Norwegians are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Norway. They speak the Norwegian language. Norwegian people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in the United States, Australia, Chile, Brazil, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, South Africa. Towards the end of the 3rd millennium BC, Proto-Indo-European speaking Battle-Axe peoples migrated to Norway bringing domesticated horses, agriculture and wheel technology to the region. During the Viking age, Harald Fairhair unified the Norse petty kingdoms after being victorious at the Battle of Hafrsfjord in the 880s. Two centuries of Viking expansion tapered off following the decline of Norse paganism with the adoption of Christianity in the 11th century. During The Black Death 60% of the population died and in 1397 Norway entered a union with Denmark. In 1814, following Denmark-Norway's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, Norway entered a union with Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence.
Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, the country was unofficially allied with the Entente powers. In World War II Norway proclaimed its neutrality, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany. In 1949, neutrality was abandoned and Norway became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes but in referendums held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include integration of a fast growing immigrant population, maintaining the country's generous social safety net with an aging population, preserving economic competitiveness; as with many of the people from European countries, Norwegians are spread throughout the world. There are more than 100,000 Norwegian citizens living abroad permanently in the U. S. U. K. and other Scandinavian countries. Norwegian or Norse Vikings travelled north and west and founded vibrant communities in the Faroe Islands, Orkney, Ireland and northern England.
They conducted extensive raids in Ireland and founded the cities of Cork and Limerick. In 947, a new wave of Norwegian Vikings appeared in England. In the 8th century and onwards, Norwegian- and Danish Vikings settled in Normandy, most famously those led by Rollo, thus began the tradition of the Normans, who expanded to England and other Mediterranean islands. Apart from Britain and Ireland, Norwegian Vikings established settlements in uninhabited regions; the first known permanent Norwegian settler in Iceland was Ingólfur Arnarson. In the year 874 he settled in Reykjavík. After his expulsion from Iceland Erik the Red discovered Greenland, a name he chose in hope of attracting Icelandic settlers. Viking settlements were established in the sheltered fjords of the western coast. Erik's relative Leif Eriksson discovered North America. During the 17th and 18th centuries, many Norwegians emigrated to the Netherlands Amsterdam; the Netherlands was the second most popular destination for Norwegian emigrants after Denmark.
Loosely estimated, some 10% of the population may have emigrated, in a period when the entire Norwegian population consisted of some 800,000 people. The Norwegians left with the Dutch trade ships that when in Norway traded for timber, hides and stockfish. Young women took employment as maids in Amsterdam. Young men took employment as sailors. Large parts of the Dutch merchant fleet and navy came to consist of Danes, they took Dutch names, so no trace of Norwegian names can be found in the Dutch population of today. One well-known illustration is that of Admiral Kruys, he was hired in Amsterdam by Peter I to develop the Russian navy, but was from Stavanger, Norway. The emigration to the Netherlands was so devastating to the homelands that the Danish-Norwegian king issued penalties of death for emigration, but had to issue amnesties for those willing to return, announced by posters in the streets of Amsterdam. Dutchmen who search their genealogical roots turn to Norway. Many Norwegians who emigrated to the Netherlands, were employed in the Dutch merchant fleet, emigrated further to the many Dutch colonies such as New Amsterdam.
