Boeing 787 Dreamliner
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 242 to 335 passengers in typical three-class seating configurations, it is the first airliner with an airframe constructed of composite materials. The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel-efficient than the Boeing 767, which it was intended to replace; the 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include electrical flight systems, raked wingtips, noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles. The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005; the first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 2007 at Boeing's Everett factory. Development and production of the 787 has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers worldwide. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, at the Boeing South Carolina factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Planned to enter service in May 2008, the project experienced multiple delays.
The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, flight testing was completed in mid-2011. Boeing has spent $32 billion on the 787 program. Final US Federal Aviation Administration and European Aviation Safety Agency type certification was received in August 2011, the first 787-8 was delivered in September 2011, it entered commercial service on October 2011 with launch customer All Nippon Airways. The stretched 787-9 variant, 20 feet longer and can fly 450 nautical miles farther than the -8, first flew in September 2013. Deliveries of the 787-9 began in July 2014; as of January 2019, the 787 had orders for 1,421 aircraft from 72 identified customers. The aircraft has suffered from several in-service problems related to its lithium-ion batteries, including fires on board during commercial service; these systems were reviewed by both the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau. The FAA issued a directive in January 2013 that grounded all 787s in the US, other civil aviation authorities followed suit.
After Boeing completed tests on a revised battery design, the FAA approved the revised design and lifted the grounding in April 2013. During the late 1990s, Boeing considered replacement aircraft programs as sales of the 767 and 747-400 slowed. Two new aircraft were proposed, the 747X, which would have lengthened the 747-400 and improved efficiency, the Sonic Cruiser, which would have achieved 15% higher speeds while burning fuel at the same rate as the 767. Market interest for the 747X was tepid; the global airline market was disrupted by the September 11, 2001, attacks and increased petroleum prices, making airlines more interested in efficiency than speed. The worst-affected airlines, those in the United States, had been considered the most customers of the Sonic Cruiser. On January 29, 2003 Boeing announced an alternative product, the 7E7, using Sonic Cruiser technology in a more conventional configuration; the emphasis on a smaller midsize twinjet rather than a large 747-size aircraft represented a shift from hub-and-spoke theory toward the point-to-point theory, in response to analysis of focus groups.
Randy Baseler, Boeing Commercial Airplanes VP Marketing stated that airport congestion comes from a large numbers of regional jets and small single-aisles, flying to destinations where a 550-seat A380 would be too large. The replacement for the Sonic Cruiser project was named "7E7". Technology from the Sonic Cruiser and 7E7 was to be used as part of Boeing's project to replace its entire airliner product line, an endeavor called the Yellowstone Project. Early concept images of the 7E7 included rakish cockpit windows, a dropped nose and a distinctive "shark-fin" tail; the "E" was said to stand for various things, such as "efficiency" or "environmentally friendly". In July 2003, a public naming competition was held for the 7E7, for which out of 500,000 votes cast online the winning title was Dreamliner. Other names included eLiner, Global Cruiser, Stratoclimber. On April 26, 2004, Japanese airline All Nippon Airways became the launch customer for the 787, announcing a firm order for 50 aircraft with deliveries to begin in late 2008.
The ANA order was specified as 30 787-3, 290–330 seat, one-class domestic aircraft, 20 787-8, long-haul, 210–250 seat, two-class aircraft for regional international routes such as Tokyo Narita–Beijing, could perform routes to cities not served, such as Denver and New Delhi. The 787-3 and 787-8 were to be the initial variants, with the 787-9 entering service in 2010; the 787 was designed to be the first production airliner with the fuselage comprising one-piece composite barrel sections instead of the multiple aluminum sheets and some 50,000 fasteners used on existing aircraft. Boeing selected two new engines to power the 787, the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 and General Electric GEnx. Boeing stated the 787 would be 20 percent more fuel-efficient than the 767
Piper PA-28 Cherokee
The Piper PA-28 Cherokee is a family of two- or four-seat light aircraft built by Piper Aircraft and designed for flight training, air taxi and personal use. The PA-28 family of aircraft comprises all-metal, single-engined, piston-powered airplanes with low-mounted wings and tricycle landing gear, they have a single door on the copilot side, entered by stepping on the wing. The first PA-28 received its type certificate from the Federal Aviation Administration in 1960 and the series remains in production to this day. Current models are the Warrior and the Archer TX and LX; the Archer was discontinued in 2009, but with investment from new company ownership, the model was put back into production in 2010. The PA-28 series competes with the high-winged Cessna 172 and the low-winged Grumman American AA-5 series and Beechcraft Musketeer designs. Piper has created variations within the Cherokee family by installing engines ranging from 140 to 300 hp, offering turbocharging, retractable landing gear, constant-speed propeller and stretching the fuselage to accommodate six people.
