Virgo is one of the constellations of the zodiac. Its name is Latin for virgin, its symbol is ♍. Lying between Leo to the west and Libra to the east, it is the second-largest constellation in the sky and the largest constellation in the zodiac, it can be found through its brightest star, Spica. The bright star Spica makes it easy to locate Virgo, as it can be found by following the curve of the Big Dipper/Plough to Arcturus in Boötes and continuing from there in the same curve. Due to the effects of precession, the First Point of Libra, lies within the boundaries of Virgo close to β Virginis; this is one of the two points in the sky where the celestial equator crosses the ecliptic This point will pass into the neighbouring constellation of Leo around the year 2440. Besides Spica, other bright stars in Virgo include β Virginis, γ Virginis, δ Virginis and ε Virginis. Other fainter stars that were given names are ζ Virginis, η Virginis, ι Virginis, κ Virginis, λ Virginis and φ Virginis; the star 70 Virginis has one of the first known extrasolar planetary systems with one confirmed planet 7.5 times the mass of Jupiter.
The star Chi Virginis has one of the most massive planets detected, at a mass of 11.1 times that of Jupiter. The sun-like star 61 Virginis has three planets: one is a super-Earth and two are Neptune-mass planets. SS Virginis is a variable star with a noticeable red color, it varies in magnitude from a minimum of 9.6 to a maximum of 6.0 over a period of one year. There are 35 verified exoplanets orbiting 29 stars in Virgo, including PSR B1257+12, 70 Virginis, Chi Virginis, 61 Virginis, NY Virginis, 59 Virginis; because of the presence of a galaxy cluster within its borders 5° to 12° west of ε Vir, this constellation is rich in galaxies. Some examples are Messier 49, Messier 58, Messier 59, Messier 60, Messier 61, Messier 84, Messier 86, Messier 87, Messier 89 and Messier 90. A noted galaxy, not part of the cluster is the Sombrero Galaxy, an unusual spiral galaxy, it is located about 10° due west of Spica. NGC 4639 is a face-on barred spiral galaxy located 78 Mly from Earth, its outer arms have a high number of Cepheid variables, which are used as standard candles to determine astronomical distances.
Because of this, astronomers used several Cepheid variables in NGC 4639 to calibrate type 1a supernovae as standard candles for more distant galaxies. Virgo possesses several galaxy clusters, one of, HCG 62. A Hickson Compact Group, HCG 62 is at a distance of 200 Mly from Earth and possesses a large central elliptical galaxy, it has a heterogeneous halo of hot gas, posited to be due to the active galactic nucleus at the core of the central elliptical galaxy. M87 is the largest galaxy in the Virgo cluster, is at a distance of 60 Mly from Earth, it is a major radio source due to its jet of electrons being flung out of the galaxy by its central supermassive black hole. Because this jet is visible in several different wavelengths, it is of interest to astronomers who wish to observe black holes in a unique galaxy. M84 is another elliptical radio galaxy in the constellation of Virgo. Astronomers have surmised that the speed of the gas clouds orbiting the core indicates the presence of an object with a mass 300 million times that of the sun, most a black hole.
The Sombrero Galaxy, M104, is an edge-on spiral galaxy located 28 million light-years from Earth. It has a bulge at its center made up of older stars, larger than normal, it is surrounded by large, bright globular clusters and has a prominent dust lane made up of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. NGC 4438 is a peculiar galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, at a distance of 50 Mly from Earth, its supermassive black hole is ejecting jets of matter, creating bubbles with a diameter of up to 78 ly. NGC 4261 has a black hole 20 ly from its center with a mass of 1.2 billion solar masses. It is located at a distance of 45 Mly from Earth, has an unusually dusty disk with a diameter of 300 ly. Along with M84 and M87, NGC 4261 has strong emissions in the radio spectrum. IC 1101 is a supergiant elliptical galaxy in the Abell 2029 galaxy cluster located about 1.07 Gly from Earth. At the diameter of 5.5 million light years, or more than 50 times the size of the Milky Way, it was the largest known galaxy in the universe.