Many Norwegians emigrated to the U. S. between the 1850s and the 1920s. Today, the descendants of these people are known as Norwegian Americans. According to the 2000 U. S. Census, three million Americans consider Norwegian to be their sole or primary ancestry, it is estimated. Travelling to and through Canada and Canadian ports were of choice for Norwegian settlers immigrating to the United States. In 1850, the year after Great Britain repealed its restrictive Navigation Acts in Canada and more emigrating Norwegians sailed the shorter route to the Ville de Québec in Canada, to make their way to US cities like Chicago and Green Bay by steamer. For example, in the 1850s, 28,640 arrived at Quebec, Canada, en route to the US, 8,351 at New York directly. Norwegian Americans represent 2-3% of the non-Hispanic Euro-American population in the U. S, they live in both the Upper Midwest and Pacific Northwest. As early as 1814, a party of Norwegians was brought to Canada to build a winter road from York Factory on Hudson Bay to the infant Red River settlement at the site of present-day W
H. Aschehoug & Co. known as Aschehoug, is one of the largest independent publishing companies in Norway, founded in 1872. Headquartered in Oslo, the publishing house has 480 employees; the Aschehoug group comprises other publishing houses owned or wholly by Aschehoug. Aschehoug means "ash hill." Aschehoug was founded as a bookstore in 1872 on Egertorvet in Oslo by cousins and Halvard Aschehoug. From the start the firm was involved in publishing in a modest way, its output consisting of school books. In 1888, the company was taken over by William Martin Nygaard and Thorstein Lambrechts, who kept the name while expanding its operations. In 1900 William Nygaard withdrew from the bookselling side of the business and established a publishing company, given the name H. Aschehoug & Co.. In 1935, following the death of William Nygaard, the publishing house turned into a corporation in connection with the inheritance settlement and Williams Nygaard's son, Mads Wiel Nygaard became the Executive Officer.
Aschehoug published an increasing number of important books through the years. Important Norwegian authors first published by Aschehoug have included Nobel Prize laureate, Sigrid Undset, as well as Fridtjof Nansen, Johan Falkberget, Hans E. Kinck, Aksel Sandemose, Arne Garborg - all of them writers whose works are today regarded as classics of Norwegian literature, its publishing program is divided into three main categories - works of fiction, including books for children and younger readers. In 2004, Aschehoug Agency was founded to represent the foreign rights of Forlaget Oktober and Universitetsforlaget publishing houses. Aschehoug has an interest in several other publishing companies, among them: Universitetsforlaget - the main academic press in Norway Forlaget Oktober - the Marxist-Leninist press, now a publisher of fiction Norli Gruppen - bookstore chain Lydbokforlaget - audiobooks De norske Bokklubbene - book clubs Forlagsentralen - distributes more than 75% of all books in Norway Kunnskapsforlaget - publishes encyclopediasAschehoug published Salman Rushdie's book Satanic Verses.
The company's CEO William Nygaard was shot and wounded in 1993 as a result of the fatwa issued against Rushdie and his publishers. William Martin Nygaard Mads Wiel Nygaard Andreas Wiel Nygaard Arthur Holmesland William Nygaard Mads Nygaard Official website
A bassist or bass player, is a musician who plays a bass instrument such as a double bass, bass guitar, keyboard bass or a low brass instrument such as a tuba or sousaphone. Different musical genres tend to be associated with one or more of these instruments. Since the 1960s, the electric bass has been the standard bass instrument for funk, R&B, soul music and roll, jazz fusion, heavy metal and pop music; the double bass is the standard bass instrument for classical music, bluegrass and most genres of jazz. Low brass instruments such as the tuba or sousaphone are the standard bass instrument in Dixieland and New Orleans-style jazz bands. Despite the associations of different bass instruments with certain genres, there are exceptions; some 1990s and 2000s rock and pop bands use a double bass, such as both Andrew Jackson Jihad, Barenaked Ladies. Some fusion jazz groups use a lightweight, stripped-down electric upright bass rather than a double bass; some composers of modern art music use the electric bass in a chamber music setting.
