Shades of yellow
Varieties of the color yellow may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a yellow or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. Displayed at right is the web color light yellow. Displayed at right is the web color cream, a pale tint of yellow. Displayed at right is the web color lemon chiffon. Lemon chiffon is a color, reminiscent of the color of lemon chiffon cake; the color box at right shows the most intense yellow representable in 8-bit RGB color model. This color is called color wheel yellow, it is at 60 degrees on the HSV color wheel known as the RGB color wheel. Its complementary color is blue. Process yellow known as canary yellow, is one of the three colors used as subtractive primary colors, along with magenta and cyan. Canary yellow is derived from the colour of an average canary bird, though canaries can vary in colour from dark yellow to light pink.
Process yellow is not an RGB color, in the CMYK color model there is no fixed conversion from CMYK primaries to RGB. Different formulations are used for printer's ink, so there can be variations in the printed color, pure yellow ink; the first recorded use of canary yellow as a color name in English was in 1789. The color defined as yellow in the NCS or Natural Color System is shown at right; the Natural Color System is a color system based on the four unique hues or psychological primary colors red, yellow and blue. The NCS is based on the opponent process theory of vision; the “Natural Color System” is used in Scandinavia. The color defined as yellow in the Munsell color system is shown at apex of color wheel; the Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue and chroma, spaced uniformly in three dimensions in the elongated oval at an angle shaped Munsell color solid according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors—red, green and purple.
The Munsell colors displayed are only approximate as they have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut. The color, called yellow in Pantone is displayed at right; the source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended" color list, color #C, EC, M, PC, U, or CP—Yellow. The color yellow in Crayola crayons is displayed at right. Yellow was one of the original Crayola colors formulated in 1903; the color unmellow yellow is shown at right. The color unmellow yellow was formulated by Crayola in 1990; the color "unmellow yellow" is a similar fluorescent yellow to Laser Lemon but the color is brighter. In crayons, the color may appear orange, though the computer display can appear more pale depending on one's monitor; the color is supposed to be fluorescent, but there is no mechanism to display fluorescence on a flat computer screen. Lemon is a color somewhat resembling yellow and named after the fruit; the color lemon is a representation of the color of the outer skin of a lemon. The first recorded use of lemon as a color name in English was in 1598.
Maximum yellow was a Crayola crayon color from 1926 to 1944. The color mellow yellow is displayed at right. Mellow yellow was first used as a color name in English in 1948 when it was formulated as one of the colors on the Plochere color list; the source of this color is the Plochere Color System, a color system formulated in 1948, used by interior designers. Donovan's album Mellow Yellow, named after the song Mellow Yellow, was popular during the summer of love in 1967. At right is displayed the color royal yellow; the color royal yellow is a representation of the color of the robes worn by the Emperor of China. The first recorded use of royal yellow as a color name in English was in 1548. Other names for this color are Chinese imperial yellow; the source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names --Color Sample of Royal Yellow. Gold called golden, is a yellow-orange color, a representation of the color of the element gold; the web color gold is sometimes referred to as golden to distinguish it from the color metallic gold.
The use of gold as a color term in traditional usage is more applied to the color "metallic gold". The first recorded uses of golden as a color name in English were in 1300 to refer to the element gold and in 1423 to refer to blonde hair; the color cyber yellow is displayed at right. The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended" color list, color 14-0760 TPX—Cyber Yellow. Safety yellow is one of the standard high-visibility safety colors defined by ANSI standard Z535, which specifies standards for safety and accident prevention information, it is used on hazard symbols, warning signs, guard rails, dangerous equipment, some high-visibility clothing and personal protective equipment. The definition is mirrored in British Standard BS 381C and Australian Standard AS2700. In 1937, it was determined. Khaki is a yellowish tone of beige; this is the color called khaki in HTML/CSS. The first recorded use of khaki as a
University of Science, Malaysia
Universiti Sains Malaysia has won the most Entrepreneurial University 2018, in Malaysia and the only Accelerated Programs for Excellence government funded Autonomous university in Malaysia. USM is aggressively moving towards true globalized university status in 2019, USM is now intensifying the approach to invite another 2300 more new international students to register and further their educational journey for undergraduates and postgraduates programs through out 2019. Therefore, to all international students from all over the globe, you are invited to fill in the online application, to start registering yourselves for USM high quality education now! USM is a differentiated university, a preferred university, with the only one focus in the highest rate of sustainability conceptualized education in the region, striving to achieve "GLOBAL sustainable university status". Founded on 1 June 1969 as a statutory body with its own constitution, it is among the oldest institute of higher learning in Northern Malaysia.
