Vara Municipality is a municipality in Västra Götaland County in western Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Vara; the present municipality consists of 25 original local government entities. Between 1974 and 1982 the territory of present Essunga Municipality was included. Bitterna Edsvära Eling Fyrunga Hällum Jung Kvänum Larv Laske-Vedum Levene Long Längjum Naum Norra Vånga Ryda Skarstad Slädene Sparlösa Södra Kedum Södra Lundby Tråvad Vara Önum Öttum Vara Municipality - Official site
Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
A washing machine is a device used to wash laundry. The term is applied to machines that use water as opposed to dry cleaning or ultrasonic cleaners; the user adds laundry detergent, sold in liquid or powder form to the wash water. Laundering by hand involves soaking, beating and rinsing dirty textiles. Before indoor plumbing, the washerwoman or housewife had to carry all the water used for washing and rinsing the laundry. Water for the laundry would be hand carried, heated on a fire for washing poured into the tub; that made the warm soapy water precious. Removal of soap and water from the clothing after washing was a separate process. First, soap would be rinsed out with clear water. After rinsing, the soaking wet clothing would be formed into a roll and twisted by hand to extract water; the entire process occupied an entire day of hard work, plus drying and ironing. It is often used in washbasins. Clothes washer technology developed as a way to reduce the manual labor spent, providing an open basin or sealed container with paddles or fingers to automatically agitate the clothing.
The earliest machines were hand-operated and constructed from wood, while machines made of metal permitted a fire to burn below the washtub, keeping the water warm throughout the day's washing. The earliest special-purpose mechanical washing device was the washboard, invented in 1797 by Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire. By the mid-1850s steam-driven commercial laundry machinery were on sale in the UK and US. Technological advances in machinery for commercial and institutional washers proceeded faster than domestic washer design for several decades in the UK. In the United States there was more emphasis on developing machines for washing at home, though machines for commercial laundry services were used in the late 19th and early 20th centuries; the rotary washing machine was patented by Hamilton Smith in 1858. As electricity was not available until at least 1930, some early washing machines were operated by a low-speed, single-cylinder hit-and-miss gasoline engine. After the items were washed and rinsed, water had to be removed by twisting.
To help reduce this labor, the wringer/mangle machine was developed. As implied by the term "mangle," these early machines were quite dangerous if powered and not hand-driven. A user's fingers, arm, or hair could become entangled in the laundry being squeezed, resulting in horrific injuries. Safer mechanisms were developed over time, the more hazardous designs were outlawed; the mangle used two rollers under spring tension to squeeze water out of clothing and household linen. Each laundry item would be fed through the wringer separately; the first wringers were hand-cranked, but were included as a powered attachment above the washer tub. The wringer would be swung over the wash tub so that extracted wash water would fall back into the tub to be reused for the next load; the modern process of water removal by spinning did not come into use until electric motors were developed. Spinning requires a constant high-speed power source, was done in a separate device known as an "extractor". A load of washed laundry would be transferred from the wash tub to the extractor basket, the water spun out in a separate operation.
These early extractors were dangerous to use, since unevenly distributed loads would cause the machine to shake violently. Many efforts were made to counteract the shaking of unstable loads, such as mounting the spinning basket on a free-floating shock-absorbing frame to absorb minor imbalances, a bump switch to detect severe movement and stop the machine so that the load could be manually redistributed. What is now referred to as an automatic washer was at one time referred to as a "washer/extractor", which combined the features of these two devices into a single machine, plus the ability to fill and drain water by itself, it is possible to take this a step further, to merge the automatic washing machine and clothes dryer into a single device, called a combo washer dryer. The first English patent under the category of Washing machines was issued in 1691. A drawing of an early washing machine appeared in the January 1752 issue of The Gentleman's Magazine, a British publication. Jacob Christian Schäffer's washing machine design was published 1767 in Germany.
In 1782, Henry Sidgier issued a British patent for a rotating drum washer, in the 1790s Edward Beetham sold numerous "patent washing mills" in England. One of the first innovations in washing machine technology was the use of enclosed containers or basins that had grooves, fingers, or paddles to help with the scrubbing and rubbing of the clothes; the person using the washer would use a stick to press and rotate the clothes along the textured sides of the basin or container, agitating the clothes to remove dirt and mud. This crude agitator technology was hand-powered, but still more effective than hand-washing the clothes. More advancements were made to washing machine technology in the form of the rotative drum design; these early design patents consisted of a drum washer, hand-cranked to make the wooden drums rotate. While the technology was simple enough, it was a milestone in the history of washing machines, as it introduced the idea of "powered" washing drums; as metal drums st
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
Miele is a German manufacturer of high-end domestic appliances and commercial equipment, headquartered in Gütersloh, Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Germany. The company was founded in 1899 by Carl Miele and Reinhard Zinkann, has always been a family owned and run company. Miele's first products were a cream separator, butter churn, tub washing machine, under the Meteor brand. Carl Miele supervised manufacturing and Reinhard Zinkann apprenticed and handled finances and sales; the Miele trademark was used early on and appeared on all machines, printed materials and advertising produced by the company. From the mid-1920s, a recognition feature of the logo has been a sloping dash used as the dot on the "i"; the trademark has remained unchanged apart from three minor alterations to reflect contemporary tastes. A survey by the Süddeutsche Zeitung, one of Germany's leading daily newspapers, found that the "i" alone was sufficient to identify the Miele brand. Miele is represented in 47 countries, their expansion into the United States came in 1983, when they established corporate headquarters in Somerset, New Jersey.
They relocated to a Michael Graves designed headquarters building in Princeton in March 1999. Products are manufactured in Germany, the Czech Republic and Romania and shipped to the United States, where there are showrooms in ten states. 1899 Foundation of Miele & Cie.. Er is geen betere" invented 1956 First automatic washing machine 1958 First domestic tumble dryer 1963 Miele launches in the UK 1966 First humidity sensing dryer, the T 460 1976 First top-loading washer-dryer, the WT 489. 1978 First microprocessor-controlled washing machines and dishwashers 1982 Launch of "The New Miele-class" with innovations like a 1,200 RPM final spin, service friendly construction 1986 Introduction of the Hydromatic washing drum with perforated paddles in the drum, which increase washing performance 1987 Introduction of the world's first dishwasher with a cutlery tray, the G 595 SC 1988 First front-loading washer-dryer by Miele, the WT 745. In that year, Miele acquired the professional appliances manufacturer Cordes 1989 700-series washing machines refreshed with Novotronic electronic control 1990 Kitchen appliance manufacturer Imperial taken over 1991 900-series washing machines launched with Novotronic surface-mount devices technology.
Introduced in that year and with the 900-series: 1,600 RPM final spin 1991 Developed and created the wet cleaning process in partnership with Kreussler Textile Chemistry 1997 First washing machine with a program for hand-washable woolens, Miele InfoControl: the first mobile receiver to process data transmitted by Miele domestic appliances. WT 745 discontinued and succeeded by the WT 945 1998 First automatic built-in coffee maker by Miele, the CVA 620. In that year, Miele introduced a gas-fueled dryer for domestic use, the T 478 G 1999 First washing machine with a 1,800 RPM final spin and brushless FU motor, the W397; that year, Miele celebrated their 100th anniversary 2001 Launch of the patented "SoftCare" honeycomb pattern drum 2003 Navitronic washing machines and tumble dryers with an "Automatic" program 2004 New G 1000/G 2000 dishwasher series using a patented production process 2005 TouchControl operation for dishwashers, steam cookers and microwaves, 37th Miele subsidiary set up in Korea.
Kitchen production halted. 2006 New washing machine/tumble dryer series with innovative design 2013 New washing machine and dryer series called W1 and T1 2014 New slogan for The Netherlands, "Miele. Er is geen betere" has been changed to the international slogan, "Immer Besser" 2017 Miele launches Dialog Oven with M-Chef Technology and automatic menu cooking Miele produces domestic appliances including laundry appliances; the company produces commercial laundry equipment including wet cleaning machines, lab glassware washers, dental disinfectors, medical equipment washers. In 2007, Miele was given an award for being the most successful company in Germany that year, beating the previous year's winner Google, which placed second, Porsche, which came in third. Rankings for this Best Brands prize are the result of market research covering key criteria such as current economic market success and brand recognition and popularity among consumers. Miele was recognized as Best Company and achieved a top-five place in the category Best Product Brand.
Miele was honored as Best Domestic Appliance Brand in the UK by Which? in 2007 and again in 2008, being only one of two brands to win twice in a row. They have since won again in 2010. In North America, Miele is marketed as a high-end major appliance brand, it competes against brands such as Küppersbusch, Sub-Zero, Fagor, Viking Range, Asko, Jenn-Air, Thermador. Miele's slogan in German is immer besser which translates to "always better" but can mean "better and better." Official websitesMiele international Landingpage Miele Germany Miele U
Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget was a Swedish industrial company. In 1988 it merged with the Swiss company Boveri & Cie to form ABB Group. ASEA still exists, but only as a holding company owning 50% of the ABB Group. ASEA was founded 1883 by Ludvig Fredholm in Västerås as manufacturer of electrical light and generators. After merging with Wenström's & Granström's Electrical Power Company the name was changed to Allmänna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget the "General Swedish Electrical Limited Company", or a ASEA for short. 1889 - the partner Jonas Wenström creates 3-phased generators and transformers. 1933 - The company removes the swastika from its logo, due to the symbol's association with Nazi Germany. 1953 - ASEA creates the first industrial diamonds. 1954 - HVDC Gotland project, first static high-voltage DC system 1960s - ASEA builds nine of 12 nuclear plants in Sweden. 1974 - Industrial robots are introduced by ASEA 1987 - Acquires Finnish Oy Strömberg Ab 1988 - Merges with BBC Brown Boveri, Asea Cylinda laundry appliances branch brought by Finnish furniture maker Asko, renamed Asko ASEA.
1883–1891 – Ludvig Fredholm 1891–1903 – Göran Wenström 1903–1933 – Sigfrid Edström 1934–1942 – Arthur Lindén 1942–1949 – Thorsten Ericson 1949–1961 – Åke Vrethem 1961–1976 – Curt Nicolin 1976–1980 – Torsten L. Lindström 1980–1987 – Percy Barnevik 1891–1891 – Ludvig Fredholm 1892–1909 – Oscar Fredrik Wijkman 1910–1914 – Oscar Wallenberg 1914–1933 – Sten Ankarcrona 1934–1949 – Sigfrid Edström 1949–1956 – Thorsten Ericson 1956–1976 – Marcus Wallenberg 1976–1991 – Curt Nicolin ASEA IRB - robot Sigfrid Edström Uno Lamm Asko Jan Glete, Asea under hundra år: 1883-1983: en studie i ett storföretags organisatoriska, tekniska och ekonomiska utveckling