway, just opposite City Hall. In 1936, the law school moved to another location at 63 Park Row, on the opposite side of City Hall Park. However, as enrollment was still declining, both because of the Great Depression and because of the military draft started in 1940, the school closed in 1941; the remaining students that were still enrolled finished their studies at St. John's University School of Law, in Brooklyn. After reopening in 1947, the law school started a new program, influenced by a committee of alumni headed by New York State Supreme Court Justice Albert Cohn; the law school resumed operations in a building at 244 William Street. In 1954, New York Law School was accredited by the American Bar Association, in 1962, moved to facilities at 57 Worth Street, in Tribeca. In 1973, E. Donald Shapiro became the dean of the law school, reformed the curriculum, expanding it to include many more classes to train students for more than passing the Bar Examination.
These reforms, combined with the addition of new Joint Degree Programs with City College of New York in 1975 and Manhattanville College in 1978, helped the law school to recruit new students. Dean Shapiro's reform of the curriculum was behind New York Law School gaining membership to the Association of American Law Schools in 1974; that year, the New York State Department of Education changed its view of the law school, which in 1973 it had criticized in a report as the worst school in the state, proclaiming that the law school had started to undergo a "renaissance."The buildings of the law school underwent renovation during the leadership of Dean James F. Simon, from 1983 to 1992. Under Simon's successor, Dean Harry H. Wellington, who served in that position until 2000, the curriculum was revised to put greater emphasis on the practical skills of a professional attorney. In late June 2006, under the leadership of Dean Richard A. Matasar, New York Law School sold its Bernard H. Mendik building at 240 Church Street.
This sale enabled the school to move forward with the sale of $135 million in insured bonds, which were issued through the New York City Industrial Development Agency. The school's securities were given an A3 credit rating by Moody's and an A-minus rating by S&P, both reflective of the school's stable market position and solid financial condition; the proceeds
New York Public Library
The New York Public Library is a public library system in New York City. With nearly 53 million items and 92 locations, the New York Public Library is the second largest public library in the United States and the third largest in the world, it is a private, non-governmental, independently managed, nonprofit corporation operating with both private and public financing. The library has branches in the boroughs of Manhattan, the Bronx, Staten Island and affiliations with academic and professional libraries in the New York metropolitan area; the city's other two boroughs and Queens, are not served by the New York Public Library system, but rather by their respective borough library systems: the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Public Library. The branch libraries consist of circulating libraries; the New York Public Library has four research libraries, which are open to the general public. The library chartered as The New York Public Library, Astor and Tilden Foundations, was developed in the 19th century, founded from an amalgamation of grass-roots libraries and social libraries of bibliophiles and the wealthy, aided by the philanthropy of the wealthiest Americans of their age.
The "New York Public Library" name may refer to its Main Branch, recognizable by its lion statues named Patience and Fortitude that sit either side of the entrance. The branch was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1965, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966, designated a New York City Landmark in 1967. At the behest of Joseph Cogswell, John Jacob Astor placed a codicil in his will to bequeath $400,000 for the creation of a public library. After Astor's death in 1848, the resulting board of trustees executed the will's conditions and constructed the Astor Library in 1854 in the East Village; the library created was a free reference library. By 1872, the Astor Library was described in a New York Times editorial as a "major reference and research resource", but, "Popular it is not, and, so is it lacking in the essentials of a public library, that its stores might as well be under lock and key, for any access the masses of the people can get thereto". An act of the New York State Legislature incorporated the Lenox Library in 1870.