It has three campuses, a main campus on the island of Penang, a health campus in Kelantan, an engineering campus in Nibong Tebal. There is overseas collaboration with KLE University, India offering the Doctor of Medicine undergraduate degree. USM plans to open a Global Campus located at Kuala Lumpur Education City. With around 28,300 postgraduate and undergraduate students in 2009, USM is one of the biggest universities in terms of enrolment in Malaysia; the number of lecturers is about 1,479, which leads to a student-lecturer ratio of around 19:1. The idea of a university in Penang was first mooted by D. S. Ramanathan in 1959 in the State Assembly and crystallised when he was nominated chairman of the Penang University Project committee; the acquisition of a piece of land in Sungai Ara was followed by the ceremonial laying of the foundation stone by the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Y. T. M Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj on 7 August 1967. USM was established as a statutory body in 1969 as the second university in Malaysia.
It was first known as Universiti Pulau Pinang. The university operated on borrowed premises at the Malayan Teachers' Training College at Gelugor. In 1971, it moved to its present 239-hectare site at Minden in Gelugor, 10 kilometres from the city of Georgetown. There are two other USM campuses: one at Kubang Kerian in Kelantan, known as the Health campus, the other at Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal in Penang, known as the Engineering campus; the former houses the School of Medical Sciences, the School of Health Sciences and the School of Dental Sciences, while the latter houses the six engineering schools. Universiti Sains Malaysia teaches in the fields of Pure Sciences, Applied Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Building Science and Technology, Social Sciences and Education as well as conducts research. USM offers courses at postgraduate levels to more than 28,000 students. USM has won the Asian Innovation Award; the management of the university is carried out through the executive power of the Board of Directors, made up of members chosen from the university, representatives from government departments and those appointed by the Ministry of Higher Education.
There are three Deputy Vice-Chancellors led by the Vice-Chancellor. In August 2011 USM created a new role of Ombudsman to deal with staff issues and protect whistleblowers; the USM Ombudsman is Prof. Dato' Seri Dr. MD. Salleh Yaapar, a former staff of the USM and is on a rolling 2-year contract. In July 2012, following a presentation by the Chief of Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, the VC of USM promises to create a new role of Chief Integrity Officer to cultivate academic integrity among students and staff; the current Chief Integrity Officer is Khairul Anuar Che Azmi, the university’s first ombudsman and is the Legal Advisor. Twenty four academic schools, 14 centres and 7 units have been established. Of the schools, 12 are applied science and technology-based schools: Civil Engineering, Aerospace Engineering; the three liberal arts schools are Educational Studies and Social Sciences. The pure science schools are Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Computer Sciences, Physics, all of which offer courses that are similar to those available in other universities.