Virgo is home to the quasar 3C 273, the first quasar to be identified. With a magnitude of ~12.9 it is the optically brightest quasar in the sky. In the Babylonian MUL. APIN, part of this constellation was known as "The Furrow", representing the goddess Shala and her ear of grain. One star in this constellation, retains this tradition as it is Latin for "ear of grain", one of the major products of the Mesopotamian furrow. For this reason the constellation became associated with fertility; the constellation of Virgo in Hipparchus corresponds to two Babylonian constellations: the "Furrow" in the eastern sector of Virgo and the "Frond of Erua" in the western sector. The Frond of Erua was depicted as a godde
Tihar known as Deepawali and Yamapanchak or Swanti, is a five-day-long Hindu festival celebrated in the Indian subcontinent, notably in Nepal and the Indian states of Assam and Sikkim including in Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It is the festival of lights, as diyas are lit inside and outside the houses to make it illuminate at night, it is popularly known as Swanti as Deepawali among Madhesis. Set in the Vikram Samvat calendar, the festival begins with Kaag Tihar in Trayodashi of Kartik Krishna Paksha and ends with Bhai Tika in Dwitiya of Kartik Sukla Paksha every year. Tihar is the second biggest Nepalese festival after Dashain, it is considered to be of great importance as it shows contribution to not just the humans and the gods, but to the animals like crows and dogs that maintain an intimate relationship with humans. People make patterns on the floor of living rooms or courtyards using materials such as colored rice, dry flour, colored sand or flower petals outside their house, called Rangoli, meant to be a sacred welcoming area for the Gods and Goddesses of Hinduism Goddess Laxmi.
Crows and ravens are worshiped by offerings of dishes placed on the roofs of houses. The cawing of crows and ravens symbolizes sadness and grief in Hinduism, so devotees offer crows and ravens food to avert grief and death in their homes. Tihar represents the divine attachment between other animals; the second day is called Dog Tihar. It is called the Khicha Puja by the Newars. People offer garlands and delicious food to dogs and acknowledge the cherished relationship between humans and dogs. Dogs occupy a special place in Hindu mythology every home or street and they get special treatment in this day; as mentioned in the Mahabharata, Bhairava, a fierce manifestation of Lord Shiva, had a dog as a vahana. Yama, the god of death, is believed to own two guard dogs – each with four eyes; the dogs are said to watch over the gates of the Hindu concept of Hell. Owing to this belief, this day is observed as Naraka Chaturdashi; the morning of the third day is Gai Tihar. In Hinduism, cow signifies wealth. In ancient times people benefited a lot from the cow.
Its milk, dung urine was used for purposes like purification. Thus, on this day people show their gratefulness to the cow by garlanding and feeding them with the best grass. Houses are cleaned and the doorways and windows are decorated with garlands made of Saya Patri and makhamali flowers. In the evening Laxmi, the goddess of wealth is thanked for all the benefits that were bestowed on the families by lighting oil lamps or candles on doorways and windows to welcome prosperity and well being. At night the girls enjoy dancing and visiting all the houses in the neighborhood with musical instruments singing and dancing known as Bhailo all night long collecting money as a tip from houses and share the bounty amongst themselves. From the third day onward Tihar is celebrated with Bhailo with light and fireworks. Ceremony is sung by the boys while the Bhailo is sung by the girls. Deusi is balladic and tells the story of the festival, with one person narrating and the rest as the chorus. In return, the home owners give them money and selroti.
