Elizabeth Victoria Montgomery was an American film and television actress whose career spanned five decades. She is best remembered for her leading role as Samantha Stephens on the television series Bewitched; the daughter of actor Robert Montgomery, she began her career in the 1950s with a role on her father's television series Robert Montgomery Presents, won a Theater World Award for her 1956 Broadway debut in the production Late Love. In the 1960s, she became known for her role as Samantha Stephens on the ABC sitcom Bewitched, her work on the series earned her five Primetime Emmy Award nominations and four Golden Globe Award nominations. After Bewitched ended its run in 1972, Montgomery continued her career with roles in numerous television films, including A Case of Rape, as Ellen Harrod, The Legend of Lizzie Borden in the title role. Both roles earned her additional Emmy Award nominations. Throughout her career, Montgomery was involved in various forms of political activism and charitable work.
She has been cited as one of the earliest celebrities to support gay rights and advocate for AIDS patients, volunteering with the AIDS Project Los Angeles and amfAR at the height of the AIDS epidemic. Montgomery was born on April 15, 1933, in Los Angeles, California, to Broadway actress Elizabeth Daniel Bryan and film star Robert Montgomery. Montgomery's mother was a native of Kentucky and her father was from New York, she had an elder sister, Martha Bryan Montgomery, who died as an infant, a younger brother, Robert Montgomery Jr.. Montgomery was of Scottish descent, her great-grandfather, Archibald Montgomery, was born in Belfast and emigrated to the United States in 1849. Genealogical research conducted after Montgomery's death revealed that Montgomery and accused 19th-century murderer Lizzie Borden were sixth cousins once removed, both descending from 17th-century Massachusetts resident John Luther. Montgomery had played Borden, she attended Westlake School for Girls in California. After graduating from Spence School in New York City, she attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts for three years.
Montgomery made her television debut in her father's series Robert Montgomery Presents and appeared on occasion as a member of his "summer stock" company of performers. In October 1953, Montgomery made her Broadway debut, starring in Late Love, for which she won a Theater World Award for her performance, she made her film debut in Otto Preminger's The Court-Martial of Billy Mitchell. Montgomery returned to Broadway in 1956. Montgomery's early career consisted of starring roles and appearances in live television dramas and series, such as Studio One, Kraft Television Theater, Johnny Staccato, Burke's Law, The Twilight Zone, The Eleventh Hour, Wagon Train, Boris Karloff's Thriller, Alfred Hitchcock Presents. In 1960, Montgomery was nominated for an Emmy Award for her portrayal of southern nightclub performer Rusty Heller in an episode of The Untouchables, playing opposite David White, who portrayed Darrin's boss Larry Tate on Bewitched, she played the part of Rose Cornelius in the Rawhide episode "Incident at El Crucero".
In 1963, Montgomery was featured in a role as a socialite who falls for a gangster in Johnny Cool, directed by William Asher, the film comedy Who's Been Sleeping in My Bed?, with Dean Martin and Carol Burnett, this time directed by Daniel Mann. After her appearance on Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Alfred Hitchcock had her in mind to play the sister-in-law of Sean Connery, who sees herself as a rival to the troubled heroine in the movie Marnie, but Montgomery was unavailable. In the ABC situation comedy Bewitched, Montgomery played the central role of lovable witch Samantha Stephens, with Dick York as her husband. Starting in the second season of the series, she played the role of Samantha's mischievous cousin, under the pseudonym Pandora Spocks. Bewitched became a ratings success; the series aired for eight seasons, from 1964 to 1972, despite low ratings late in the series run, it was renewed for a ninth season to run from 1972 to 1973. However, Montgomery's marriage to Bewitched director William Asher was in trouble and the couple had separated by the end of the eighth season.