There is offshore collaboration with KLE University, India offering the Doctor of Medicine undergraduate degree. This offshore five-year M. D. programme is conducted at the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, India. In India, USM has a collaboration with the James Lind Institute for conducting Translational Medicine programs. In December 1989, the School of Management was set up, having evolved from the Management program within the School of Social Sciences; as part of its continuing expansion, the university established the School of Computer Sciences and the School of Communication as of March 1995. In 2008, Professor Maqsudul Alam, set up the Centre for Chemical Biology where he became its first Chief Executive Officer and Director, sequenced the genome for rubber in Malaysia; the centres and ancillary services include the Centre for Languages and Translation, the National Poison Centre, the Doping Control Centre, the Centre for Archaeological Research Malaysia, the Centre for Educational Technology and Multimedia, t
Colombo is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka by population. According to the Brookings Institution, Colombo metropolitan area has a population of 5.6 million, 752,993 in the city proper. It is the financial centre of a popular tourist destination, it is located on the west coast of the island and adjacent to the Greater Colombo area which includes Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, the legislative capital of Sri Lanka and Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia. Colombo is referred to as the capital since Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte is within the urban area of, a suburb of, Colombo, it is the administrative capital of the Western Province and the district capital of Colombo District. Colombo is a vibrant place with a mixture of modern life and colonial buildings and ruins, it was the legislative capital of Sri Lanka until 1982. Due to its large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea trade routes, Colombo was known to ancient traders 2,000 years ago, it was made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815, its status as capital was retained when the nation became independent in 1948.
In 1978, when administrative functions were moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, Colombo was designated as the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. Like many cities, Colombo's urban area extends well beyond the boundaries of a single local authority, encompassing other municipal and urban councils such as Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Municipal Council, Dehiwala Mount Lavinia Municipal Council, Kolonnawa Urban Council, Kaduwela Municipal Council and Kotikawatte Mulleriyawa Pradeshiya Sabha; the main city is home to a majority of Sri Lanka's corporate offices and entertainment venues. Famous landmarks in Colombo include Galle Face Green, Viharamahadevi Park, Beira Lake, Colombo Racecourse, University of Colombo, Mount Lavinia beach, Nelum Pokuna Theatre, Colombo Lotus Tower as well as the National Museum; the name "Colombo", first introduced by the Portuguese in 1505, is believed to be derived from the classical Sinhala name කොලොන් තොට Kolon thota, meaning "port on the river Kelani". Another belief is that the name is derived from the Sinhala name කොල-අඹ-තොට Kola-amba-thota which means "Harbour with leafy mango trees".
This coincides with Robert Knox's history of the island. He writes that, "On the West the City of Columbo, so called from a Tree the Natives call Ambo, growing in that place; the author of the oldest Sinhala grammar, written in the 13th century wrote about a category of words that belonged to early Sinhala. It lists kolamba as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba may be the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo; as Colombo possesses a natural harbour, it was known to Indian, Persian, Roman and Chinese traders over 2,000 years ago. Traveller Ibn Battuta who visited the island in the 14th century, referred to it as Kalanpu. Arabs, whose prime interests were trade, began to settle in Colombo around the 8th century AD because the port helped their business by the way of controlling much of the trade between the Sinhalese kingdoms and the outside world, their descendants now comprise the local Sri Lankan Moor community. Portuguese explorers led by Dom Lourenço de Almeida first arrived in Sri Lanka in 1505.
During their initial visit they made a treaty with the King of Kotte, Parakramabahu VIII, which enabled them to trade in the island's crop of cinnamon, which lay along the coastal areas of the island, including in Colombo. As part of the treaty, the Portuguese were given full authority over the coastline in exchange for the promise of guarding the coast against invaders, they were allowed to establish a trading post in Colombo. Within a short time, they expelled the Muslim inhabitants of Colombo and began to build a fort in 1517; the Portuguese soon realized that control of Sri Lanka was necessary for protection of their coastal establishments in India and they began to manipulate the rulers of the Kotte kingdom to gain control of the area. After skilfully exploiting rivalries within the royal family, they took control of a large area of the kingdom and the Sinhalese King Mayadunne established a new kingdom at Sitawaka, a domain in the Kotte kingdom. Before long he annexed much of the Kotte kingdom and forced the Portuguese to retreat to Colombo, besieged by Mayadunne and the kings of Sitawaka, forcing them to seek reinforcement from their major base in Goa, India.
