Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
Mindtree Limited is an Indian multinational information technology and outsourcing company headquartered in Bengaluru and New Jersey, USA. Founded in 1999, the company employs 19,908 employees with annual revenue of $846 million; the company deals in e-commerce, mobile applications, cloud computing, digital transformation, data analytics, enterprise application integration and enterprise resource planning, with more than 339 active clients and 43 offices in over 17 countries, as of 31 July 2018. Its largest operations are in India and major markets are United States and Europe. In August 1999, Mindtree Consulting Private Limited was founded by ten IT professionals of which three of them invested through an entity incorporated in Mauritius, it was funded by the venture capital firms Walden International and Sivan Securities, in 2001 from the Capital Group and Franklin Templeton. It became a public company on 12 December 2006 and was listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange.
The IPO opened on 9 February 2007 and closed on 14 February 2007. The IPO was oversubscribed more than 100 times. Mindtree announced a new brand identity and logo, with the slogan "Welcome to possible" on September 28, 2012; as of 2017, the company had 43 offices in over 17 countries. In 2012, Mindtree setup its first U. S. delivery center in Gainesville, under the leadership of Scott Staples, co-founder and Global Head of Sales. Digital Pumpkin, the company's research and development lab, has locations in Bengaluru and Warren, New Jersey, USA; the company works in Application Development and Maintenance, Data Analytics, Digital Services, Enterprise Application Integration and Business Process Management, Engineering R&D, Enterprise Application Services and Infrastructure Management Services. Mindtree provides various research and development services including Bluetooth Solutions, Digital Video Surveillance, an integrated test methodology called MindTest, an IT infrastructure management and service platform called MWatch, the application management service, Atlas, SAP Insurance and OmniChannel.
Mindtree’s business is structured around clients in verticals such as Banking, Capital Markets, Consumer Devices & Electronics, Consumer Packed Goods, Independent Software Vendors, Insurance, Media & Entertainment, Retail and the Travel and Hospitality industry. Mindtree has a total of 20,000 employees as of January 2019, its workforce consists of employees representing 65 nationalities working from various offices across the globe. Out of its total workforce, 93% are software professionals and remaining 7% work for support and sales. Mindtree Foundation is a unit of Mindtree that works in the pursuit of better living for people with disabilities and enhancement in the quality of primary education. Mindtree Foundation was incorporated on 20 November 2007 under section 25 of Companies Act. Mindtree’s employees, assistive technologies and associations with NGOs help to provide: Launched'Udaan',a scholarship program to support the medical education of underprivileged students in association with Narayana Hrudayalaya Charitable Trust.
Launched'I Got Garbage',a cloud-based platform aimed to simplify waste management and transform every waste picker in Bangalore, India into an entrepreneur through a structured and governed waste management framework. Individual Social Responsibility – Employees join the cause of donation of old clothes/toys/books, distribution of solar lanterns, caring for the elderly, cleaning up the city and organ donation. Mindtree has been recognized in the following reports: The Zinnov Zones Engineering R&D Services Report 2018 Digital Services for Travel and Hospitality by Independent Research Firm The ISG Provider Lens Cloud Transformation/ Operation Services & XaaS Quadrant Report The Zinnov Zones IoT Technology Services Report The ISG Provider Lens Next Gen Application Development Quadrant Report Avasant's Intelligent Automation RadarView 2018 report The ISG Provider Lens SAP HANA Services Quadrant Report for BW/4HANA List of IT consulting firms Fortune India 500 List of Indian IT companies Software industry in Telangana Official website
Asian Institute of Management
The Asian Institute of Management is an international management school and research institution. It is one of the few business schools in Asia to be internationally accredited with the AACSB, it was established in partnership with Harvard Business School and uses the Harvard Business School case study teaching methodology. It was described by Asiaweek magazine as the best in the Asia-Pacific region in terms of executive education; the institute was established in 1968 in partnership with Ateneo De Manila University, De La Salle University, Harvard Business School, the Ford Foundation, visionaries of the Asian academic and business communities. It is located in Makati City, Philippines. AIM has an international board of governors; the Washington SyCip Graduate School of Business offers two degree programs: the 16-month Master in Business Administration and the Executive MBA program. Instruction is based on the case method developed at Harvard Business School; the school applies European management principles to problems in Asia.