This caused severe friction in their professional relationship and ended any possibility of another season. As a consolation to ABC, Montgomery and Asher offered a half-hour sitcom, The Paul Lynde Show, to the network for the 1972–1973 season. Lynde's series lasted only one year. In a parody of her Samantha Stephens role, she made a cameo appearance as a witch at the end of the beach party film How to Stuff a Wild Bikini; the film was directed by her husband at the time. That same year she provided the voice of Samantha for an episode of the animated series The Flintstones. For her role on Bewitched, Montgomery received four Golden Globe nominations; the show added to the increasing popularity of the name Samantha. While its use was rare until 1958, it has remained popular since 1965 due chiefly to Montgomery's character. Montgomery returned to Samantha-like twitching of her nose and on-screen magic in a series of Japanese television commercials for "Mother" chocolate biscuits and cookies by confectionery conglomerate Lotte Corp.
These Japanese commercials provided a substantial salary for Montgomery while she remained out of si
William Milton Asher was an American television and film producer, film director, screenwriter. He was one of the most prolific early television directors, producing or directing over two dozen series. With television in its infancy, Asher introduced the sitcom Our Miss Brooks, adapted from a radio show, he began directing I Love Lucy by 1952. In 1964, he directed Bewitched, which starred his then-wife Elizabeth Montgomery; as a result of his early success, Asher was considered an "early wunderkind of TV-land," and was hyperbolically credited in one magazine article with "inventing" the sitcom. Asher was nominated for an Emmy four times, winning once for directing Bewitched in 1966, he was nominated for the DGA award in 1951 for I Love Lucy. Asher was born in New York City to stage actress Lillian Bonner and producer Ephraim M. Asher, whose movie credits were as an associate producer, his sister, Betty Asher, was an MGM publicist for Judy Garland. His father was Jewish, his mother Catholic. Asher's family moved to Los Angeles when he was 10, where he accompanied his father to the movie studio.
Asher's parents divorced. He recalled that this period was filled with turmoil, as his mother was abusive and an alcoholic; as a result of having to live in New York with his mother, he dropped out of school and served in the Army Signal Corps during World War II. Asher returned to California to direct a low-budget film, he gravitated to television, got a job writing short story "fillers" for various programs, which evolved into a series called Little Theatre. From this work, he gained a contract with Columbia Pictures to work on a film musical for Harry Cohn. Asher received an offer from CBS Studios to direct Our Miss Brooks, starring Eve Arden, a television version of the popular radio show. In 1952, Desi Arnaz asked Asher to direct an episode of his series I Love Lucy. "When we did the show, we thought,'That's it, we're done with it.' We never dreamed. Lucille Ball was one of TV's true pioneers."Asher was considered an "early wunderkind of TV-land, blazing a path in the new medium" of television.
Writer and producer William Froug described Asher as a "hyphenate of a different stripe, a director-producer", commenting that he was one of many "restless Hollywood professionals who, like nomads, drifted from job to job, always delivering competent, if not inspired work". In addition to Our Miss Brooks and I Love Lucy, Asher directed episodes of The Colgate Comedy Hour, Make Room for Daddy, The Twilight Zone, The Patty Duke Show, The Dukes of Hazzard, Alice. Asher and Montgomery befriended President John F. Kennedy, together with Frank Sinatra, planned Kennedy's 1961 inaugural ceremony. Asher's best-known work was Bewitched. At that time, he was married to the show's star Elizabeth Montgomery, they divorced soon after the series' cancellation in 1972. Asher directed several films, including Muscle Beach Party, Bikini Beach, Beach Blanket Bingo. Television historian Wheeler Dixon suggested that the Beach Party films were not only "visions of paradise" for the audience, but for Asher, who used them "to create a fantasy world to replace his own troubled childhood."Asher recalled his directorial years: When I look back at my own work, Bewitched stays with me the most, Lucy, the Beach Party pictures.
