The Bund or Waitan is a waterfront area in central Shanghai. The area centers on a section of Zhongshan Road within the former Shanghai International Settlement, which runs along the western bank of the Huangpu River in the eastern part of Huangpu District; the area along the river faces the modern skyscrapers of Lujiazui in the Pudong District. The Bund refers to the buildings and wharves on this section of the road, as well as some adjacent areas, it is one of the most famous tourist destinations in Shanghai. Building heights are restricted in the area; the word bund means an embanked quay. The word comes from the Persian word band, through Hindustani, meaning an levee or dam. Mumbai's Apollo Bunder and city names like; the various "bunds" in east Asia, may therefore be named after the bunds/levees in Baghdad along the Tigris, given by the immigrating Baghdadi Jews, like the prominent Baghdadi Sassoon family who settled their businesses in Shanghai, other port cities in east Asia in the 19th century, built up their harbors.
In these Chinese port cities, the English term came to mean the embanked quay along the shore. In English, "Bund" is pronounced to rhyme with "fund". There are numerous sites in India and Japan that are called "bunds". However, "The Bund", without qualification to location refers to this stretch of embanked riverfront in Shanghai; the Chinese name for the Bund is unrelated in meaning: it means the "outer bank", referring to the Huangpu River, because this part of the riverfront was located farther downstream than the "inner bank" area adjacent to the old walled city of Shanghai. The Shanghai Bund has dozens of historical buildings, lining the Huangpu River, that once housed numerous banks and trading houses from the United Kingdom, the United States, Russia, Japan, the Netherlands, Belgium, as well as the consulates of Russia and Britain, a newspaper, the Shanghai Club and the Masonic Club; the Bund lies north of the walled city of Shanghai. It was a British settlement. Magnificent commercial buildings in the Beaux Arts style sprang up in the years around the turn of the 20th century as the Bund developed into a major financial center of east Asia.
Directly to the south, just northeast of the old walled city, the former French Bund was of comparable size to the Bund but functioned more as a working harbourside. By the 1940s, the Bund housed the headquarters of many, if not most, of the major financial institutions operating in China, including the "big four" national banks in the Republic of China era. However, with the Communist victory in the Chinese civil war, many of the financial institutions were moved out in the 1950s, the hotels and clubs closed or converted to other uses; the statues of colonial figures and foreign worthies which had dotted the riverside were removed. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, with the thawing of economic policy in the People's Republic of China, buildings on the Bund were returned to their former uses. Government institutions were moved out in favour of financial institutions, while hotels resumed trading as such. During this period, a series of floods caused by typhoons motivated the municipal government to construct a tall levee along the riverfront, with the result that the embankment now stands some 10 metres higher than street level.
The Bunds revitalization began in 1986 with a new promenade by the Dutch Architect Paulus Snoeren and has changed the streetscape of the Bund. In the 1990s, Zhongshan Road, the road on which the Bund is centred, was widened to ten lanes; as a result, most of the parkland which had existed along the road disappeared. In this period, the ferry wharves connecting the Bund and Pudong, which had served the area's original purpose, were removed. A number of pleasure cruises still operate from some nearby wharves. In the 1990s, the Shanghai government attempted to promote an extended concept of the Bund to boost tourism, land value in nearby areas, as well as to reconcile the promotion of "colonial relics" with the Socialist ideology. In its expanded form, the term "Bund" was used to refer to areas south of the Yan'an Road, a stretch of riverfront north of the Suzhou River; such use of the term, remains rare outside of tourism literature. From 2008, a major reconfiguration of traffic flow along the Bund was carried out.