Over the decades, the school has built up a bank of its own Asian cases. The Stephen Zuellig Graduate School of Development Management is in the field of development management in Asia; the Zuellig School has an 11-month Master in Development Management program intended for executives and managers from developing nations. AIM used to offer a Rural Development Management Program in 1976, followed by a Program for Development Managers in 1985. PDM became the core course for the MDM program in 1989; the Center for Development Management at AIM was formally established as a school in 1991. It was renamed the Stephen Zuellig Graduate School of Development Management on March 13, 2014 in honor of Dr. Stephen Zuellig; the School of Executive Education is AIM’s executive development arm. ExecEd has two types of programs: Open enrollment programs and custom programs designed for the specific needs of the client organization. Open enrollment programs include programs for general management, operations and people management and finance.
The School of Innovation and Entrepreneurship was established in 2017 and offers three programs: the 10-month Master of Science in Innovation and Business, the 14-month Master of Science in Data Science, the 18-month Master in Entrepreneurship. The SITE laboratory is called the Analytics and Complex Systems lab; the Asian Institute of Management-Rizalino S. Navarro Policy Center for Competitiveness was established in 1996 and serves as AIM’s public policy think tank and research arm; the Center focuses on emerging international economic trends and the demands of a competitive global trade and finance environment. AIM-RSN PCC was known as the AIM Policy Center but was renamed in 2015 in honor of former Philippine Secretary of Trade and Industry Rizalino S. Navarro; the AIM Ramon V. del Rosario Sr.-Center for Corporate Social Responsibility focuses on corporate social responsibility and corporate governance. It conducts both research and non-research activities; the Center was named after Ramon V. Del Rosario Sr. Founder and Chairman of the PHINMA Group.
It manages the Hills Program on Governance established by the American International Group through its C. V. Starr Foundation; the TeaM Energy Center for Bridging Leadership was founded by Prof. Ernesto Garilao after he was inspired by a global research project on “bridging leadership” conducted by the Synergos Institute in 2000. CBL’s focus is on developing “Bridging Leaders” who will address societal divides in the Philippines and in Asia. CBL was called the Center for Bridging Societal Divides; the Gov. Jose B. Fernandez Jr. Center for Banking and Finance was launched in 1994 in honor of the late Philippine Central Bank Governor Jose B. Fernandez, Jr. JBF focuses on researching issues faced by the financial services industry, improving the competence of Asian financial managers, building alliances between Asian business institutions; the AIM Dr. Andrew L. Tan Center for Tourism provides studies that support the Philippine tourism and hospitality industry, it was established in 2012 in partnership with Megaworld Foundation and is focused on the development of sustainable tourism in the Philippines and the rest of Asia.
AIM is a member of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, Global Network for Advanced Management, Association of Asia-Pacific Business Schools, European Foundation for Management Development, Global Business School Network, Graduate Management Admission Council, Pacific Asian Consortium for International Business Education and Research. AIM is a signatory to the Principles for Responsible Management Education. Under the International Student Exchange Program, AIM’s top MBA students are given the opportunity to study at a partner school in a different country. AIM partner schools are located in Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, South Korea, Switzerland, USA, Venezuela; the Washington SyCip Memorial Fund was established after the passing of SyCip in 2017. A lead gift of US$5 million was donated by an anonymous philanthropist; the AIM-Dado Banatao Incubator provides technology, science, or engineering startups with mentorship and training. The chief adviser of the incubator is Dado Banatao, an entrepreneur who has invested in numerous startups in the Philippines and the US.
The incubator was founded under the joint partnership and leadership of AIM, DOST, PhilDev Foundation. Official w
Dera Ismail Khan
Dera Ismail Khan abbreviated to D. I. Khan, is a city in Pakistan, it is situated on the west bank of the Indus River, about 300 kilometres south of the provincial capital Peshawar, 230 kilometres northwest of Multan, Punjab. The city is the capital of the tehsil of the same name; the predominant language is Saraiki. The total population of the city was 217,457 in the 2017 census, making it the largest city in the southern part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In the local languages of Pashto and Balochi, the word ḍēra means "tent, encampment" and is found in the name of towns in the Indus Valley such as Dera Ghazi Khan, Dera Bugti, Dera Allah Yar. "Dera Ismail Khan" thus means "Camp Ismail Khan". The people from Dera Ismail Khan are known by the demonym Dērawāl; the region around Dera Ismail Khan has been inhabited for millennia, as evidence by the nearby site of Rehman Dheri — a Pre-Harappan archaeological site dating from 3300 BCE. DI Khan is located in the historical Derajat region, established in the 15th century, when Baluch people were invited to settle the region by Shah Husayn, of the Langah Sultanate of Multan.