Nowadays social workers and young people visit local homes, sing these songs, collect funds for welfare and social activities. Coincidentally, Laxmi Puja marks the birthday of Laxmi Prasad Devkota, revered and honoured as the greatest poet of Nepali language. On the fourth day of Tihar, there are three different known pujas, depending on the people's cultural background. Ox is worshipped in this day by giving different foods, it is observed as Goru Puja. People who follow Vaishnavism perform Govardhan Puja, worship towards Govardhan mountain. Cow dung is worshiped. Additionally, the majority of the Newar community on the night perform Mha Puja; this day is seen as the beginning of the new Nepal Sambat calendar year. The fifth and last day of Tihar is called Kija Puja, it is observed by sisters applying tilaka or tika to the foreheads of their brothers to ensure long life and thank them for the protection they provide. It is believed that Yamraj, the God of Death, visited his sister, Goddess Yamuna, on this day during which she applied the auspicious tika on his forehead, garlanded him and fed him special dishes.
Together, they ate sweets and enjoyed themselves to their hearts' content. Upon parting, Yamraj gave the Yamuna a special gift as a token of his affection and, in return, Yamuna gave him a lovely gift which she had made with her own hands; that day Yamraj announced. Sisters make a special garland for their brothers from a flower that wilts only after a couple of months, symbolizing the sister's prayer for her brother's long life. Brothers sit on the floor; the puja follows a traditional ritual in which sisters circle brothers, dripping oil on the floor from a copper pitcher and applying oil to their brother's hair, following which a seven-color tikas is applied on the brother's forehead. Next, brothers give tikas to their sisters in the same fashion with an exchange of gifts; this ritual is practiced regardless of whether the brother is older than the sister. Those without a sister or brother join friends for tika; this festival strengthens the close relationship between sisters. In addition to these, New
The Ashvins or Ashwini Kumaras, in Hindu mythology, are twin Vedic gods of medicine. They are described as divine twin horsemen in the Rigveda, they are his wife Saranyu, a goddess of the clouds. Nasatya and Dasra are the names of the elder and the younger twin, being the god of health and the god of medicine respectively, they symbolise the shining of sunrise and sunset, appearing in the sky before the dawn in a golden chariot, bringing treasures to men and averting misfortune and sickness. They are devas of Ayurvedic medicine, they are represented as humans with the heads of horses. The Ashvins are analogous to the Proto-Indo-European horse twins, their cognates in other Indo-European mythologies include the Baltic Ašvieniai, the Greek Castor and Polydeuces, the English Hengist and Horsa, the Welsh Bran and Manawydan. The first mention of the Nasatya twins is from the Mitanni documents of the second millennium BCE, where they are invoked in a treaty between Suppiluliuma and Shattiwaza, kings of the Hittites and the Mitanni respectively.
The Ashvins are mentioned 376 times in the Rigveda, with 57 hymns dedicated to them: 1.3, 1.22, 1.34, 1.46–47, 1.112, 1.116–120, 1.157–158, 1.180–184, 2.20, 3.58, 4.43–45, 5.73–78, 6.62–63, 7.67–74, 8.5, 8.8–10, 8.22, 8.26, 8.35, 8.57, 8.73, 8.85–87, 10.24, 10.39–41, 10.143. Indian holy books like the Mahabharata and the Puranas, relate that the Ashwini Kumar twins, who were Raj a-Vaidya to the Devas during Vedic times, first prepared the Chyawanprash formulation for Rishi Chyavana at his Ashram on Dhosi Hill near Narnaul, India, hence the name Chyawanprash. In the epic Mahabharata, King Pandu's wife Madri is granted a son by each Ashvin and bears the twins Nakula and Sahadeva who, are known as the Pandavas. Parva, Paushya. "Section III (Paushya Parva". Sacred Texts. Pp. 32–33. Retrieved 1 November 2013. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna L. Dallapiccola
Dhanteras known as Dhanatrayodashi or Dhanvantari Trayodashi, is the first day that marks the festival of Diwali in India and the festival of Tihar in Nepal. Dhanteras is celebrated on the thirteenth lunar day of Krishna Paksha in the Vikram Samvat Hindu calendar month of Karthik. Dhanvantari, worshipped on the occasion of Dhanteras, is the god of Ayurveda who imparted the wisdom of Ayurveda for the betterment of mankind and to help rid it of the suffering of disease; the Indian ministry of Ayurveda and Naturopathy, Unani and Homoeopathy, announced its decision to observe Dhanteras, as the "National Ayurveda Day", first observed on 28 October 2016. Vasubaras marks the beginning of the celebration of Diwali festival. On Vasubaras the Cow with her calf is worshipped; the Cow holds a sacred place in the Vedic Mythology. She nurtured with utmost respect. Our "Gau Mata" and her Prasad.. Milk, milk products, Curds are an inseparable part of Hindu culture. "Pancha Gavya",Panchamrut are used in all Hindu celebrations.