The Piper PA-32 is a larger, six-seat variant of the PA-28. The PA-32R Saratoga variant was in production until 2009. At the time of the Cherokee's introduction, Piper's primary single-engined, all-metal aircraft was the Piper PA-24 Comanche, a larger, faster aircraft with retractable landing gear and a constant-speed propeller. Karl Bergey, Fred Weick and John Thorp designed the Cherokee as a less expensive alternative to the Comanche, with lower manufacturing and parts costs to compete with the Cessna 172, although some Cherokees featured retractable gear and constant-speed propellers; the Cherokee and Comanche lines continued in parallel production, serving different market segments for over a decade, until Comanche production was ended in 1972, to be replaced by the Piper PA-32R family. The original Cherokees were the Cherokee 150 and Cherokee 160, which started production in 1961. In 1962, Piper added the Cherokee 180 powered by a 180-horsepower Lycoming O-360 engine; the extra power made it practical to fly with all four seats filled and the model remains popular on the used-airplane market.
In 1968, the cockpit was modified to replace the "push-pull"-style engine throttle controls with quadrant levers. In addition, a third window was added to each side, giving the fuselage the more modern look seen in current production. Piper continued to expand the line rapidly. In 1963, the company introduced the more powerful Cherokee 235, which competed favorably with the Cessna 182 Skylane for load-carrying capability; the Cherokee 235 featured a Lycoming O-540 engine derated to 235 horsepower and a longer wing which would be used for the Cherokee Six. It included tip tanks of 17-gallon capacity each, bringing the total fuel capacity of the Cherokee 235 to 84 gallons; the aircraft had its fuselage stretched in 1973. The stabilator area was increased, as well. In 1973, the marketing name was changed from "235" to "Charger". In 1974, it was changed again to "Pathfinder". Production of the Pathfinder continued until 1977. No 1978 models were built. In 1979, the aircraft was given the Piper tapered wing and the name was changed again, this time to Dakota.
In 1964, the company filled in the bottom end of the line with the Cherokee 140, designed for training and shipped with only two seats. The PA-28-140 engine was modified shortly after its introduction to produce 150 horsepower, but kept the -140 name. In 1967, Piper introduced the PA-28R-180 Cherokee Arrow; this aircraft featured a constant-speed propeller and retractable landing gear and was powered by a 180-horsepower Lycoming IO-360-B1E engine. A 200-hp version powered by a Lycoming IO-360-C1C was offered as an option beginning in 1969 and designated the PA-28R-200. At the time the Arrow was introduced, Piper removed the Cherokee 150 and Cherokee 160 from production; the Arrow II came out in 1972, featuring a five-inch fuselage stretch to increase legroom for the rear-seat passengers. In 1977, Piper introduced the Arrow III, which featured a semitapered wing and longer stabilator, a design feature, introduced on the PA-28-181 and provided better low-speed handling, it featured larger fuel tanks, increasing capacity from 50 to 77 gallons.
The first turbocharged model, the PA-28R-201T, was offered in 1977, powered by a six-cylinder Continental TSIO-360-F engine equipped with a Rajay turbocharger. A three-bladed propeller was optional. In 1979, the Arrow was restyled again as the PA-28RT-201 Arrow IV, featuring a "T" tail that resembled the other aircraft in the Piper line at the time. In 1971, Piper released a Cherokee 140 variant called the Cherokee Cruiser 2+2. Although the plane kept the 140 designation, it was, in fact, a 150-hp plane and was shipped as a four-seat version. In 1973, the Cherokee 180 was named the Cherokee Challenger and had its fuselage lengthened and its wings widened and the Cherokee 235 was named the Charger with similar airframe modifications. In 1974, Piper changed the marketing names of some of the Cherokee models again, renaming the Cruiser 2+2 the Cruiser, the Challenger to the Archer and the Charger to Pathfinder. Piper reintroduced the Cherokee 150 in 1974, renaming it the Cherokee Warrior and giving it the Archer's stretched body and a new, semitapered wing.