The first stage of the plan involved the southern end of the Bund, saw the demolition of a section of the Yan'an Road elevated expressway, including removal of the large elevated expressway exit structure that dominated the confluence of Yan'an Road and the Bund. A second phase involved the year-long restoration of the century-old Waibaidu Bridge at the northern end of the Bund. In a third stage, the former 10-lane Bund roadway was reconstructed in two levels, with six lanes carried in a new tunnel; the vacated road space was used to widen the landscaped promenade along the waterfront. The new concrete bridge, built in 1991 to relieve traffic on Waibaidu Bridge was rendered obsolete by the new double-levelled roadway, demolished; the Bund was reopened to the public on Sunday 28 March 2010 after restoration for the 2010 Expo. A stampede occurred on December 31, 2014, at 11:36 p
The Waibaidu Bridge, called the Garden Bridge in English, is the first all-steel bridge, the only surviving example of a camelback truss bridge, in China. The fourth Western-designed bridge built at its location since 1856, in the downstream of the estuary of the Suzhou Creek, near its confluence with the Huangpu River, adjacent to the Bund in central Shanghai, connecting the Huangpu and Hongkou districts, the present bridge was opened on 20 January 1908. With its rich history and unique design the Waibaidu Bridge is one of the symbols of Shanghai, its modern and industrial image may be regarded as the city's landmark bridge. On 15 February 1994 the Shanghai Municipal Government declared the bridge an example of Heritage Architecture, one of the outstanding structures in Shanghai. In an ever-changing metropolis, the Waibaidu Bridge still remains a popular attraction, one of the few constants in the city skyline. There is considerable debate about the exact meaning of Waibaidu, the name given to the wooden bridge erected by the Shanghai Municipal Council in 1873.
According to one source, "The upper stream of any river was called li 裡. Xue Liyong, indicates in his book on the history of the Bund: In several cases, the Chinese used the terms li 裡 and wai 外 to indicate the greater or lesser degree of proximity of a location. There was an intermediate degree with the use of zhong 中 for places located between these two extremes. There remains several place names in Shanghai; the Chinese name of the Garden Bridge – waibaidu qiao 外白渡橋 – is such a case. The name makes sense only in relation with another bridge called libaidu qiao 裡白渡橋, located further inside the Soochow Creek, whereas the Garden Bridge was located at the mouth of the creek where it merges into the Huangpu river. Another source indicates that in Shanghainese, waibaidu means passing through the bridge without paying; because there was no longer any toll collected to cross the bridge, it began to be called Waibaidu, but "whereas the old name meant'foreigners/outer ferry crossing bridge' the character bai was changed to a homophonic that altered the meaning to'outer free crossing bridge'".
Before bridges were built over the Suzhou Creek, citizens had to use one of three ferry crossings: one near Zhapu Road, one at Jiangxi Road, one near the mouth of the Suzhou River. These crossings were the only way to ford the river, until the construction of a sluice gate built in the Ming dynasty known as "Old Sluice", where the current Fujian Road bridge is located. During the Qing dynasty, another sluice bridge was constructed during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, near the location of today's Datong Road bridge. With Shanghai becoming an international trade port through the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842, foreign powers being granted concessions in the city, traffic between both sides of Suzhou River soared in the 1850s, increasing the need for a bridge close to the mouth of the river. In October 1856, a British businessman named Charles Wills, of the firm of Jardine and American Edward R. Cunningham, the "brilliant though somewhat impetuous" managing director of Russell & Co. Vice-Consul for the United States and consul of the Consul of Sweden and Norway in Shanghai, with the finances provided by a consortium of twenty investors, called the Soochow Creek Bridge Company, the first company in China focusing on bridge construction, constructed the first foreign bridge across the Suzhou Creek, at the location of the outermost ferry crossing to ease traffic between the British Settlement to the south, the American Settlement to the north of Suzhou River.