Vasubaras is followed by Dhanteras. Dhanteras is the worship of lord Dhanvantari. Lord Dhanvantari, according to Hindu Mythology, emerged during Samudra Manthan, holding a Kalash full of Amrit in one hand and the sacred text about Ayurveda in the other hand, he is considered to be the Vaidya of Gods. The festival is celebrated as "Lakshmi Puja" is performed in the evenings when tiny diyas of clay are lit to drive away the shadows of evil spirits. Bhajans, devotional songs in praise of Goddess Lakshmi, are sung and "Naivedya" of traditional sweets is offered to the Goddess. A peculiar custom in Maharashtra exists where people pound dry coriander seeds with jaggery and offer the mixture as Naivedya; this occasion has nothing to do with Bengali culture. On Dhanteras, homes that have not yet been cleaned in preparation for Diwali are cleansed and whitewashed, Lord Dhanvantari, the god of health and ayurveda, is worshiped in the evening; the main entrance are decorated with colorful lanterns, holiday lights and traditional motifs of Rangoli designs are made to welcome the Goddess of Wealth and Prosperity.
To indicate her long-awaited arrival, small footprint's are drawn with rice flour and vermilion powder all over the houses. On the night of Dhanteras, diyas are ritually kept burning all through the nights in honor of Lakshmi and Dhanvantari. On this day, Hindus consider it as an auspicious day to make new purchases gold or silver articles and new utensils, it is believed that some form of precious metal is a sign of good luck. In modern times, Dhanteras has come to be known as the most auspicious occasion for buying gold and other metals kitchenware; the day sees heavy purchases of appliances and automobiles. On this night, the lights are set out every night both in the sky lamps and as offerings at the base of a Tulsi plant and in the form of diyas, which are placed in front of the doorways of homes; this light is an offering to Yama, the Host of Death, to avert untimely death during the time of the Diwali festival. This day is a celebration aimed at increasing prosperity. Dhanteras engages themes of cleansing and the securing of auspiciousness in the form of Lakshmi.
In the villages, cattle are adorned and worshiped by farmers as they form the main source of their income. In South India, Brahmin women make'Marundhu' which translates into medicine on the eve of Naraka Chaturdasi, Dhanvantri Trayodashi; the Marundhu is offered during the prayer and eaten in the early morning on Naraka Chaturdasi before sunrise. In fact, many families handover the recipes of daughter in law; the Marundhu is consumed to eliminate the imbalance of tridoshas in the body. On the day of Dhantrayodashi, Goddess Lakshmi came out from the ocean of milk during the churning of the Sea. Hence, Goddess Lakshmi is worshiped on the day of Trayodashi. According to a popular legend, when the devas and asuras performed the Samudra manthan for Amrita, Dhanvantari emerged carrying a jar of the elixir on the day of Dhanteras. An ancient legend ascribes the occasion to an interesting story about the 16-year-old son of King Hima, his horoscope predicted his death by snake-bite on the fourth day of his marriage.