In 1977, Piper stopped produ
Aeronautics is the science or art involved with the study and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere. The British Royal Aeronautical Society identifies the aspects of "aeronautical Art and Engineering" and "the profession of Aeronautics." While the term referred to operating the aircraft, it has since been expanded to include technology and other aspects related to aircraft. The term "aviation" is sometimes used interchangeably with aeronautics, although "aeronautics" includes lighter-than-air craft such as airships, includes ballistic vehicles while "aviation" technically does not. A significant part of aeronautical science is a branch of dynamics called aerodynamics, which deals with the motion of air and the way that it interacts with objects in motion, such as an aircraft. Attempts to fly without any real aeronautical understanding have been made from the earliest times by constructing wings and jumping from a tower with crippling or lethal results.
Wiser investigators sought to gain some rational understanding through the study of bird flight. An early example appears in ancient Egyptian texts. Medieval Islamic scientists made such studies; the founders of modern aeronautics, Leonardo da Vinci in the Renaissance and Cayley in 1799, both began their investigations with studies of bird flight. Man-carrying kites are believed to have been used extensively in ancient China. In 1282 the European explorer Marco Polo described the Chinese techniques current; the Chinese constructed small hot air balloons, or lanterns, rotary-wing toys. An early European to provide any scientific discussion of flight was Roger Bacon, who described principles of operation for the lighter-than-air balloon and the flapping-wing ornithopter, which he envisaged would be constructed in the future; the lifting medium for his balloon would be an "aether". In the late fifteenth century, Leonardo da Vinci followed up his study of birds with designs for some of the earliest flying machines, including the flapping-wing ornithopter and the rotating-wing helicopter.
Although his designs were rational, they were not based on good science. Many of his designs, such as a four-person screw-type helicopter, have severe flaws, he did at least understand that "An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object." His analysis led to the realisation that manpower alone was not sufficient for sustained flight, his designs included a mechanical power source such as a spring. Da Vinci's work was lost after his death and did not reappear until it had been overtaken by the work of George Cayley; the modern era of lighter-than-air flight began early in the 17th century with Galileo's experiments in which he showed that air has weight. Around 1650 Cyrano de Bergerac wrote some fantasy novels in which he described the principle of ascent using a substance he supposed to be lighter than air, descending by releasing a controlled amount of the substance. Francesco Lana de Terzi measured the pressure of air at sea level and in 1670 proposed the first scientifically credible lifting medium in the form of hollow metal spheres from which all the air had been pumped out.
These would be able to lift an airship. His proposed methods of controlling height are still in use today. In practice de Terzi's spheres would have collapsed under air pressure, further developments had to wait for more practicable lifting gases. From the mid-18th century the Montgolfier brothers in France began experimenting with balloons, their balloons were made of paper, early experiments using steam as the lifting gas were short-lived due to its effect on the paper as it condensed. Mistaking smoke for a kind of steam, they began filling their balloons with hot smoky air which they called "electric smoke" and, despite not understanding the principles at work, made some successful launches and in 1783 were invited to give a demonstration to the French Académie des Sciences. Meanwhile, the discovery of hydrogen led Joseph Black in c. 1780 to propose its use as a lifting gas, though practical demonstration awaited a gas tight balloon material. On hearing of the Montgolfier Brothers' invitation, the French Academy member Jacques Charles offered a similar demonstration of a hydrogen balloon.
Charles and two craftsmen, the Robert brothers, developed a gas tight material of rubberised silk for the envelope. The hydrogen gas was to be generated by chemical reaction during the filling process; the Montgolfier designs had several shortcomings, not least the need for dry weather and a tendency for sparks from the fire to set light to the paper balloon. The manned design had a gallery around the base of the balloon rather than the hanging basket of the first, unmanned design, which brought the paper closer to the fire. On their free flight, De Rozier and d'Arlandes took buckets of water and sponges to douse these fires as they arose. On the other hand, the manned design of Charles was modern; as a result of these exploits, the hot-air balloon became known as the Montgolfière type and the hydrogen balloon the Charlière. Charles and the Robert brothers' next balloon, La Caroline, was a Charlière that followed Jean Baptiste Meusnier's proposals for an elongated dirigible balloon, was notable for having an outer envelope with the gas contained in a second, inner ballonet.