Shah Husayn being unable to hold his trans-Indus possessions, assigned the region around DI Khan to Sardar Malik Sohrab Khan Dodai Baloch in 1469 or 1471 and appointed him as "Jagir". Malik hailed from the Makran District of southwestern Baluchistan province, his success lead to the migration of other Makrani tribesmen — one of which, Ghazi Khan, founded the city of Dera Ghazi Khan further south. Malik's son, Ismail Khan, is traditionally believed to have founded the city of Dera Ismail Khan, though the Emperor Babur passed through the region in 1506 and made no mention of the city. Baluch settlers were displaced by, or assimilated into waves of Pashtun settlement, although villagers along the alluvial plains are Baluch or Jat; the city was along the major Multan-to-Kandahar trade route, though it never attained a station of great power or importance before the British period. DI Khan grew prosperous as a trading centre for Powindah nomads. During Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire, the city's Baloch leaders surrendered the city without quarrel.
DI Khan was ruled by nine generations of Baluch leaders descended directly from Ismail Khan. The last, Nusrat Khan, was removed from power after the city was captured by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1750. In 1794, the city was granted to Nawab Muhammad Khan Sadozai by Shahzada Kamran Durrani; the original town was swept away by flooding on the Indus River in 1823. The present city was founded by Nawab Sher Muhammad Khan of the Sadduzai clan in 1825, now stands four miles away from the permanent channel of the river, atop a small plateau. Nawab Sadozai took into consideration the opinions of Diwan Lakhi Mal and Tej Bhan Chandwani for the city’s reconstruction. Architects were brought in from Punjab, who designed a city where Hindus would live south of the city center and Muslims north of it. Four bazaars were laid in each of the cardinal directions, with all four converging in the town's central Chowgalla; the rebuilt city contained a large bazaar for Afghan traders, the city prospered from trade via the Gomal Pass.
An eight-foot mud wall with nine gates was built around the city during this time as well, some of which such as the Kaneran Wala and Sakki survive until today. All existing buildings date from no earlier than the 19th century. DI Khan remained under Sadozai rule from the nearby town of Mankera until it was annexed by Nau Nihal Singh of the Sikh Empire in 1836. Diwan Lakhi Mal appointed the city's Kardar ruler, though the Nawabs of the city from the Durrani order were allowed to maintain their title and some income; the city suffered under punitive taxes that lead to frequent complaints in the Sikh Darbar at Lahore, resulting in several changes of Kardar. The city was annexed by the British in 1849 following their conquest of Punjab that resulted in the defeat of the Sikhs as the Battle of Gujrat. NWFP province was made out of Punjab province in 1920. DI Khan was made part of NWFP now known as KPK province. DI Khan's first deputy commissioner under British rule was General Van Cortland, who arrived in February 1848, before departing that year to quell a revolt in nearby Multan.
Following the defeat of rebels at Multan, Lieutenant Butler was made the next deputy commissioner of DI Khan and Bannu. Under his rule, the city's infrastructure and colonial administration system were established in which top posts were occupied by the British; the city was on the edge of the Tribal Areas — lands that were in rebellion against British rule. The town did not rise up in revolt against British rule during the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny. In 1861, DI Khan was made into the Divisional Capital of the new Dera Ismail Khan Division: analogous to a British county; the municipality was constituted in 1867, while the Dera Ismail Khan Cantonment was established in 1894. The military cantonment area, which lies southeast of the town, has an area of 44 square miles, excluding the portion known as Fort Akalgarh on the northwest side; the Derajat Brigade had its winter headquarters at Dera Ismail Khan, the garrison consisted of a mountain battery, a regiment of Native cavalry, three regiments of Native infantry.
Detachments from these regiments helped to garrison the outposts of Drazinda and Jatta. The "Civil Lines" neighborhood was built to the south; the local trade of Dera Ismail Khan was of moderate importance, but some foreign traffic with Central Asia passed through it. Powindah caravans of Afghan merchants traversed the town twice a year on their road to and from India. With the increasing security of the G
Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H