University of Zimbabwe
The University of Zimbabwe is a public university in Harare, Zimbabwe. It opened in 1952 as the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was affiliated with the University of London, it was renamed the University of Rhodesia, adopted its present name upon Zimbabwe's independence in 1980. UZ is the best ranked university in Zimbabwe; the university has nine faculties and one college offering a wide variety of degree programmes and many specialist research centres and institutes. The university is accredited through the National Council for Higher Education, under the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education. English is the language of instruction. Although once a successful university, UZ has been facing challenges since 2008 and now the University is on a rebounding drive. Major work is being done to uplift the status of the University. Refurbishments are being carried out on the main campus and many facilities are being upgraded to make the university an International Academic Brand; the university has faced criticism for awarding fraudulent degrees to members of the Mugabe regime Grace Mugabe.
In 1945, Manfred Hodson formed the Rhodesia University Association, inspired by the promise of £20,000 by Robert Jeffrey Freeman for establishing such a university. The following year, the Legislative Assembly of Southern Rhodesia adopted a motion proposed by Hodson for the establishment of a university college to serve the needs of Rhodesia and neighbouring territories; the Governor of Southern Rhodesia established the Rhodesia University Foundation Fund in 1947. The Legislative Assembly accepted an offer of land in Mount Pleasant from the City of Salisbury for the construction of the campus in 1948. Four years a bill was enacted for the incorporation and constitution of the university. First classes began for some 68 students on a temporary site at 147 Baker Avenue. Independent of the initiatives of Hodson and the Legislative Assembly, the Central African Council's commission on higher education, led by Sir Alexander Carr-Saunders recommended the establishment of a university college to serve Rhodesia and Nyasaland, with its first preference being to integrate with the Southern Rhodesian initiative.
Construction began on the Mount Pleasant site, funded by grants from the British and Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland Governments, Anglo American Corporation, the British South Africa Company, the Rhodesia Selection Trust, the Beit Trust, the Ford Foundation and the Dulverton Trust and in July 1953 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother laid the foundation stone. In 1955 the British government formally adopted the institution, establishing the University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland by Royal Charter; the college was admitted to the privilege of Special Relation with the University of London the following year and in 1957 all activities were transferred to the Mount Pleasant campus. The following year the college was granted pieces of land upon which the college farm and the Lake Kariba Research Station were constructed. In 1963 the Medical School was affiliated to the University of Birmingham. After the dissolution of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, the University College continued as an independent institution of higher education and research, open to all races.
In 1970 a phased termination of the associations with the Universities of London and Birmingham began. Following Zimbabwe's independence after the Rhodesian Bush War, the university was renamed University of Zimbabwe in 1980. In 1981, the first black Principal, Walter Kamba, was appointed and in 1982 the Royal Charter was replaced by an Act of Parliament. Student numbers rose from 1,000 in 1980 to 2,000 by 1985. In December 1998, the university hosted the Eighth Assembly of the World Council of Churches; the Assembly, the WCC's chief governing body, met in the Great Hall on the UZ campus. On 5 October 1989, thousands of students at the university gathered to protest the arrests of two student leaders. Hundreds of riot police arrived, clashing with the protestors, several of whom were injured and more than 50 of whom were arrested and faced up to five years in prison. By noon that day, all of the university's 8,000 students were ordered to leave campus, riot police arrived, blocking entrances to campus and preventing students from entering.
The University of Zimbabwe Act was controversially amended in 1990, giving the government more powers and, according to many faculty and observers, attacking academic freedom. The late 1980s and most of the 1990s saw a rise in student protest, resulting in several closures and mass expulsions. Despite the ongoing tensions, the university continued to grow and the student population had reached 8,000 by 1995 and 10,139 by 2001; as the 2000s began, the university struggled to meet lecturers' and professors' expectations on salary levels, leading to numerous strikes. Many donors, including the Government of Sweden, a major financer of UZ, cut or cancelled their aid; as the economic crisis grew in Zimbabwe, UZ began to fail to recruit lecturers and professors to fill vacancies. By 2007, the shortage of staff was preventing the examination of some programmes. Problems with water and electricity supply, as well as maintenance of infrastructure became critical by the late 2000s; the decline of UZ culminated in the university's failure to re-open for the 2008–2009 academic year.
The University opened in early 2009, but no classes were held due to strike acti
Rivers State University
Rivers State University Rivers State University of Science and Technology, is a university located in the Diobu area of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The university has staff strength of 3,000 and a student population of 22,400 as of 2017, it is the first technological university in Nigeria and the first university to be situated within the Niger Delta. In 2014, it was rated as Nigeria's best E-learning institution and was ranked as the 15th best university in the country; the Rivers State University of Science and Technology was established in 1972 as the College of Science and Technology. It was granted independent university status in 1980 and was renamed from College of Science and Technology to Rivers State University of Science and Technology, it is the only university in Nigeria, accredited to offer degree programs in Marine Engineering. Department of Physics Department of Mathematics Department of Computer Science Department of Biochemistry Department of Animal and Environmental Biology Department of Microbiology Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology Department of Medical Laboratory Science Department of Civil Highway Engineering Structural Engineering Hydraulics Department of Marine Engineering Department of Petroleum Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Chemical/petrochemical Engineering Department of Agricultural And Environmental Engineering Department of Business Law Department of International Law Department of Public Law Department of Private and Property Law Department of Office And Information Management Department of Marketing Department of Management Department of Mass Communication Department of Banking And Finance Department of Accountancy Land Survey Department of Estate Management Department of Quantity Surveying Department of Architecture Department of Urban And Regional Planning Department of Forestry and Environment Judith Amaechi, former First Lady of Rivers State Mary Uranta, Producer, Singer Mujahid Dokubo-Asari, Ijaw activist Manuela George-Izunwa, Politician Goodluck Nanah Opiah, Politician Felicity Okpete Ovai, Engineer Tonto Dikeh, Actress Nyesom Ezenwo Wike, current Governor of Rivers State Austin Opara, former Deputy Speaker, House of Representatives of Nigeria Magnus Abe, Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Eberechi Wike, Judge of the Rivers State High Court of Justice Comrade I.
T LAWSON (National Secretary, Nollywood Guild of Nigeria Rivers State university of Science and Technology Rivers State university of Science and Technology
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
An organization or organisation is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a particular purpose. The word is derived from the Greek word organon, which means tool or instrument, musical instrument, organ. There are a variety of legal types of organisations, including corporations, non-governmental organisations, political organisations, international organisations, armed forces, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships and educational institutions. A hybrid organisation is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organisation consisting of volunteers; such organisations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs. Organisations may operate secretly or illegally in the case of secret societies, criminal organisations and resistance movements. Compare the concept of social groups, which may include non-organizations.
The study of organisations includes a focus on optimising organisational structure. According to management science, most human organisations fall into four types: Committees or juries Ecologies Matrix organisations Pyramids or hierarchies These consist of a group of peers who decide as a group by voting; the difference between a jury and a committee is that the members of the committee are assigned to perform or lead further actions after the group comes to a decision, whereas members of a jury come to a decision. In common law countries, legal juries render decisions of guilt and quantify damages. Sometimes a selection committee functions like a jury. In the Middle Ages, juries in continental Europe were used to determine the law according to consensus among local notables. Committees are the most reliable way to make decisions. Condorcet's jury theorem proved that if the average member votes better than a roll of dice adding more members increases the number of majorities that can come to a correct vote.
The problem is that if the average member is subsequently worse than a roll of dice, the committee's decisions grow worse, not better. Parliamentary procedure, such as Robert's Rules of Order, helps prevent committees from engaging in lengthy discussions without reaching decisions; this organisational structure promotes internal competition. Inefficient components of the organisation starve. Everybody is paid for what they do, so runs a tiny business that has to show a profit, or they are fired. Companies who utilise this organisation type reflect a rather one-sided view of what goes on in ecology, it is the case that a natural ecosystem has a natural border - ecoregions do not, in general, compete with one another in any way, but are autonomous. The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline talks about functioning as this type of organisation in this external article from The Guardian. By:Bastian Batac De Leon; this organisational type assigns each worker two bosses in two different hierarchies. One hierarchy is "functional" and assures that each type of expert in the organisation is well-trained, measured by a boss, super-expert in the same field.
The other direction tries to get projects completed using the experts. Projects might be organised by products, customer types, or some other schemes; as an example, a company might have an individual with overall responsibility for products X and Y, another individual with overall responsibility for engineering, quality control, etc. Therefore, subordinates responsible for quality control of project X will have two reporting lines. A hierarchy exemplifies an arrangement with a leader who leads other individual members of the organisation; this arrangement is associated with basis that there are enough imagine a real pyramid, if there are not enough stone blocks to hold up the higher ones, gravity would irrevocably bring down the monumental structure. So one can imagine that if the leader does not have the support of his subordinates, the entire structure will collapse. Hierarchies were satirised in The Peter Principle, a book that introduced hierarchiology and the saying that "in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence."
In the social sciences, organisations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, political science, psychology and organisational communication. The broader analysis of organisations is referred to as organisational structure, organisational studies, organisational behaviour, or organisation analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible: From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used. From an institutional perspective, an organisation is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context. From a process-related perspective, an organisation is viewed as an entity is being organised, the focus is on the organisation as a set of tasks or actions. Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity. In the social and political sciences in general, an "organisation" may be more loosely understood as the planned and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product.
This action is framed by formal membership and form (in
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge
University of Malaya
The University of Malaya is a public research university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is the most prestigious university in Malaysia. University of Malaya has its roots in Singapore with the establishment of King Edward VII College of Medicine on 28 September 1905. University Malaya was established on 1949 October in Singapore with the merger of the King Edward VII College of Medicine and Raffles College; the growth of the University was rapid during the first decade of its foundation and this resulted in the setting up of two autonomous Divisions on 15 January 1959, one located in Singapore and the other in Kuala Lumpur. In 1960, the government of the two indicated that the two divisions of the University of Malaya should become autonomous separate national universities, one located in Singapore and the other in Kuala Lumpur. Legislation was passed in 1961 and the University of Malaya was established on 1 January 1962. In 2012, UM was granted autonomy by the Ministry of Higher Education.
Today, UM has more than 2,500 faculty members and is divided into 12 faculties, two academies and three Centres, namely: Faculty of Law, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Built Environment, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, Faculty of Education, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Languages and Linguistics, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Academy of Malay Studies, Academy of Islamic Studies, Cultural Centre, Sports Centre and Centre for Foundation Studies. In 2018, the QS World University Rankings ranked UM at the 87th place in the world, 19th place in Asia, 3rd in Southeast Asia and the top-ranked learning institution in Malaysia; the establishment of the university began with the issue of shortage of medical assistants in Singapore and Penang during the late 1890s. The problem was addressed in a report published by the Education Commission in April 1902.
In the report, it was stated that the Commission was in favour of establishing a medical school to fulfil the demand for medical assistants in government hospitals. However, such a view was not in favour among the European community. Legislation was passed by the Straits Legislative Council in June 1905 under Ordinance No. XV 1905; the school began functioning in September. On 28 September 1905, Sir John officiated the school under the name ‘The Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School.’The school was located in the old Female Lunatic Asylum near the Singapore General Hospital at Sepoy Lines off New Bridge Road, where four of the asylum buildings were converted into a medical school. In 1907, a lecture hall and laboratory were added. There were no room to keep pathological specimens. In 1905, there were four students attending the hospital assistant course. Five years the enrolments increased to 90 medical students and 30 trainee hospital assistants; the school had only one permanent staff, the Principal, the teaching staff were employed on a part-time basis.