The library was built on Fifth Avenue, between 70th and 71th Streets, in 1877. Bibliophile and philanthropist James Lenox donated a vast collection of his Americana, art works and rare books, including the first Gutenberg Bible in the New World. At its inception, the library charged admission and did not permit physical access to any literary items. Former Governor of New York and presidential candidate Samuel J. Tilden believed that a library with citywide reach was required, upon his death in 1886, he bequeathed the bulk of his fortune—about $2.4 million —to "establish and maintain a free library and reading room in the city of New York". This money would sit untouched in a trust for several years, until John Bigelow, a New York attorney, Andrew Haswell Green, both trustees of the Tilden fortune, came up with an idea to merge two of the city's largest libraries. Both the Astor and Lenox libraries were struggling financially. Although New York City had numerous libraries in the 19th century all of them were funded and many charged admission or usage fees.
Bigelow, the most prominent supporter of the plan to merge the libraries found support in Lewis Cass Ledyard, a member of the Tilden Board, as well as John Cadwalader, on the Astor board. John Stewart Kennedy, president of the Lenox board came to support the plan as well. On May 23, 1895, Bigelow and George L. Rives agreed to create "The New York Public Library, Astor and Tilden Foundations"; the plan was hailed as an example of private philanthropy for the public good. On December 11, John Shaw Billings was named as the library's first director; the newly established library consolidated with the grass-roots New York Free Circulating Library in February 1901. In March, Andrew Carnegie tentatively agreed to donate $5.2 million to construct sixty-five branch libraries in the city, with the requirement that they be operated and maintained by the City of New York. The Brooklyn and Queens public library systems, which predated the consolidation of New York City, eschewed the grants offered to them and did not join the NYPL system.
In 1901, Carnegie formally signed a contract with the City of New York to transfer his donation to the city in order to enable it to justify purchasing the land for building the branch libraries. The NYPL Board of trustees hired consultants for the planning, accepted their recommendation that a limited number of architectural firms be hired to build the Carnegie libraries: this would ensure uniformity of appearance and minimize cost; the trustees hired McKim, Mead & White, Carrère and Hastings, Walter Cook to design all the branch libraries. The notable New York author Washington Irving was a close friend of Astor for decades and had helped the philanthropist design the Astor Library. Irving served as President of the library's Board of Trustees from 1848 until his death in 1859, shaping the library's collecting policies with his strong sensibility regarding European intellectual life. Subsequently, the library hired nationally prominent experts to guide its collections policies.
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
Belmont Park is a major Thoroughbred horse racing facility in the northeastern United States, located in Elmont, New York, just east of the New York City limits. Opened 114 years ago on May 4, 1905, it is operated by the non-profit New York Racing Association, as are Aqueduct and Saratoga Race Course; the group was formed in 1955 as the Greater New York Association to assume the assets of the individual associations that ran Belmont, Aqueduct and the now-defunct Jamaica Race Course. Belmont Park is open for racing from late April through mid-July, again from mid-September through late October, it is widely-known as the home of the Belmont Stakes in early June, regarded as the "Test of the Champion", the third leg of the Triple Crown. Along with Saratoga Race Course in Upstate New York and Churchill Downs in Kentucky, Del Mar and Santa Anita in California, Belmont is considered one of the elite racetracks in North America; the race park's main dirt track has earned the nickname, "the Big Sandy," given its prominent overall dimensions and the deep, sometimes tiring surface.
Belmont is sometimes known as "The Championship Track" because every major champion in racing history since the early 20th century has competed on the racecourse – including all of the Triple Crown winners. Belmont hosted its largest crowd in 2004, when 120,139 saw Smarty Jones upset by Birdstone in its Triple Crown bid. August Belmont Jr. and William Collins Whitney, along with other investors, built the original Belmont race track which opened on May 4, 1905. In its first 15 or so years, Belmont Park featured racing clockwise, in the "English fashion"—allowing the upper-class members of the racing association and their guests to have the races finish in front of the clubhouse, just to the west of the grandstand.. The original finish line was located at the top of the present-day homestretch. In his 1925 book, "The Big Town", Ring W. Lardner refers to the then-recent directional change, when he has a character at Belmont say "At that time, they run the wrong way of the track, like you would deal cards".