On that particular day, his newly-wed wife did not allow him to sleep. She laid out all her ornaments and lots of gold and silver coins in a heap at the entrance of the sleeping chamber and lit lamps all over the place, she narrated stories and sang songs to keep her husband from falling asleep. The next day, when Yama, the god of Death arrived at the prince's doorstep in the guise of a serpent, his eyes were dazzled and blinded by the brilliance of the lamps and the jewellery. Yama could not enter the Prince's chamber, so he climbed on top of the heap of gold coins and sat there the entire night listening to the stories and songs. In the morning, he silently went away. Thus, the young prince was saved from the clutches of death by the cleverness of his new bride, the day came to be celebrated as Dhanteras; the following day came to be called Naraka Chaturdashi. It is known as ‘Yamadeepdaan’ as the ladies of the house light earthen lamps or ‘deep’ and these are kept burning throughout the night glorifying Yama, the God of Death.
Since this is the night before Diwali, it is called'Chhoti Diwali' or Minor Diwali. Ganesh – Hindu god
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Chaitra is a month of the Hindu calendar. In the standard Hindu calendar and India's national civil calendar, Chaitra is the first month of the year, it is the last month in the Bengali calendar. Chaitra or Chait is the last month in the Nepali calendar, where it commences in mid-March. Chithirai is the first month in the Tamil calendar. In Sindhi calendar, this month is referred to as Chet and is marked by celebration of the Cheti Chand. In the Vaishnava calendar, Vishnu governs this month. In the more traditional reckoning, the first month commences in March or April of the Gregorian Calendar, depending upon whether the Purushottam Maas was observed in the year. There is no fixed date in Gregorian calendar for 1st day of Chaitra, i.e. the beginning of the Hindu New Year. Chaitra is known as Devanagari: चैत्र chaitra, Gujarati:ચૈત્ર chaitra, Rajasthani Language:चेत chet, Punjabi:ਚੇਤ cēt, Bengali:চৈত্র, Assamese: চ’ত, Kannada"ಚೈತ್ರ","Chaitra", Telugu:చైత్రము chaitramu Tamil: சித்திரை chithirai, Malayalam: ചൈത്രം chaitram.
The month of Chaitra is associated with the coming of Spring. Holi, the spring festival of colour, is celebrated on the full moon day of Phalguna month before Chaitra. 6 days after which the festival of Chaiti observed. In lunar religious calendars, Chaitra begins with the new moon in March/April and is the first month of the year; the first of Chaitra – is celebrated as New Year's Day, known as Gudi Padwa in Maharashtra, Chaitrai Vishu or Puthandu in Tamil Nadu and Ugadi in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Other important festivals in the month are. In Bengal people celebrate Charak Puja; the world-famous "chithirai Thiruvizha", held on the banks of vaigai is held during this month in Madurai. In the Tamil calendar, Chitterai begins with the Sun's entry into Aries in mid-April, is the first month of the year; the full moon day of chaitra is known as "chithira pournami" in Tamil, an auspicious day for Amman. Chaitra is considered to be a auspicious month in which the creation of the universe was started.
"Chaitra" can be used as a name, with the meaning of "Spring" or "Aries Sign" Chaitramasi jagadbrahma sasarju prathamehaaniShukla paksha samagranthu thadaa suryodaye sathiPravarthayaamaasa thatha kaalasya gananaamapiGrahantaaraan ruthoonmaasaan wathsaraanwathsaraadhipaan According to the Sloka Chaturvarga Chintamani, the god Bramha created the universe on the first day of Shukla paksha in the month of Chaitra. He gradually included planets, ruthu and lords of years. In this month, the fifteen days in Shukla paksha are dedicated to fifteen deities; each day of the month is dedicated to a different god. Chaiti Hindu units of measurement Hindu astronomy Jyotish
Navaratri spelled Navratri, Navarathri, Navratam, or Nauratam, is a nine nights Hindu festival, celebrated in the autumn every year. It is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. Theoretically, there are four seasonal Navaratri. However, in practice, it is the post-monsoon autumn festival called Sharada Navaratri, the most observed in the honor of the divine feminine Devi; the festival is celebrated in the bright half of the Hindu calendar month Ashvin, which falls in the Gregorian months of September and October. In the eastern and northeastern states of India, the Durga Puja is synonymous with Navaratri, wherein goddess Durga battles and emerges victorious over the buffalo demon to help restore Dharma. In the northern and western states, the festival is synonymous with "Rama Lila" and Dussehra that celebrates the battle and victory of god Rama over the demon king Ravana. In southern states, the victory of different goddesses, of Rama or Saraswati is celebrated.