The scripts of the Beach Party films were sheer nonsense, but they were fun and positive.... When kids see the films now, they can get some idea of; the whole thing was a dream, of course. But it was a nice dream. Asher received a star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars in November 2003. Asher was first married in 1951 to Danny Sue Nolan. Asher married Bewitched star Elizabeth Montgomery in 1963, they had three children and divorced in 1973. His third marriage was to Joyce Bulifant from 1976–1993, he adopted her son, John Mallory Asher. This marriage ended in divorce. In his last years, Asher resided in Palm Desert, with his fourth and final wife, Meredith Asher. Asher died from complications of Alzheimer's disease at age 90 on July 16, 2012. William Asher on IMDb William Asher at The Interviews: An Oral History of Television William Asher at Find a Grave
The Paul Lynde Show
The Paul Lynde Show is an American sitcom that aired on ABC. The series starred comedian Paul Lynde and aired for one season, with original episodes airing from September 13, 1972, to March 14, 1973, it has been added to the weekend schedule on the Antenna TV network. The series starred Lynde as Paul Simms, a general-practice attorney and the father of a family that consisted of his wife Martha and daughters Barbara and Sally; the Simms family lived in the fictional city of California. It starred John Calvin as Barbara's husband, Howie Dickerson, an eccentric university student, of genius intelligence and was a whiz with everything and full of advice, but inexplicably, he could not manage to hold down a job, Jerry Stiller and Anne Meara as Howie's parents and Grace Dickerson. Howie's misadventures around the house and his lack of steady employment drove his father-in-law to distraction and got him in a slow-burn anger. Critics perceived the show as derivative of All in the Family television's most popular primetime program, the Paul Simms role bore similarities to Lynde's best-known film role, that of Harry MacAfee from the film and musical Bye Bye Birdie.
For his role in the series, Lynde was nominated for a Best Actor Golden Globe. Paul Lynde - Paul Simms Elizabeth Allen - Martha Simms Jane Actman - Barbara Simms Dickerson John Calvin - Howie Dickerson Pamelyn Ferdin - Sally Simms James Gregory - T. R. Scott Anne Meara - Grace Dickerson Allison McKay - Alice Jerry Stiller - Barney Dickerson Herb Voland - T. J. McNish Scheduled opposite the first half of the Top 30 hit The Carol Burnett Show on CBS and the Top 20 hit Adam-12 on NBC, the series garnered low ratings and was canceled after one season. After the series ended, Lynde continued as center square on The Hollywood Squares until leaving the show in 1979; the show was based on the play Howie, about a lawyer, played by Lynde, whose daughter marries a slacker named Howard, or "Howie". The Lynde character despises him as he is not interested in traditional pursuits. Howie was developed for CBS in 1962, as a replacement for The Dick Van Dyke Show, but when that series was saved from cancellation, plans for Howie were shelved.
William Asher resurrected the Howie concept for ABC and Screen Gems as a replacement for Bewitched. Asher and then-wife Elizabeth Montgomery were contractually obligated for two more seasons of Bewitched for ABC. Montgomery was not interested in continuing the series, The Paul Lynde Show was created to fulfill the contract. Lynde had appeared numerous times on Bewitched as "Uncle Arthur". Asher designed The Paul Lynde Show to be ABC's counterpart to CBS's All In The Family; this was despite Lynde's rewrite of the show's dialog in an effort to make the series more lively and comedic. The show was filmed before a live audience, with a laugh track added during post-production. Unusual for such a series, the production included a seen backyard set with a functional swimming pool, which Lynde would fall into; the next season, ABC would cast Lynde as the lead on the re-tooled Temperatures Rising over Asher's objections. That series lasted until 1974; the Paul Lynde Show on IMDb The Paul Lynde Show at TV.com The Paul Lynde Show at epguides.com
Tabitha (TV series)
Tabitha is an American fantasy sitcom and a spin-off of Bewitched that aired on ABC from September 10, 1977 to January 14, 1978. The series starred Lisa Hartman in the title role as Tabitha Stephens, the witch daughter of Samantha and Darrin Stephens, introduced on Bewitched during its second season. In the series, Tabitha is portrayed as a young woman working as a production assistant at a television station and living in Los Angeles; the supporting cast includes David Ankrum as Tabitha's brother, with whom she works. Unlike Bewitched, a hit for ABC and aired for eight seasons, Tabitha failed to catch on with viewers and was canceled after one season. Tabitha originated as a pilot that aired on ABC on April 24, 1976; the episode used the variant spelling Tabatha for the title, starred Liberty Williams in the title role. Bruce Kimmel portrayed Adam Stephens; the major difference between the pilot and the series was that Adam was a full-fledged and mischievous warlock in the pilot, but was made a mortal for the series.