A innovation was created by Joseph E. Widener, who took over track leadership when August Belmont II died in 1924: the Widener Chute, it was a straightaway of just under 7 furlongs that cut diagonally through Belmont's training and main tracks, hitting near the quarter-pole of the main track. There are presently two features of Old Belmont Park remaining today. First is the display of four stone pillars on Hempstead Turnpike, a gift from the mayor and park commissioners of Charleston, South Carolina; the pillars had stood at the entrance of the Washington Course of the South Carolina Jockey Club in Charleston, which operated from 1792 to 1882. The stone pillars are now found at the clubhouse entrance. Lesser known-but more visible-are the racing motif iron railings seen bordering the walking ring; the railings, used as decoration on the south side of the old Belmont grandstand, were salvaged during the 1963 demolition. The original Belmont Park was not only unprecedented in its size, but had the then-new innovation of a Long Island Rail Road extension from the Queens Village station, running along the property, tunneling under Hempstead Turnpike terminating on the south side of the property.
The train terminal was moved to its present location north of the turnpike after the 1956 season. Near the railroad terminal was yet another track—Belmont Park Terminal, a steeplechase course operated by United Hunts until 1927. In addition to racing history, Belmont Park made history in another industry native to the Hempstead Plains – aviation; some 150,000 people were drawn to the track in 1910 on October 30, at the climax of a Wright Brothers-staged international aerial tournament, which had started eight years earlier. The event came at the beginning of a period. Eight years Belmont and aviation were reunited when the racetrack served as the northern point of the first U. S. air mail route, between the New York area and Washington, D. C. Today, two displays in the clubhouse of the current Belmont Park commemorate the history of the racetrack: a long mural by Pierre Bellocq featuring the dominant jockeys and racing personalities of the track's history; the last race at the old Belmont Park was run in October 1962.
The following spring, NYRA Chairman James Cox Brady announced that two separate engineering surveys found the grandstand/clubhouse was unsafe due to age-induced structural defects and needed to be rebuilt. The book Belmont Park: A Century of Champions noted the comment of NYRA President Edward T. Dickinson: "When you sighted down the stands, you could see some of the beams were twisted, they were in something of an S-shape."The old structure was demolished in 1963. The new grandstand was built 1964–1968; the Belmont race meetings were moved to Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, during that time. The new $30.7 million Belmont Park grandstand, designed by Arthur Froehlich, was opened May 20, 1968 and is the largest in Thoroughbred racing. It has a total attendance capacity of more than 100,000, with the adjoining backyard being able to accommodate more than 10,000; the seating portion totals nearly 33,000. Unlike Churchill and Pimlico, Belmont does not allo
Union Carbide Corporation is a wholly owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company. It employs more than 2,400 people. Union Carbide produces chemicals and polymers that undergo one or more further conversions by customers before reaching consumers; some are high-volume commodities and others are specialty products meeting the needs of smaller markets. Markets served include paints and coatings, packaging and cable, household products, personal care, automotive, textiles and oil and gas; the company is a former component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Union Carbide was 50.9% stakeholder in Union Carbide India Limited, the company responsible for the Bhopal disaster. Founded in 1917 as the Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation, from a merger with National Carbon Company, the company's researchers developed an economical way to make ethylene from natural gas liquids, such as ethane and propane, giving birth to the modern petrochemical industry. Before divesting them, the chemical giant owned consumer products Eveready and Energizer batteries, Glad bags and wraps, Simoniz car wax, Prestone antifreeze.
The company divested other businesses before being acquired by Dow Chemical on February 6, 2001, including electronic chemicals, polyurethane intermediates, industrial gases and carbon products. The Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation was formed on November 1, 1917, from the merger of the Union Carbide Company founded in 1898, the National Carbon Company founded in 1886, Linde Air Products Company, maker of liquid oxygen, the Prest-O-Lite company, manufacturer of calcium carbide. In 1920, the company set up a chemicals division which manufactured ethylene glycol for use as automotive antifreeze; the company continued to acquire related chemical producers, including the Bakelite Corporation in 1939. The company changed its name to "Union Carbide Corporation" in 1957 and was referred to as Carbide, it operated Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1947 until the late 1970s. During the Cold war era, the company was active in the field of rocket propulsion research & development for aerospace and guided missile applications in the field of chemicals and plastics, solid rocket motors, storable liquid fuels.