Built to replace a Chinese bridge that had collapsed in 1855, "that the Chinese were unable to reconstruct", this new bridge, which soon became known as Wills' Bridge, was made of wood, "had a total length of 137.16 metres and width of 7.01 metres". It had a "draw" on the Hongkou side to allow larger boats to exit Suzou Creek. According to Francis Pott, it was "not a sightly structure." Wills brought capital into China and invested in infrastructure that benefited Chinese and foreigner alike. He invested $12,000 dollars in the 450-foot span, charged a crossing fee. According to Henriot, "The investment made was to be repaid by a fee charged on all vehicles and passers-by at a rate of 5 taels per year for a horse-cart and one tael for a pedestrian". "The bridge was open to anyone who could pay the small toll, a'thing hateful to the Shanghai public.'" Both Chinese and foreigners paid this toll, but as with many goods and services in Shanghai, foreigners paid on credit – thus the impression on the part of many Chinese that foreigners passed free."
In 1863, when the British and American Settlements merged, the rate was doubled, causing serious protests by the Chinese population. The local population regarded Wills' toll policy as yet another of many restrictions for Chinese people by foreign powers, they responded with protest and boycotted the bridge, Cantonese merchants opened new ferry services across Soochow Creek." Zhan Re, from Guangdong, established a free ferry near today's Shanxi Road intersection. One letter to the editor of the Shenbao newspaper in 1872, expressed outrage that the Chinese had to pay a toll to cross Wills' bridge while foreigners were exempted. Another suggests that the owner of the bridge is "one conversant with profit". According to Barbara Mittler, "This turned out to be untrue, however: the Munici
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Shell Oil Company
Shell Oil Company is the United States-based wholly owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell, transnational corporation "oil major" of Anglo-Dutch origins, amongst the largest oil companies in the world. 22,000 Shell employees are based in the U. S; the U. S. headquarters are in Texas. Shell Oil Company, including its consolidated companies and its share in equity companies, is one of America's largest oil and natural gas producers, natural gas marketers, gasoline marketers and petrochemical manufacturers. Shell is the market leader through 25,000 Shell-branded gas stations in the U. S. which serve as Shell's most visible public presence. At its gas stations Shell provides diesel fuel, gasoline and LPG. Shell Oil Company was a 50/50 partner with the Saudi Arabian government-owned oil company Saudi Aramco in Motiva Enterprises, a refining and marketing joint venture which owns and operates three oil refineries on the Gulf Coast of the United States. However, Shell is divesting its interest in Motiva.
Shell products include oils and car services as well as exploration and refining of petroleum products. The Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, the first Shell refinery in the United States, supplies Shell and Texaco stations in the West and Midwest. Shell gasolines included the RU2000 and SU2000 lines but they have been superseded by the V-Power line. In 1997, Shell and Texaco entered into two refining/marketing joint ventures. One was known as Equilon; the other, known as Motiva Enterprises, combined the Eastern and Gulf Coast operations of Shell Oil and Star Enterprise, itself a joint venture between Saudi Aramco and Texaco. After Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001, Shell purchased Texaco's shares in the joint ventures. In 2002, Shell began converting these Texaco stations to the Shell brand, a process, to be completed by June 2004 and was called "the largest retail re-branding initiative in American business history". In the year 2016, Shell Nederland Raffinaderij BV said that it has started a new aromatics unit at the large Pernis refinery in Rotterdam, Netherlands.
In recent years The Shell Oil Company's Midstream, Downstream, in particular, have become limited to petroleum, chemical products. This has come as a result of Royal Dutch Shell breaking off its Natural Gas and power businesses in to a new segment named Integrated Gas; the Shell Oil Company's former Natural Gas, energy divisions are now Shell Energy North America, a integrated, but distinctive entity that runs across North America and is headquartered out of Houston. Until the mid-1980s Shell's business in the United States was independent. Limited direct involvement from the main office in The Hague and having its stock "Shell Oil" traded on the New York Stock Exchange were factors. However, in 1984, Royal Dutch Shell made a bid to purchase those shares of Shell Oil Company it did not own and despite some opposition from some minority shareholders which led to a court case, Shell completed the buyout for a sum of $5.7 billion. Despite the acquisition, Shell Oil remained a independent business.