In the first pilot, Tabatha was an editorial assistant for the fictional Trend magazine, lived in San Francisco, had a boyfriend named Cliff. She contended with the supernatural antics of Adam. In situations that were similar to "I, Take This Witch, Samantha", the pilot episode of Bewitched, Tabatha tells Cliff that she is a witch, who at first does not believe her, but discovers that she is telling the truth. Much like her mother did when she used her powers to deflect the unwanted affections of Sheila Sommers, her father's former fiancee, Tabatha deflects rival Dinah Nichols from seducing Cliff; the first pilot did not sell the series. A second pilot starring Lisa Hartman was produced that interested ABC. In the second version, Hartman replaced Liberty Williams as Tabitha Stephens, the daughter of Samantha and Darrin. Tabitha is now a 20-something witch working as a production assistant at KXLA television station in Los Angeles. Working with her is her now-older and mortal brother Adam, her unmentioned Aunt Minerva pops in to encourage her to use her witchcraft.
Robert Urich is Tabitha's boss and romantic interest. The revised Tabitha pilot aired on ABC on May 7, 1977; the series debuted on the fall schedule on September 10, 1977. William Asher, who worked on the first pilot, had little to do with the second version of the series. While he directed a few episodes, namely the ones that feature Bernard Fox, George Tobias, Sandra Gould as their original Bewitched characters, he otherwise remained as an advisor. Tabitha Stephens is the main character. Adam Stephens is Tabitha's older brother, although he was younger, he does love his sister, though. Aunt Minerva is Tabitha's aunt. Paul Thurston is the egotistical, somewhat obnoxious host of The Paul Thurston Show on the fictional TV station KXLA, where Tabitha works as a production assistant. Several Bewitched characters appeared on Tabitha. In the episode, "Tabitha's Weighty Problem", Bernard Fox reprises his role as Dr. Bombay, again in the last episode, "Tabitha's Party", in which the character's first name, "Hubert" is revealed.
The sixth episode, "The Arrival of Nancy", features George Tobias and Sandra Gould as Abner and Gladys Kravitz respectively. Dick Wilson, who played "various drunks" on Bewitched, appeared in the episodes "Halloween Show" and "Tabitha's Party". Mary Grace Canfield, who appeared on four episodes of Bewitched as Abner Kravitz's sister Harriet Kravitz guest starred as another character. Other guest stars were Werner Klemperer, Dack Rambo, Tracy Reed, Mary Wickes, Fred Willard; the series takes place in the "present day" yet does not reconcile how Tabitha and Adam could be in their early-to-mid 20s when they had been young children at the time Bewitched ended only five years earlier. Tabitha was born in 1966 and should have been 11 years old in 1977, a fact that would not have worked with the major theme of the show about young woman out to make it on her own. In that respect Tabitha was more similar to The Mary Tyler Moore Show; as a pre-teen, Erin Murphy, who had played Tabitha on Bewitched, was far too young to play an adult Tabitha.