R&D activities has been centered at the Technical Center near West Virginia. The Aerospace Materials Department was established for the mentioned purposes within the company's Carbon Products Division. Ucar batteries was Carbide's industrial and consumer zinc chloride battery business; the business, including Energizer alkaline batteries, was sold to Ralston Purina in 1986, following a hostile takeover operation. After the Bhopal disaster, Union Carbide was the subject of repeated takeover attempts. In order to pay off its debt, Carbide sold many of its most familiar brands such as Glad Trashbags and Eveready Batteries. Dow Chemical announced the purchase of Carbide in 1999 for $8.89 billion in stock. The Hawks Nest Tunnel disaster took place between 1927 and 1932 in a West Virginia tunnel project led by Union Carbide. During the construction of the tunnel, workers found the mineral silica and were asked to mine it for use in electroprocessing steel; the workers were not given masks or breathing equipment to use while mining.
Due to silica dust exposure, many workers developed a debilitating lung disease. According to a marker on site, there were 109 admitted deaths. A congressional hearing placed the death toll at 476. In the early 1960s, Union Carbide Corporation began mining a newly identified outcrop of chrysotile asbestos fibers near King City and New Idria, California; these fibers were sold under the brand name "Calidria", a combination of "Cal" and "Idria," and sold in large quantities for a wide variety of purposes, including addition into joint compound or drywall accessory products. Union Carbide sold the mine to its employees under the name KCAC in the 1980s, but it only operated for a few more years. Union Carbide India Limited, owned by Union Carbide and Indian investors, operated a pesticide plant in the Indian city of Bhopal. Around midnight on 3 December 1984, methyl isocyanate gas was accidentally released from the plant, exposing more than 500,000 people to MIC and other chemicals; the government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.
It left an estimated 40,000 individuals permanently disabled, maimed, or suffering from serious illness, making it one of the world's worst industrial disasters. Union Carbide was sued by the Government of India and agreed to an out-of-court settlement of US$470 million in 1989; the plant site has not yet been cleaned up. Warren Anderson, CEO at the time of the disaster, Carbide refused to answer to homicide charges and remained fugitives from India's courts; the U. S. denied several extradition requests. Anderson died on 29 September 2014 in Florida. Seven Indian employees of Union Carbide were convicted of criminal negligence in 2010 and fined $2,000 each. In 1982, Carbide's auditors warned of a possible'runaway reaction'. Carbide didn't supply an antidote, maintaining that MIC was "nothing more than a potent tear gas". Carbide insisted. Union Carbide's operations in Australia commenced in 1957, when it purchased the plant of the Australian-owned company Timbrol Ltd; the Timbrol factory was on the shore of Homebush Bay in the Sydney suburb of Rhodes.
Homebush Bay is on the Parramatta River. Tibrol produced phenol, the insecticides chlorobenzene/chlorophenol/DDT, the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Union Carbide continued the production of the 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T until 1976 and chlorobenzene/chlorophenol/DDT until 1983. Union Carbide commenced the pr
New York Racing Association
The New York Racing Association, Inc. is the not-for-profit corporation that operates the three largest Thoroughbred horse racing tracks in the state of New York, United States: Aqueduct Racetrack in South Ozone Park, Queens. Racing at NYRA tracks is year-round, operating at Belmont Park from May to mid-July and from September through October; the New York Racing Association is the successor to the Greater New York Association, a non-profit racing association created in 1955. NYRA is separate from the governing body that oversees racing in New York, the former New York State Racing and Wagering Board. In 1913, racing returned to New York after a hiatus. Only four tracks had survived the hiatus; these were Belmont Park, Jamaica Racetrack and Saratoga Race Course. The tracks came under common ownership with the creation of a non-profit association known as the Greater New York Association in 1955; the association remodeled Aqueduct Racetrack, Belmont Park, Saratoga Race Course and demolished Jamaica, now the Rochdale Village housing development.
The partnership became the New York Racing Association on April 10, 1958. Belmont Park was closed from 1963 to 1968 in order to construct a new grandstand. From December, 2003 through September, 2005, NYRA operated under a deferred prosecution agreement following a 2003 federal indictment; the charges related alleged income tax evasion and money laundering by mutuel clerks between 1980 and 1999 with the knowledge of NYRA middle managers. Under the agreement, NYRA paid $3 million to the government and its implementation of new cash-handling procedures designed to eliminate corruption and mismanagement was monitored by a New York law firm. After receiving a report from the monitor which concluded that NYRA was in compliance with the new guidelines, the Justice Department moved to dismiss the indictment and its motion was allowed by a federal judge. NYRA, claiming that the state lottery division's failure to approve the installation of video-lottery terminal machines at Aqueduct Racetrack pushed it to insolvency, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on November 2, 2006.
The association emerged from bankruptcy protection September 12, 2008 with incorporation of a successor corporation, New York Racing Association Inc. NYRA was reorganized and its franchise to operate the three racetracks was extended through 2033 under legislation approved by the New York state legislature on February 13, 2008; the new authorization provided $105 million in direct state aid and forgave millions more in state loans to NYRA. The association gave up its claim to ownership of the land on which the three racetracks are situated. In return, the state gained expanded oversight responsibility; the state comptroller won the power to audit NYRA's books. The conversion of NYRA from a non-profit association to a not-for-profit corporation gave the state attorney general enhanced oversight authority. In addition, the state now appoints 11 of the corporation's 25 directors. By changing from non-profit to not-for-profit status, NYRA gained flexibility in its financial management. On December 20, 2017, a development team led by the National Hockey League’s New York Islanders said that it will invest $1 billion in private funds to transform Belmont Park into a state-of-the-art sports and entertainment destination, including construction of an 18,000-seat arena that will bring the hockey club back to Long Island.
The Islanders moved to Brooklyn’s Barclays Center in 2015 after playing more than 40 years at the Nassau Coliseum in Uniondale. The team plans to break ground on the year-round arena in the spring of 2018 and open the building in 2020. New York Arena Partners, the Islanders’ partners in the development—which includes Sterling Project Development, a real estate firm run by the New York Mets’ Wilpon family, Oak View Group, an arena development company funded in part by Madison Square Garden—will finance the project; the group will pay a total of $40 million in rent. The arena is expected to host up to 150 events including concerts; the plan calls for 435,000 square feet of space of restaurants and a movie theater. Concurrent with the project, Belmont’s Park’s Long Island Rail Road station would become a full-service station with the area enhanced by landscaping, public art and a bike path connecting the property to the residential community. NYRA plans to upgrade the track and heating systems. NYRA maintains its own law enforcement force comprising over 150 sworn law enforcement officers.
The force consists of uniformed officers and supervisors, fire marshals, plain clothed investigators and inspectors, all of whom maintain New York State Peace Officer status, thus giving them arrest and investigatory powers, the authority to issue summonses, the ability to carry defensive weapons including a firearm, pepper spray, handcuffs. Uniformed members wear navy blue style uniforms. Basic training is conducted yearly. NYRA employs New York State registered security guards at Saratoga Race Course during its racing meet, as well sub contracts private security guard companies to assist with large details downstate such as Belmont Stakes. Agriculture & New York State Horse Breeding Development Fund New York State Thoroughbred Breeding and Development Fund Corporation New York Wine/Grape Foundation Olympic Regional Development Authority United Nations Development Corporation NYRA.com –