Following the fall of the kingdom in 1593, the Portuguese were able to establish complete control over the coastal area, with Colombo as their capital. This part of Colombo is still known as Fort and houses the presidential palace and the majority of Colombo's five star hotels; the area outside Fort is known as Pettah and is a commercial hub. In 1638 the Dutch signed a treaty with King Rajasinha II of Kandy which assured the king assistance in his war against the Portuguese in exchange for a monopoly of the island's major trade goods; the Portuguese resisted the Dutch and the Kandyans but were defeated in their strongholds beginning in 1639. The Dutch captured Colombo in 1656 after an epic siege, at the end of which a mere 93 Portuguese survivors were given safe conduct out of the fort. Although the Dutch
SAP SE is a German multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations. SAP is headquartered in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with regional offices in 180 countries; the company has over 425,000 customers in over 180 countries and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. When Xerox exited the computer hardware manufacturing industry in 1971, it asked IBM to migrate its business systems to IBM technology; as part of IBM's compensation for the migration, IBM was given the rights to the Scientific Data Systems /SAPE software for a contract credit of $80,000. Five IBM engineers from the AI department were working in an enterprise-wide system based on this software, only to be told that it would no longer be necessary. Rather than abandoning the project, they decided to start another company. In June 1972, they founded the SAP Systemanalyse und Programmentwicklung company, as a private partnership under the German Civil Code.
Their first client was the German branch of Imperial Chemical Industries in Östringen, where they developed mainframe programs for payroll and accounting. Instead of storing the data on punch cards mechanically, as IBM did, they stored it locally in the Electronic System while using common Logical database for all activities of Organization. Therefore, they called their software a real-time system, since there was no need to process the punch cards overnight; this first version was a standalone software that could be offered to other interested parties. In 1973, the first commercial product was launched. SAP completes its first financial accounting system - RF; this system serves as the cornerstone in the ongoing development of other software modules of the system that will bear the name SAP R/1. This offered a common system for multiple tasks; this permitted the use of a centralized data storage. From a technical point of view, therefore, a database was necessary. In 1976, SAP GmbH Systeme, Anwendungen und Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung is founded as a sales and support subsidiary.
Five years the private partnership is dissolved and its rights are passed on to SAP GmbH. The headquarters moved the following year to Germany. Three years in 1979, SAP launched SAP R/2, expanding the capabilities of the system to other areas, such as material management and production planning. In 1981, SAP brought a re-designed product to market. However, SAP R/2 did not improve until the period between 1985 and 1990. SAP released the new SAP R/3 in 1992. SAP developed and released several versions of R/3 through 1995. By the mid-1990s, SAP followed the trend from mainframe computing to client/server architectures; the development of SAP's internet strategy with mySAP.com redesigned the concept of business processes. As a result, R/3 was replaced with the introduction of SAP ERP Central Component 5.0 in 2004. Architectural changes were made to support an enterprise service architecture to transition customers to a services-oriented architecture; the latest version, SAP ERP 6.0, was released in 2006.
SAP ERP 6.0 has since been updated through SAP enhancement packs, the most recent: SAP enhancement package 8 for SAP ERP 6.0 in 2016. In August 1988, SAP GmbH became SAP AG, public trading started on 4 November 1988. Shares were listed on the Stuttgart stock exchanges. In 1995, SAP was included in the German stock index DAX and, on 22 September 2003, SAP was included in the STOXX Europe 50; the company's official name became SAP AG after the 2005 annual general meeting. In 2014, SAP changed from an AG to a European Company. Since 2012, SAP has acquired several companies that sell cloud-based products, with several multibillion-dollar acquisitions seen by analysts as an attempt to challenge competitor Oracle. In 2014 SAP bought Concur Technologies, a provider of cloud-based travel and expense management software, for $8.3 billion, SAP's most expensive purchase to that date. Analysts' reactions to the purchase were mixed, with Thomas Becker of Commerzbank questioning whether Concur was the right choice for SAP, while Credit Suisse called the acquisition an "aggressive" move.