This was due in part to complex legal reasons as Royal Dutch Shell feared that there could be onerous liability problems if a closer control of Shell Oil's affairs was exercised by the "parent company". One consequence of this independence was that the Shell logo used in the U. S. was different from that used in the rest of the world. In the 1980s Shell Oil's independence began to erode as the "parent company" took a more hands-on approach in running the business; the logo used in the United States is the same as that used elsewhere since June 1, 1998. Shell has companies in North and Central America: in Argentina, Barbados, the Bahamas, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, The Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, Suriname and Tobago, the U. S. and Venezuela. Shell has companies in Africa, the Middle East, Asia. Aera Energy —joint venture with ExxonMobil operating in California. Motiva Enterprises —joint venture with Saudi Refining. Being divested, with the second quarter of 2017 being the official date.
Shell Development Emeryville —research facility that operated from 1928–1966 in California. Pennzoil Jiffy Lube Quaker State Limejump Shell Puget Sound Refinery, Washington, was fined $291,000 from 2006 to 2010 for violations of the Clean Air Act making it the second most-fined violator in the Pacific Northwest; as of 2011, it was listed as "high priority violator" since 2008. In 2008, a lawsuit was filed against Shell Oil Company for alleged Clean Air Act violation. Shell Deer Park facility, 20 miles east of Houston, was the nation's eighth-largest oil refinery and one of the world's largest petrochemical producers; the facility was the second largest source of air pollution in Harris County, which ranked among the lowest in the nation in several measures of air quality. According to Sierra Club and Environment Texas, analysis of Shell's reports to the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, air pollutants released at Deer Park since 2003 exceeded the EPA's emissions limits. Will Oremus from Slate magazine states, "The company's business depends on being able to anticipate and respond to seismic shifts in the energy market.
So it called scenario planners, to keep it a step ahead. In 2008 the company released a fresh pair of scenarios for how the world might respond to climate change over the coming decades. Both were predicated on what the company called
Shell Canada Limited is the subsidiary of Anglo-Dutch Royal Dutch Shell and one of Canada's largest integrated oil companies. Exploration and production of oil, natural gas and sulphur is a major part of its business, as well as the marketing of gasoline and related products through the company's 1,800 stations across Canada. After a global reorganization by the European parent, Shell's North American operations are controlled by Shell Energy North America, headquartered in Houston, Texas. Shell Energy North America's Canadian operational unit, Shell Canada, maintains a regional corporate office in Calgary, Alberta. Shell Canada maintains a major office in Toronto, Ontario. Shell Canada's shares were independently traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange; the company was 78% owned by Royal Dutch Shell which in 2006 launched an $8.7-billion takeover of the 22% of Shell Canada that it didn't own. In March 2007 the shareholders of Shell Canada Ltd. accepted a $45.00 per share cash offer from Royal Dutch Shell Plc.
This acquisition was driven by the desire of the parent company to take total control of its Canadian division's unconventional resources the tar sands. The move was unanimously approved by the independent members of the board of directors. In 2003 Royal Dutch Shell had appointed a British executive, former Chairman of Shell in the UK, Clive Mather, as president and CEO of Shell Canada; as a consequence of the stock acquisition by Royal Dutch Shell, all Shell Canada executives holding stock options benefitted. Shell Canada announced on Mr Mather’s retirement from the company shortly after the acquisition was completed that his total pay package for his final year was $4.9-million Including bonuses, stock options and pension contributions and that on leaving the company, Mr. Mather was additionally eligible for a lump sum payment equal to his annual gross salary, his total benefit in that year was, therefore $9.8 million of which some $5 million was from exercised stock options, making him one of the highest remunerated employees in Royal Dutch Shell.