On 19 September 1784, it completed the first flight of over 100 km, between Pa
The Eurasian sparrowhawk known as the northern sparrowhawk or the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. Adult male Eurasian sparrowhawks have orange-barred underparts; the female is up to 25% larger than the male – one of the greatest size differences between the sexes in any bird species. Though it is a predator which specialises in catching woodland birds, the Eurasian sparrowhawk can be found in any habitat and hunts garden birds in towns and cities. Males tend to take smaller birds, including tits and sparrows; the Eurasian sparrowhawk is found throughout the subtropical parts of the Old World. Eurasian sparrowhawks breed in suitable woodland of any type, with the nest, measuring up to 60 cm across, built using twigs in a tree. Four or five pale blue, brown-spotted eggs are laid; the chicks hatch after fledge after 24 to 28 days. The probability of a juvenile surviving its first year is 34%, with 69% of adults surviving from one year to the next. Mortality in young males is greater than that of young females and the typical lifespan is four years.
This species is now one of the most common birds of prey in Europe, although the population crashed after the Second World War. Organochlorine insecticides used to treat seeds before sowing built up in the bird population, the concentrations in Eurasian sparrowhawks were enough to kill some outright and incapacitate others. However, its population recovered after the chemicals were banned, it is now common, classified as being of Least Concern by BirdLife International; the Eurasian sparrowhawk's hunting behaviour has brought it into conflict with humans for hundreds of years racing pigeon owners and people rearing poultry and gamebirds. It has been blamed for decreases in passerine populations; the increase in population of the Eurasian Sparrowhawk coincides with the decline in House Sparrows in Britain. Studies of racing pigeon deaths found that Eurasian sparrowhawks were responsible for less than 1%. Falconers have utilised the Eurasian sparrowhawk since at least the 16th century; the species features in Teutonic mythology and is mentioned in works by writers including William Shakespeare, Lord Tennyson and Ted Hughes.
Within the family Accipitridae, the Eurasian sparrowhawk is a member of the large genus Accipiter, which consists of small to medium-sized woodland hawks. Most of the Old World members of the genus are called goshawks; the species' name dates back to the Middle English word sperhauk and Old English spearhafoc, a hawk which hunts sparrows. The Old Norse name for the Eurasian sparrowhawk, was thought to have been coined by Vikings who encountered falconry in England. English folk names for the Eurasian sparrowhawk include blue hawk, referring to the adult male's colouration, as well as hedge hawk, spar hawk, spur hawk and stone falcon; the Eurasian sparrowhawk was described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae, as Falco nisus, but moved to its present genus by French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760. The current scientific name is derived from the Latin accipiter, meaning'hawk' and nisus, the sparrowhawk. According to Greek mythology, the king of Megara, was turned into a sparrowhawk after his daughter, cut off his purple lock of hair to present to her lover, Minos.
The Eurasian sparrowhawk forms a superspecies with the rufous-chested sparrowhawk of eastern and southern Africa, the Madagascan sparrowhawk. Geographic variation is clinal, with birds becoming larger and paler in the eastern part of the range compared to the west. Within the species itself, six subspecies are recognised: A. n. nisus, the nominate subspecies, was described by Linnaeus in 1758. It breeds from west Asia to western Siberia and Iran. A. n. nisosimilis was described by Samuel Tickell in 1833. It breeds from central and eastern Siberia east to Kamchatka and Japan, south to northern China; this subspecies is wholly migratory, wintering from Pakistan and India eastwards through South-East Asia and southern China to Korea and Japan. It is similar to, but larger than, the nominate subspecies. A. n. melaschistos was described by Allan Octavian Hume in 1869. It breeds in mountains from Afghanistan through the Himalayas and southern Tibet to western China, winters in the plains of South Asia.
Larger and longer tailed than nisosimilis, it has dark slate-coloured upperparts, more distinct rufous barring on the underparts. A. n. wolterstorffi, described by Otto Kleinschmidt in 1900, is resident in Corsica. It is the smallest of all the races, darker on the upperparts and more barred below than the nominate subspecies. A. n. granti, described by Richard Bowdler Sharpe in 1890, is confined to Madeira and the Canary Islands. It is dark. A. n. punicus, described by Erlanger in 1897, is resident in north-west Africa, north of the Sahara. It is similar to nisus, being large and pale
Bombardier Dash 8
The DHC-8 Dash 8 is a series of turboprop-powered regional airliners, introduced by de Havilland Canada in 1984. DHC was bought by Boeing in 1988 by Bombardier in 1992. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100s, it was developed from the Dash 7 with improved cruise performance, lowered operational costs but without STOL performance. Three sizes were offered: the 37-40 seat -100 until 2005 and the more powerful -200 from 1995, the stretched 50-56 seats -300 from 1989, both until 2009, the 68-90 seats -400 from 1999, still in production; the Q Series are post-1997 variants with quieter cabins. In the 1970s, de Havilland Canada had invested in its Dash 7 project, concentrating on STOL and short-field performance, the company's traditional area of expertise. Using four medium-power engines with large, four-bladed propellers resulted in comparatively lower noise levels, which combined with its excellent STOL characteristics, made the Dash 7 suitable for operating from small in-city airports, a market DHC felt would be compelling.