Another discrepancy is why Adam is now the older sibling, nor why Adam was now mortal rather than a warlock. In the final episode of Tabitha and Darrin's 25th wedding anniversary is being celebrated though their marriage in the 1964 premiere episode of Bewitched had been only 14 years earlier. Elizabeth Montgomery, who starred as Samantha Stephens on Bewitched, was asked to reprise her role on Tabitha which
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Bewitched is an American television sitcom fantasy series broadcast for eight seasons on ABC from September 17, 1964 to March 25, 1972. It is about a witch who marries an ordinary mortal man, vows to lead the life of a typical suburban housewife; the show enjoyed great popularity, finishing as the number two-rated show in America during its debut season, staying in the top ten for its first three seasons, just missing this mark with an eleventh place ranking for both seasons four and five. The show continues to be seen on recorded media. Bewitched was created by Sol Saks under executive director Harry Ackerman, starred Elizabeth Montgomery as Samantha Stephens. Dick Sargent replaced an ailing York for the final three seasons. In 1966, Sandra Gould took over the part of Gladys Kravitz. Annual semi-regulars included Maurice Evans as Samantha's father. In 2002, Bewitched was ranked #50 on "TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time". In 1997, the same magazine ranked the season 2 episode "Divided He Falls" #48 on their list of the "100 Greatest Episodes of All Time".
A beautiful witch named Samantha marries a mortal named Darrin Stephens. While Samantha complies with Darrin's wishes to become a normal suburban housewife, her magical family disapproves of the mixed marriage and interferes in the couple's lives. Episodes begin with Darrin becoming the victim of a spell, the effects of which wreak havoc with mortals such as his boss, clients and neighbors. By the epilogue, however and Samantha most embrace, having overcome the devious elements that failed to separate them; the witches and their male counterparts, are long-lived. To keep their society secret, witches avoid showing their powers in front of mortals other than Darrin; the effects of their spells – and Samantha's attempts to hide their supernatural origin from mortals – drive the plot of most episodes. Witches and warlocks use physical gestures along with their incantations. To perform magic, Samantha twitches her nose to create a spell. Special visual effects are accompanied by music to highlight such an action.
The main setting for most episodes is the Stephens' house at 1164 Morning Glory Circle, in an upper-middle-class suburban neighborhood, either in Westport, Connecticut or Patterson, New York as indicated by conflicting information presented throughout the series. The season 3 episode "Soap Box Derby" shows the Mills Garage in Patterson as a neighbor's son's car sponsor, the Stephens' station wagon is seen with New York plates. In the season 5 episode "Samantha's Shopping Spree", a local department store is stated as being located in Patterson, New York. However, in the season 6 episode "Just a Kid Again", the Morning Glory Circle address is stated as being in Westport, as it is again in the season 7 episodes "Samantha's Pet Warlock" and "Money Happy Returns". However, in season 7 episode "Laugh, Laugh" Darrin's car is seen with New York plates on it. Elizabeth Montgomery owned a second home in Patterson. Many scenes take place at the fictional Madison Avenue advertising agency "McMann and Tate", where Darrin works.
Elizabeth Montgomery as Samantha Stephens Dick York, Dick Sargent as Darrin Stephens Agnes Moorehead as Endora David White as Larry TateDuring its run, the series had a number of major cast changes because of illness or death of the actors. In particular, the performer playing Darrin was replaced after the fifth season, during which he missed several episodes. According to Harpie's Bizarre, creator Sol Saks' inspirations for this series in which many similarities can be seen were the film I Married a Witch developed from Thorne Smith's unfinished novel The Passionate Witch, the John Van Druten Broadway play Bell and Candle, adapted into the 1958 film Bell and Candle. In I Married a Witch, Wallace Wooley is a descendant of people who executed witches at the Salem witch trials; as revenge, a witch prepares a love potion for him. She ends up falling for her enemy, her father is against this union. In the film of Bell and Candle, modern witch Gillian Holroyd uses a love spell on Shep Henderson to have a simple fling with him but genuinely falls for the man.
Both films were properties of Columbia Pictures, which owned Screen Gems, the company that produced Bewitched. Sol Saks, who received credit as the creator of the show, wrote the pilot of Bewitched though he was not involved with the show after the pilot. Creator Saks, executive producer Harry Ackerman, director William Asher started rehearsals for the pilot on Novembe
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model