In all cases, the common theme is the battle and victory of Good over Evil based on a regionally famous epic or legend such as the Ramayana or the Devi Mahatmya. Celebrations include stage decorations, recital of the legend, enacting of the story, chanting of the scriptures of Hinduism; the nine days are a major crop season cultural event, such as competitive design and staging of pandals, a family visit to these pandals and the public celebration of classical and folk dances of Hindu culture. On the final day, called the Vijayadashami or Dussehra, the statues are either immersed in a water body such as river and ocean, or alternatively the statue symbolizing the evil is burnt with fireworks marking evil's destruction; the festival starts the preparation for one of the most important and celebrated holidays, the festival of lights, celebrated twenty days after the Vijayadashami or Dussehra. The word Navaratri means ` nine nights' in nava meaning nine and ratri meaning nights. According to some Hindu texts such as the Shakta and Vaishnava Puranas, Navaratri theoretically falls twice or four times a year.
Of these, the Sharada Navaratri near autumn equinox is the most celebrated and the Vasanta Navaratri near spring equinox is next most significant to the culture of Indian subcontinent. In all cases, Navaratri falls in the bright half of the Hindu luni-solar months; the celebrations vary by region. Sharada Navaratri: the most celebrated of the four navaratris, named after sharada which means autumn, it is observed the lunar month of Ashvin. In many regions the festival falls after autumn harvest, in others during harvest. Vasanta Navaratri: the second most celebrated, named after vasanta which means spring, it is observed the lunar month of Chaitra. In many regions the festival falls after spring harvest, in others during harvest; the other two navratris are observed regionally or by individuals: Magha Navaratri: in Magha, winter season. The fifth day of this festival is independently observed as Vasant Panchami or Basant Panchami, the official start of spring in the Hindu tradition wherein goddess Saraswati is revered through arts, writing, kite flying.
In some regions, the Hindu god of love, Kama is revered. Ashada Navaratri: in Ashadha, start of the monsoon season; the Sharada Navaratri commences on the first day of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Ashvini. The festival is celebrated for nine nights once every year during this month, which falls in the Gregorian months of September and October; the exact dates of the festival are determined according to the Hindu luni-solar calendar, sometimes the festival may be held for a day more or a day less depending on the adjustments for sun and moon movements and the leap year. The festivities extend beyond god Rama. Various other goddesses such as Saraswati and Lakshmi, gods such as Ganesha, Kartikeya and Krishna are regionally revered. For example, a notable pan-Hindu tradition during Navaratri is the adoration of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning and arts through Ayudha Puja. On this day, which falls on the ninth day of Navaratri after the Good has won over Evil through Durga or Rama and knowledge is celebrated.
Warriors thank and worship their weapons, offering prayers to Saraswati. Musicians upkeep their musical instruments and pray to them. Farmers, smiths, pottery makers and all sorts of trades people decorate and worship their equipment and tools of trade. Students express respect and seek their blessings; this tradition is strong in South India, but is observed elsewhere too. The festival is associated to the prominent battle that took place between Durga and demon Mahishasura and celebrates the victory of Good over Evil; these nine days are dedicated to Goddess Durga and her nine Avatars. Each day is associated to an incarnation of the goddess: Known as Pratipada, this day is associated to Shailaputri, an incarnation of Parvati, it is in this form. Shailaputri is considered to be the direct incarnation of Mahakali; the color of the day is red, which depicts vigor. On Dwitiya, Goddess Brahmacharini, another incarnation of Parvati, is worshiped. In this form, Parvati became Sati