In 2006, Shell Canada acquired the tar sand developer BlackRock Ventures Inc. for C$2.4 billion. As a part of this deal, Shell acquired the Orion oil-sands project near Alberta. In May 2012, Shell announced. Current Shell Canada Directors are Michael Crothers, Andrew Dueck, Andrew Harris, Barry Tyndall and Zoe Yujnovich. In October 2008, Shell Canada Limited was named one of "Canada's Top 100 Employers" by Mediacorp Canada Inc. and was featured in Maclean's newsmagazine. That month, Shell Canada was named one of Alberta's Top Employers, announced by the Calgary Herald and the Edmonton Journal. Scotford Upgrader and Refinery: 100,000 bbl/d Corunna Refinery: 75,000 bbl/d Montreal East Refinery: 161,000 bbl/d Closed in 2010 Canadian Environment Awards Official website Shell.com – The Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies
Shanghai History Museum
The Shanghai History Museum sometimes translated as "Shanghai Municipal History Museum", is a museum dedicated to the history of the city of Shanghai, China. The museum's collections focus on the a hundred years in the history of Shanghai from the opening of the port in 1843 to the communist take-over in 1949; the museum's oldest relics are from 6,000 years ago. It features a cannon used in the first Opium War, a sedan chair, two bronze lions that used to adorn the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp on the Bund. Other exhibits reveal the history of art and industrialization in Shanghai; the neo-classical Shanghai Race Club building that houses the museum, has an imposing 10-storey tall tower, long a landmark of central Shanghai. The Shanghai History Museum was established in 1983 as the "Shanghai History and Artefacts Exhibition Hall", it first opened to the public on May 27, 1984 on the premises of the Shanghai Agriculture Exhibition. The museum was moved to a new location and renamed to the "Shanghai History Museum" in 1991.
The main museum was closed due to land redevelopment in 1999, but "temporary" exhibitions of the museum's holdings continue to be mounted elsewhere. Since May 2001, the museum has maintained an exhibition room at the base of the Oriental Pearl Tower in Lujiazui, called the "Shanghai History and Development Exhibition", with select items from the museum's collection; the museum was reopened in its full and extended size in 2018 at the club house of the former Shanghai Race Club. The collection of the Shanghai History Museum contains more than 30,000 items. Of these, about 18,000 items pertain to the modern history of the city, a portion of these items found its way into the museum from the governors of the Foreign Concessions. Notable items in the collection include: Gu Embroidery of flowers and fish by the Ming-Dynasty "needle saint" Han Ximeng; the Shanghai History Museum's latest and permanent home since 2018 is the former Shanghai Race Club club house, empty for several years after the Shanghai Art Museum moved out in 2012.
After moving in, about four-fifths of the collection is on public display for the first time. The museum didn't have a permanent location before. There have been repeated calls to build a new building for the museum for many years, but commercial considerations and budgetary constraints prevented this from occurring for several years. Other parts of the collection had been on loan to specialist museums within Shanghai. Shanghai Museum Kirk A. Denton, Exhibiting the Past: Historical Memory and the Politics of Museums in Postsocialist China, pp. 88–92. Official website
Union Building, Shanghai
The Union Building is a building on the Bund in Shanghai, China. It is located at No. 3, the Bund. Completed in 1916, the building was used by a number of insurance companies; the six-storey building was the first work in Shanghai of P&T Architects and Surveyors, was the first building in Shanghai to use a steel structure. The building occupied 2241 square metres, with a floor area of 13760 square metres; because it had a narrow frontage onto the Bund, the main door was located on the adjacent Guangdong Road. The building is in Neo-Renaissance style with a symmetrical facade, but with some Baroque style details; the roof features a domed corner pavilion. In 1937, the Japanese Imperial Army threatened Shanghai. Being unable to indemnify war damages, the insurance companies had their assets frozen; the Union Bank purchased the building. In 1949 the Union Bank evacuated from Shanghai in the wake of the Communist takeover. From 1953 the building was used by the Shanghai Civil Design Institute. In 1997 a private equity fund from Singapore purchased the building, in 2004 converted it to a shopping centre, called "Three on the Bund".
The restoration was led by American architect Michael Graves who meticulously restored the Beaux-Arts facade, reinforced the structure, installed new building systems. He won the 2006 design in Asia award. Three on the Bund Historic Architecture of "The Bund - Shanghai"