The Principal was Dr Gerald Dudley Freer, who served as Senior Colonial Surgeon Resident of Penang. The School Council wanted to gain recognition of its Diploma by the General Council of Medical Education in the United Kingdom to ensure that the Licentiate of Medicine and Surgery Diploma offered by the school would gain worldwide recognition. In 1916, the GCME recognised the Licentiate of Surgery Diploma offered by the school; the licentiates were placed on the General Council’s Colonial List of the British Medical Register and were entitled to practise anywhere within the British Empire. In 1910, Dr Robert Donald Keith became the second Principal of the School; the first two years of the five-year course were devoted to pure science studies. Physics and chemistry were taught in the first year, followed by physiology and elementary anatomy in the second year; the remaining three years were attachment to clinical clerkships in medicine and midwifery, which covered pathology and medical jurisprudence.
Materia Medica was integrated into the fourth year. Students were posted to several hospitals at the Singapore General Hospital. From 1908 onwards, attachments were made to Tan Tock Seng Hospital and Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospital. In 1912, the medical school received an endowment of $120,000 from the King Edward VII Memorial Fund, started by Dr Lim Boon Keng. Subsequently, on 18 November 1913, the name of the school was changed to the King Edward VII School of Medicine. In the first batch of 16 students of 1905, only seven made to the final and graduated in May 1910 while the remaining six students graduated in four months and others resigned from the school. In 1919, the drop-out rate had risen to 35%, while in 1939 the number of students failed in their final examinations stood at 44%. At this time a hostel was built to accommodate 72 male students from the Federated Malay States. In 1921, the school was elevated in status to college. Between 1920 and 1930, the college went through a series of transformations, by replacing the old teaching staff with a younger generation of professionals and nine new Chairs were created, the first in Anatomy in 1920, followed by Medicine and Midwifery & Gynaecology in 1922 and Clinical Surgery, Biology, Bio-Chemistry, Dental Surgery in 1926.
And the tenth Chair for Pathology was created in 1935. In 1923, the college’s new building at Outram Road was commenced, it was co
Quaid-i-Azam University is a public research university in Islamabad, Pakistan. Founded as the University of Islamabad in 1967, it was dedicated to the study of postgraduate education but expanded through the 1980s to an interdisciplinary university offering undergraduate and postgraduate education; the university has, as of 2015, grown into the largest varsity in Islamabad with a total enrollment exceeding 13,000 students. The university is on a 1700 acres campus on the foothills of the Margalla. Divided into four faculties and nine affiliated research institutes, QAU is among Pakistan's largest and highest ranked public universities, it is ranked between 551-560 in the world and top 133 in Asia by the QS World University Rankings while its regional publications ranked QAU among 120 in Asia in 2013. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked QAU between 401-500 globally and top 79 in Asia in 2018; the university is nationally known for its research, technological advancement, intellectual interaction with international institutes, including the United Nations, University of Tokyo and the ICTP.
It is one of the most popular universities in the country and counts several public figures and intellectuals among its current and former faculty, researchers, or alumni since its establishment. They include Maleeha Lodhi, Nasim Zehra, Shamshad Akhtar, Suhail Zubairy, Farzana Aslam, Tasneem Zehra and Salma Zahid; the university is led by Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ali; the University of Islamabad was established on July 22, 1967 under the Act of National Assembly of Pakistan. It was renamed as Quaid-i-Azam University in honor of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan in 1976 -, the year of his birth centenary. However, the spelling of the University's name were kept different i.e. "i" was used instead of "e" for Ezāfe that links the two words in Jinnah's title Quaid-e-Azam. The University offered teaching and research programs for PhD and MPhil degrees in the beginning and offered Master's programs; the University now offers undergraduate programs as well. Quaid-i-Azam University has four faculties and 38 departments, institutes and centers.
Quaid-i-Azam University consists of four faculties. The following departments, institutes/schools work under these faculties: Quaid-i-Azam University was ranked 651-700 in the world by the QS World University Rankings of 2018 and 133 in Asia. For QS Top 10 Asian universities, QAU was ranked 6th in the natural science category in 2010; the university was overall ranked between 100-200 among the QS world top universities in 2007 and 2009. According to the latest 2012 ranking of the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam University is ranked first in the general category; as per rankings of OIC universities, QAU stood first in ranking among Muslim countries universities. More than 80 % of the professors have overseas experience. Notable Alumni Official website