However, only a handful of air carriers employed the Dash 7, as most regional airlines were more interested in operational costs than short-field performance. In 1980, de Havilland responded by dropping the short-field performance requirement and adapting the basic Dash 7 layout to use only two, more powerful engines, its favoured engine supplier, Pratt & Whitney Canada, developed the new PW100 series engines for the role, more than doubling the power from its PT6. Designated the PT7A-2R engine, it became the PW120; when the Dash 8 rolled out on April 19, 1983, more than 3,800 hours of testing had been accumulated over two years on five PW100 series test engines. The Dash 8 first flight was on June 20, 1983. Certification of the PW120 followed on December 16, 1983; the airliner entered service in 1984 with NorOntair, Piedmont Airlines Henson Airlines, was the first US customer the same year. The Dash 8 was introduced at a advantageous time; the older generation of regional airliners from the 1950s and 1960s was nearing retirement, leading to high sales figures.
De Havilland Canada was unable to meet the demand with sufficient production. In 1986, Boeing bought the company in a bid to improve production at DHC's Downsview Airport plants, as well as better position itself to compete for a new Air Canada order for large intercontinental airliners. Air Canada was a crown corporation at the time, both Boeing and Airbus were competing via political channels for the contract, it was won by Airbus, which received an order for 34 A320 aircraft in a controversial move. The allegations of bribery are today known as the Airbus affair. Following its failure in the competition, Boeing put de Havilland Canada up for sale; the company was purchased by Bombardier in 1992. The market for new aircraft to replace existing turboprops once again grew in the mid-1990s, DHC responded with the improved "Series 400" design. All Dash 8s delivered from the second quarter of 1996 include the Active Noise and Vibration System designed to reduce cabin noise and vibration levels to nearly those of jet airliners.
To emphasize their quietness, Bombardier renamed the Dash 8 models as the Q-Series turboprops. The last Dash 8–100, a –102, was built in 2005. In April 2008, Bombardier announced that production of the classic versions would be ended, leaving the Series 400 as the only Dash 8 still in production. Production of the Q200 and Q300 was to cease in May 2009. A total of 671 Dash 8 classics were produced; the 1,000th Dash 8 was delivered in November 2010. Bombardier proposed development of a Q400 stretch with two plug-in segments, called the Q400X project, in 2007, it would compete in the 90-seat market range. In response to this project, as of November 2007, ATR was studying a 90-seat stretch. In June 2009, Bombardier commercial aircraft president Gary Scott indicated that the Q400X will be "definitely part of our future" for possible introduction in 2013–14, although he has not detailed the size of the proposed version or committed to an introduction date; as of July 2010, Bombardier's vice president, Phillipe Poutissou, made comments explaining the company was still studying the prospects of designing the Q400X and talking with potential customers.
At the time, Bombardier was not as committed to the Q400X. As of May 2011, Bombardier was still committed to the stretch, but envisioned it as more as a 2015 or launch, complicating launch date matters were new powerplants from GE and PWC to be introduced in 2016; as of February 2012, Bombardier was still studying the issue, but as of 2011, the launch date is no longer targeted for the 2014 range. At least a three-year delay was envisioned. In October 2012, a joint development deal with a government-led South Korean consortium was revealed, to develop a 90-seater turboprop regional airliner, targeting a 2019 launch date; the consortium was to have included Korean Air Lines. At the February 2016 Singapore Airshow, Bombardier announced a high-density, 90-seat layout of the Q400, which should enter service in 2018; the payload is increased by 2,000 pounds and the aircraft maintenance check intervals
Airbus A350 XWB
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus aircraft with both fuselage and wing structures made of carbon fibre reinforced polymer, its variants seat 280 to 366 passengers in typical three-class seating layouts. The A350 is positioned to succeed the A340 and to compete with the Boeing 787 and 777; the A350 was conceived in 2004 as a pairing of the A330's fuselage with new aerodynamics features and engines. In 2006, Airbus redesigned the aircraft in response to negative feedback from several major prospective customers, producing the "A350 XWB". Development costs are estimated at €11 billion; as of February 2019, Airbus had received 852 orders for A350s from 47 customers worldwide. The prototype A350 first flew on 14 June 2013 from France. Type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency was received in September 2014 and certification from the Federal Aviation Administration two months later.