Some jazz big bands use electric bass. Some funk, R&B and jazz, fusion groups use synth keyboard bass rather than electric bass. Bootsy Collins and Stevie Wonder used synth bass; some Dixieland bands use double bass or electric bass instead of a tuba. In some jazz groups and jam bands, the basslines are played by a Hammond organ player, who uses the bass pedal keyboard or the lower manual for the low notes. Electric bassists play the bass guitar. In most rock, pop and country genres, the bass line outlines the harmony of the music being performed, while indicating the rhythmic pulse. In addition, there are many different standard bass line types for different genres and types of song. Bass lines emphasize the root note, with a secondary role for the third, fifth of each chord being used in a given song. In addition, pedal tones and bass riffs are used as bass lines. While most electric bass players play chords, chords are used in some styles funk, R&B, soul music, jazz and heavy metal music. A short list of notable bassists includes: Mark Adams Jeff Ament Victor Bailey Steve Bailey Ronnie Baker Michael "Flea" Balzary Robert "Kool" Bell Rex Brown Jack Bruce Jean-Jacques Burnel Cliff Burton Geezer Butler Tony Campos Alain Caron Liam Carey Stanley Clarke Adam Clayton Tommy Cogbill Bootsy Collins Melvin Lee Davis John Deacon Steve Di Giorgio Mike Dirnt Donald'Duck' Dunn Jimmy Earl Nathan East Bernard Edwards David Ellefson John Entwistle Andy Fraser (Free Billy Gould Roger Glover Simon Gallup Colin Greenwood Kim Gordon Larry Graham Stuart Hamm Jimmy Haslip Steve Harris Marco Hietala Peter Hook Anthony Jackson James Jamerson Jerry Jemmott Darryl Jones John Paul Jones Mick Karn Carol Kaye Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister Mark King Abraham Laboriel Geddy Lee Ryan Martinie Paul McCartney Marcus Miller Monk Montgomery John Myung Jason Newsted Pino Palladino Jaco Pastorius John Patitucci Wayne Pedzwater Guy Pratt Pino Presti Chuck Rainey Mel Schacher Steven Severin Billy Sheehan Ben Shepherd Paul Simonon Chris Squire Sting Jeroen Paul Thesseling Robert Trujillo Sid Vicious Roger Waters Tina Weymouth Nicky Wire Justin Chancellor Christopher Wolstenholme Victor Wooten Bill Wyman Joseph Karnes For a long list, see the List of contemporary classical double bass players.
A shortlist of notable double bass players includes: Johannes Matthias Sperger bassist, composer Domenico Dragonetti bassist, conductor Giovanni Bottesini bassist, conductor Franz Simandl bassist, pedagogue Edouard Nanny bassist, pedagogue Serge Koussevitzky bassist, composer Gary Karr
Anneli Marian Drecker is a Norwegian singer and actress from the city of Tromsø. She is the frontwoman for the dream pop band Bel Canto. Drecker's father Peter, a German from Bielefeld, emigrated in 1960 to Norway. In the fall of 2006 Bel Canto celebrated the twentieth anniversary of the first album with several concerts, she has released three solo albums, has provided vocals for various artists including Motorpsycho, Jan Bang, Savoy, a-ha, Röyksopp, Jah Wobble, Ketil Bjørnstad, Simon Raymonde, Mental Overdrive and Hector Zazou. Drecker contributed as composer and singer in a production of Pär Lagerkvist's Bøddelen at Det Norske Teatret, has worked as a freelance actress and composer at Hålogaland Teater from 2009 to 2015, she worked with fellow Norwegians Röyksopp, since 1999-2012 including as the vocalist on the track "Sparks" and as their live vocalist, on three songs on their album Junior. Additionally, she appeared with countrymen a-ha on their Minor Earth, Major Sky Tour and appeared on the live DVD Live from Vallhall and the following album from their European Tour, How Can I Sleep With Your Voice In My Head..
In 2004 she was a jury member in the Norwegian version of Pop Idol. She continues to perform live in Norway. In 2012 Drecker took part in first season. In 2014 she appeared again on TV2 as one of the artists in the famous series "Hver Gang Vi Møtes". On her latest album Rocks And Straws we are given the home reversion of a journey that began in 1986 with Bel Canto. During the journey, it became clearer to Drecker where she comes from, the music she creates is the result of this Nordic arctic acoustic landscape, with influences of music from all around the world, she has composed the music with lyrics based on poems by the Northern Norwegian poet Arvid Hanssen. At the Vossajazz festival 2015, Drecker performed the tune "Little Tree" from this album, with her daughter Luna. 1992: Spellemannprisen in the category Pop, with Bel Canto for the album Shimmering and Bright 1996: Spellemannprisen in the categories Band and Dance/techno, with Bel Canto for the album Magic Box 2007: Nordlysprisen 2008: Gammlengprisen in Open class 1983: Søsken på Guds jord as «Margit», by Laila Mikkelsen 1992: Svarte pantere as «Sonia», by Thomas Robsahm 2000: De 7 dødssyndene, by Ø.