In 2014, IBM and SAP began a partnership to sell cloud-based services. In 2015, SAP partnered with HPE to provide secure hybrid cloud-based services running the SAP platform. Both HPE and IBM provide infrastructure services to SAP, SAP runs its SAP HANA cloud solution on top. SAP has announced additional partnerships with Microsoft in order to give customers tools for data visualization, as well as improved mobile applications. SAP exceeded its revenue projections due to the expansion in its cloud business and the success of SAP HANA; the growth can be attributed to the acquisitions of Concur and Fieldglass. The company announced plans in 2016 to invest into technology relating to Internet of Things as part of a strategy to capitalize on the growth in that market. For that purpose, €2 billion is planned for investment in relevant sectors by the end of 2020. SAP will launch a new product line called SAP IoT, which "will combine large amounts of data from things connected to the Internet with machine learning and SAP's real-time databas
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Karachi is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. It is the most populous city in Pakistan, sixth-most-populous city proper in the world. Ranked as a beta world city, the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre and is considered as the cultural, philanthropic and political hub of the country. Karachi is Pakistan's most cosmopolitan city. Situated on the Arabian Sea, Karachi serves as a transport hub, is home to Pakistan's two largest seaports, the Port of Karachi and Port Bin Qasim, as well as the Pakistan's busiest airport, Jinnah International Airport. Though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as the fortified village of Kolachi in 1729; the settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British East India Company in the mid 19th century, who not only embarked on major works to transform the city into a major seaport, but connected it with their extensive railway network. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000.
Following the independence of Pakistan, the city's population increased with the arrival of millions of Muslim refugees from India. The city experienced rapid economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia. Karachi is one of Pakistan's most secular and liberal cities, it is the most linguistically and religiously diverse city in Pakistan. Karachi’s population was enumerated at 14.9 million in the 2017 census, though the figure was disputed by various factions as a severe underestimate, with some sources estimating a population of up to 30 million. Karachi is one of the world's fastest growing cities, has communities representing every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is home to over 2 million Bangladeshi immigrants, 1 million Afghan refugees, up to 400,000 Rohingyas from Myanmar. Karachi is now Pakistan's premier financial centre; the city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014, the largest in Pakistan. Karachi collects over a third of Pakistan's tax revenue, generates 20% of Pakistan's GDP.
30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachi's ports handle 95% of Pakistan's foreign trade. 90% of the multinational corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Karachi is considered to be Pakistan’s fashion capital, has hosted the annual Karachi Fashion Week since 2009. Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi; the new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slain a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had been killed by it. The city's inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, Karāchīwālā in Urdu. Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites discovered by a team from Karachi University on the Mulri Hills constitute one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in Sindh during the last 50 years; the earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites.
A sea port called. The Karachi region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks; the region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, as well as Morontobara which may be Karachi's Manora neighbourhood. In 711 CE, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Indus Valley; the Karachi region is believed to have been known to the Arabs as Debal, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim launched his forces into South Asia in 712 C. E. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg, the Mughal administrator of Sindh, the development of coastal Sindh and the Indus delta was encouraged. Under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh; the Ottoman admiral, Seydi Ali Reis, mentioned Debal and Manora Island in his book Mir'ât ül Memâlik in 1554. Karachi was founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi under the rule of the ethnically Baloch Talpur Mirs of Sindh; the founders of the settlement are said to arrived from the nearby town of Karak Bandar after the harbour there silted in 1728 after heavy rains.
The settlement was fortified, defended with cannons imported by Sindhi sailors from Muscat, Oman. The name Karachee was used for the first time in a Dutch document from 1742, in which a merchant ship de Ridderkerk is shipwrecked near the original settlement; the city continued to be ruled by the Talpur Mirs until it was occupied by forces under the command of John Keane in February 1839. The British East India Company captured Karachi on 3 February 1839 after HMS Wellesley opened fire and destroyed the local mud fort at Manora; the town was annexed to British India in 1843. A large part Sindh region was captured by Major General Charles James Napier after the victory in the Battle of Miani, the city was declared capital of the newly formed Sindh province; the city was recognized for its strategic importance, prompting the British to establish the Port of Karachi in 1854. Karachi became a transportation hub for British India owing to newly built port and rail infrastructure, as well as the increase in agricultural exports from the opening of productive tracts of newly irrigated land in Punjab and interior Sindh.
The British developed the Karachi Cantonment as a military garrison in order to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War. During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the 21st Native Infantry
Kuala Lumpur the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, or known as KL, is the national capital and largest city in Malaysia. As the global city of Malaysia, it covers an area of 243 km2 and has an estimated population of 1.73 million as of 2016. Greater Kuala Lumpur known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.25 million people as of 2017. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, in both population and economic development. Kuala Lumpur is the cultural and economic centre of Malaysia, it is home to the Parliament of Malaysia, the official residence of the Malaysian King, the Istana Negara. The city once held the headquarters of the executive and judicial branches of the federal government, but these were relocated to Putrajaya in early 1999. However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three Federal Territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Kuala Lumpur has undergone rapid development in recent decades, is home to the tallest twin buildings in the world, the Petronas Towers, which have since become an iconic symbol of Malaysian development. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road system supported by an extensive range of public transport networks, such as the Mass Rapid Transit, Light Metro, Bus Rapid Transit, commuter rail, an airport rail link. Kuala Lumpur is one of the leading cities in the world for tourism and shopping, being the tenth most-visited city in the world in 2017; the city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls. Kuala Lumpur has been ranked by the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking at No. 70 in the world, No. 2 in Southeast Asia after Singapore. EIU's Safe Cities Index of 2017 rated Kuala Lumpur 31st out of 60 on its world's safest cities list, safer than Beijing or Shanghai.
Kuala Lumpur was named as one of the New7Wonders Cities, has been named as World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO. Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay. One suggestion is. Doubts however have been raised on such a derivation as Kuala Lumpur lies at the confluence of Gombak River and Klang River, therefore should rightly be named Kuala Gombak as the point where one river joins a larger one or the sea is its kuala, it has been argued by some that Sungai Lumpur is in fact Gombak River, although Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River a mile upstream from the Gombak confluence, or located to the north of the Batu Caves area. It has been proposed that Kuala Lumpur was named Pengkalan Lumpur in the same way that Klang was once called Pengkalan Batu, but became corrupted into Kuala Lumpur. Another suggestion is that it was a Cantonese word lam-pa meaning'flooded jungle' or'decayed jungle'. There is no firm contemporary evidence for these suggestions other than anecdotes.
It is possible that the name is a corrupted form of an earlier but now unidentifiable forgotten name. It is unknown who named the settlement called Kuala Lumpur. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about ten miles north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa were involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century earlier. Kuala Lumpur was a small hamlet of just a few houses and shops at the confluence of Sungai Gombak and Sungai Klang before it grew into a town, it is accepted that Kuala Lumpur become established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire some Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines here. The miners landed at Kuala Lumpur and continued their journey on foot to Ampang where the first mine was opened.
Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat. Although the early miners suffered a high death toll due to the malarial conditions of the jungle, the Ampang mines were successful, the first tin from these mines was exported in 1859. At that time Sutan Puasa was trading near Ampang, two traders from Lukut, Hiu Siew and Yap Ah Sze arrived in Kuala Lumpur where they set up shops to sell provisions to miners in exchange for tin; the town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop centred on Old Market Square, with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu where miners started to settled in, Petaling and Damansara. The miners formed gangs among themselves. Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Ci