On 15 January 2015, the A350-900 entered service with its launch operator Qatar Airways, the A350-1000 on 24 February 2018 with the same airline. Airbus rejected Boeing's claim that the Boeing 787 Dreamliner would be a serious threat to the Airbus A330, stating that the 787 was just a reaction to the A330 and that no response was needed; when airlines urged Airbus to provide a competitor, Airbus proposed the "A330-200Lite", a derivative of the A330 featuring improved aerodynamics and engines similar to those on the 787. The company did not proceed. On 16 September 2004, Airbus president and chief executive officer Noël Forgeard confirmed the consideration of a new project during a private meeting with prospective customers. Forgeard did not give a project name, he did not state whether it would be an new design or a modification of an existing product. Airline dissatisfaction with this proposal motivated Airbus to commit €4 billion to a new airliner design; the original version of the A350 superficially resembled the A330 due to its common fuselage cross-section and assembly.
A new wing, a horizontal stabiliser–to be coupled with new composite materials and production methods applied to the fuselage–would make the A350 an all-new aircraft. On 10 December 2004, the boards of EADS and BAE Systems the shareholders of Airbus, gave Airbus an "authorisation to offer" and formally named it the A350. On 13 June 2005 at the Paris Air Show, Middle Eastern carrier Qatar Airways announced that they had placed an order for 60 A350s. In September 2006 the airline signed a memorandum of understanding with General Electric to launch the GEnx-1A-72 engine for the aircraft. Emirates sought a more improved design and decided against ordering the initial version of the A350. On 6 October 2005, the programme's industrial launch was announced with an estimated development cost of around €3.5 billion. The A350 was planned to be a 250- to 300-seat twin-engine wide-body aircraft derived from the existing A330's design. Under this plan, the A350 would have modified wings and new engines while sharing the A330's fuselage cross-section.
As a result of a controversial design, the fuselage was to consist of aluminium-lithium rather than the carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer fuselage on the Boeing 787. The A350 would see entry in two versions: the A350-800 with a 8,800 nmi range with a typical passenger capacity of 253 in a three-class configuration, the A350-900 with 7,500 nmi range and a 300-seat 3-class configuration; the A350 was designed to be a direct competitor to the Boeing 787-9 and 777-200ER. The A350 was publicly criticised by two of Airbus's largest customers, International Lease Finance Corporation and GE Capital Aviation Services. On 28 March 2006, ILFC President Steven F. Udvar-Házy urged Airbus to pursue a clean-sheet design or risk losing market share to Boeing and branded Airbus's strategy as "a Band-aid reaction to the 787", a sentiment echoed by GECAS president Henry Hubschman. In April 2006, while reviewing bids for the Boeing 787 and A350, CEO of Singapore Airlines Chew Choon Seng, commented that "having gone through the trouble of designing a new wing, cockpit... should have gone the whole hog and designed a new fuselage."Airbus responded that they were considering A350 improvements to satisfy customer demands.
Airbus's then-CEO Gustav Humbert stated, "Our strategy isn't driven by the needs of the next one or two campaigns, but rather by a long-term view of the market and our ability to deliver on our promises." As major airlines such as Qantas and Singapore Airlines selected the 787 over the A350, Humbert tasked an engineering team to produce new alternative designs. One such proposal, known internally as "1d", formed the basis of the A350 redesign. On 14 July 2006, during the Farnborough Airshow, the redesigned aircraft was designated "A350 XWB". Within four days, Singapore Airlines agreed to order 20 A350XWBs with options for another 20 A350XWBs; the proposed A350 was a new design, including a wider fuselage cross-section, allowing seating arrangements ranging from an eight-abreast low-density premium economy layout to a ten-abreast high-density seating configuration for a maximum seating capacity of 440–475 depending on variant. The A330 and previous iterations of the A350 would only be able to accommodate a maximum of eight seats per row.
The 787 is configured for nine seats per row. The 777 accommodates nine or ten seats per row, with more than half of recent 777s being ten-abreast as the 777X will be; the A350 cabin is 12.7 cm wider