Karlsen, M. Olin, M. Sødahl, F. Mosvold & L. Gud 2000: "Bøddelen"/ "The executioner", from Pär Lagerkvist, directed by Yngve Sundvor at Det Norske Teatret 2004:" "Peer Gynt" The North Norwegian Theater Company, directed by Alex Scherpf- Tromsoe, Meieriet 2004 2009: "Hamsun's Feberr" / "Hamsun's Fever", directed by Jon Tombre-Hålogaland Teater, homepage review in Nordlys, review in ITromsø 2010: "Vi Hever Våre Hoder I Skam"/ "We Raise Our Heads In Shame", directed by Kristin Eriksen Bjorn and Jon Tombre - Ferske Scener, Tromsoe 2011: "Knutby", directed by Kjersti horn -Hålogaland Teater, homepage, 2011: "The Black Rider", directed by Sigrid Reibo- Hålogaland Teater, homepage 2012: "Blikktrommen" / "The Tin Drum", from Günter Grass, directed by Jon Tombre -Hålogaland Teater, homepage 2014: The Operetta "Kiberg Odyssey" together with Arctic Philharmonic Orchestra, music Composed by Trygve Brøske, directed by Ivar Tindberg, homepage,press pictures on flickr 2015: "Trollmannen fra Oz" / "The Wizard of Oz", from L. Frank Baum, directed by Jon Tombre, music by Snah Motorpsycho - Hålogaland Teater, homepage 2000: Tundra 2005: Frolic 2015: Rocks And Straws, lyrics by Roy-Frode Løvland, based on poems by Arvid Hanssen 2017: Revelation For Personal Use From Tundra2000: "It's All Here" 2000: "Sexy Love" 2000: "All I Know"From Frolic2005: "Stop This" 2005: "You Don't Have To Change"From Rocks & Straws2015: "Circulating Light" 2015: "Come Summer´s Wind" 2005: "You Don´t Have To Change" 2015: "Alone" official video on vimeo 1987: White-Out Conditions 1989: Birds of Passage 1992: Shimmering and Bright 1996: Magic Box 1998: Rush 2001: Retrospect, compilation album 2002: Dorothy's Victory 1989: Song Of Joy, by Tsunematsu Matsui featuring Anneli Marian Drecker 1989: East On Fire, by Foreign Affair featuring Anneli Drecker & Apoptygma Berzerker on the tracks "Ghosts Can't Run Away", "Diversion", "Misunderstanding", "Keep Me In", "The Same" 1992: Sahara Blue, by Hector Zazou featuring Anneli Drecker and Gérard Depardieu on the track "I'll Strangle You" 1994: Take Me To God, by Jah Wobble's Invaders Of The Heart featuring Anneli Drecker on the tracks "Becoming More Like God", "When The Storm Comes" 1994: Timothy's Monster, by Motorpsycho on the track "The Golden Core" 1995: Mantra For Peace, by Music Channel 1997: Sou by Inoran featuring Anneli Drecker on the track "Monsoon Baby" 2000: Sing a Song for You, with Simon Raymonde for the tribute to Tim Buckley on the track "Morning Glory" 2001: Grace by Ketil Bjørnstad 2001: Melody A.
M. by Röyksopp on the track "Sparks" 2002: Lifelines, by a-ha on the track "Turn the Lights Down" 2003: The Nest, by Ketil Bjørnstad (featur
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat