Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou in southeastern China. It is the prestige variety of Yue, one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and some neighbouring areas such as Guangxi. In Hong Kong and Macau, Cantonese serves as one of their official languages and it is spoken amongst overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western World. When Cantonese and the closely related Yuehai dialects are classified together, Cantonese is viewed as vital part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swathes of southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau. Although Cantonese shares some vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon, sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. This results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar, in English, the term Cantonese is ambiguous.
Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton and this narrow sense may be specified as Canton language or Guangzhou language in English. However, Cantonese may refer to the branch of Cantonese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, Cantonese is used for Cantonese proper, speakers called this variety Canton speech or Guangzhou speech, although this term is now seldom used outside mainland China. In Guangdong province, people call it provincial capital speech or plain speech. In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, in mainland China, the term Guangdong speech is increasingly being used among both native and non-native speakers. Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Cantonese or Yue branch of Chinese varieties, the official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has different varieties, of which Cantonese is one.
Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and it is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language along with Portuguese. As in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The variant spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is known as Hong Kong Cantonese, Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China
In phonetics, preaspiration is a period of voicelessness or aspiration preceding the closure of a voiceless obstruent, basically equivalent to an -like sound preceding the obstruent. In other words, when an obstruent is preaspirated, the glottis is opened for time before the obstruent closure. To mark preaspiration using the International Phonetic Alphabet, the diacritic for regular aspiration, ⟨ʰ⟩, Ladefoged & Maddieson prefer to use a simple cluster notation, e. g. ⟨hk⟩ instead of ⟨ʰk⟩. Preaspiration is comparatively uncommon across languages of the world, and is claimed by some to not be contrastive in any language. g. Icelandic kappi /ˈkʰahpi/ hero rather than /ˈkʰaʰpi/, preaspirated consonants are typically in free variation with spirant-stop clusters, though they may have a relationship with long vowels or -stop clusters. Preaspiration is very unstable both synchronically and diachronically and is replaced by a fricative or by a lengthening of the preceding vowel. Preaspiration is perhaps best known from North Germanic languages, most prominently in Icelandic and Faroese and it is a prominent feature of Scottish Gaelic.
The presence of preaspiration in Gaelic has been attributed to Scandinavian influence, within Northwestern Europe preaspiration is furthermore found in most Sami languages. Preaspiration is absent from Inari Sami, where it has replaced by postaspiration. Elsewhere in the world, preaspiration occurs in Halh Mongolian and in several American Indian languages, including dialects of Cree, Fox, Miami-Illinois and Purepecha. In certain accents, such as Geordie and in some speakers of Dublin English word- and utterance-final /p, t, in the Western Sami languages as well as Skolt Sami, preaspiration affects both long and half-long consonants, in most Eastern Sami languages only fully long consonants are preaspirated. In several Sami languages, preaspirated stops/affricates contrast with lax voiceless stops, in Scottish Gaelic, due to the historical loss of voiced stops preaspiration is phonemic in medial and final positions after stressed vowels. Its strength varies from area to area and can manifest itself as or or in areas with strong preaspiration as or.
The occurrence of preaspiration follows a hierarchy of c > t > p, i. e. if a dialect has preaspiration with /pʰ/, los Angeles, November 7–8,2003, Journal of Indo-European Monograph Series,49, Washington, D. C. Institute for the Study of Man, pp. 168–185, archived from the original on September 6,2006, retrieved 2007-03-07 Sammallahti, Pekka. Reports in Phonetics,9, Umeå University, pp. 5–8, retrieved 2007-03-07 Tronnier, Preaspiration in Southern Swedish Dialects, Proceedings of Fonetik 2002
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
The equals sign or equality sign is a mathematical symbol used to indicate equality. It was invented in 1557 by Robert Recorde, in an equation, the equals sign is placed between two expressions that have the same value. In Unicode and ASCII, it is U+003D = equals sign, the etymology of the word equal is from the Latin word æqualis as meaning uniform, identical, or equal, from aequus. The = symbol that is now accepted in mathematics for equality was first recorded by Welsh mathematician Robert Recorde in The Whetstone of Witte. The original form of the symbol was much wider than the present form.2. Thynges, can be moare equalle. … to avoid the repetition of these words, is equal to, I will set a pair of parallels, or Gemowe lines, of one length. According to Scotlands University of St Andrews History of Mathematics website, the symbol || was used by some and æ, from the Latin word aequalis meaning equal, was widely used into the 1700s. In mathematics, the sign can be used as a simple statement of fact in a specific case, or to create definitions, conditional statements.
The first important computer programming language to use the sign was the original version of Fortran, FORTRAN I, designed in 1954. In Fortran, = serves as an assignment operator, X =2 sets the value of X to 2. This somewhat resembles the use of = in a definition, but with different semantics. For example, the assignment X = X +2 increases the value of X by 2, a rival programming-language usage was pioneered by the original version of ALGOL, which was designed in 1958 and implemented in 1960. ALGOL included a relational operator that tested for equality, allowing constructions like if x =2 with essentially the same meaning of = as the usage in mathematics. The equals sign was reserved for this usage, both usages have remained common in different programming languages into the early 21st century. As well as Fortran, = is used for assignment in such languages as C, Python, but = is used for equality and not assignment in the Pascal family, Eiffel, APL, and other languages. A few languages, such as BASIC and PL/I, have used the sign to mean both assignment and equality, distinguished by context.
However, in most languages where = has one of these meanings, a different character or, more often, following ALGOL, most languages that use = for equality use, = for assignment, although APL, with its special character set, uses a left-pointing arrow. Fortran did not have an equality operator until FORTRAN IV was released in 1962, the language B introduced the use of == with this meaning, which has been copied by its descendant C and most languages where = means assignment
Subscript and superscript
A subscript or superscript is a character that is set slightly below or above the normal line of type. It is usually smaller than the rest of the text, subscripts appear at or below the baseline, while superscripts are above. Subscripts and superscripts are perhaps most often used in formulas, mathematical expressions, and specifications of chemical compounds and isotopes, the vertical distance that sub- or superscripted text is moved from the original baseline varies by typeface and by use. In typesetting, such types are traditionally called superior and inferior letters, figures, in English, most nontechnical use of superiors is archaic. Superior and inferior figures on the baseline are used for fractions and most other purposes, a single typeface may contain sub- and superscript glyphs at different positions for different uses. The four most common positions are listed here, because each position is used in different contexts, not all alphanumerics may be available in all positions. For example, subscript letters on the baseline are quite rare, despite these differences, all reduced-size glyphs go by the same generic terms subscript and superscript, which are synonymous with the terms inferior letter and superior letter, respectively.
Most fonts that contain superscript/subscript will have predetermined size and orientation that is dependent on the design of the font, perhaps the most familiar example of subscripts is in chemical formulas. For example, the formula for glucose is C6H12O6. A subscript is used to distinguish different versions of a subatomic particle. Thus electron and tau neutrinos are denoted ν e ν μ and ν τ, a particle may be distinguished by multiple subscripts, such as Ω− bbb for the triple bottom omega particle. Commonly, variables with a zero in the subscript are referred to as the name followed by “nought”. Subscripts are often used to refer to members of a sequence or set or elements of a vector. For example, in the sequence O =, O3 refers to the member of sequence O. Also in mathematics and computing, a subscript can be used to represent the radix, or base, of a written number, for example, comparing values in hexadecimal and octal one might write Chex = 12dec = 14oct. Subscripted numbers dropped below the baseline are used for the denominators of stacked fractions.
The only common use of subscripts is for the denominators of diagonal fractions, like ½ or the signs for percent %, permille ‰. Certain standard abbreviations are composed as diagonal fractions, such as ℅, ℀, ℁ and these superscripts typically share a baseline with numerator digits, the top of which are aligned with the top of the full-height numerals of the base font, lowercase ascenders may extend above
Breathing is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs, to allow the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the external environment into and out of the blood. Breathing sometimes refers to the equivalent process using other respiratory organs such as gills in fish, for organisms with lungs, breathing is called pulmonary ventilation, which consists of inhalation and exhalation. Breathing is one part of physiological respiration required to sustain life, aerobic organisms require oxygen at cellular level to release energy by metabolizing energy-rich molecules such as fatty acids and glucose. This is often referred to as cellular respiration, breathing is only one of the processes that delivers oxygen to where it is needed in the body and removes excess carbon dioxide. After breathing, the process in this chain of events is the transport of these gases throughout the body by the circulatory system. Breathing fulfills another vital function, that of regulating the pH of the fluids of the body.
It is, in fact, this homeostatic function which determines the rate, the medical term for normal relaxed breathing is eupnea. At the end of each exhalation the adult human lungs still contain 2.5 –3.0 liters of air, breathing replaces only about 15% of this volume of gas with moistened ambient air with each breath. This ensures that the composition of the FRC changes very little during the breathing cycle, the equilibration of the gases in the alveolar blood with those in the alveolar air occurs by passive diffusion. Breathing is used for a number of functions, such as speech, expression of the emotions, self-maintenance activities and, in animals that cannot sweat through the skin. In mammals, breathing in at rest is due to the contraction and flattening of the diaphragm. In the process the size of the cavity has increased in volume. This increased thoracic volume results in a fall in pressure in the thorax, during exhalation, at rest, the diaphragm relaxes, returning the chest and abdomen to a position which is determined by their anatomical elasticity.
This is the resting mid-position of the thorax when the lungs contain the residual capacity of air. Resting exhalation lasts about twice as long as inhalation because the diaphragm relaxes more gently than it contracts during inhalation and this prevents undue narrowing of the airways, from which the air escapes more easily than from the alveoli. During heavy breathing, as, for instance, during exercise and this increases the volume of the rib cage, adding to the volume increase caused by the descending diaphragm. The end-exhalatory lung volume is now well below the resting mid-position, however, in a normal mammal, the lungs cannot be emptied completely. In an adult human there is still at least 1 liter of residual air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation
Mecca or Makkah is a city in the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia that is capital of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a valley at a height of 277 m above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although more than triple this number every year during the hajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islams holiest site, Mecca was long ruled by Muhammads descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925, during this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj, as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, despite the fact that non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the spelling in the 1980s. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means Mecca the Honored, the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure, the form Bakkah is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3,96, while the form Mecca is used in 48,24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, another name of Mecca is Tihamah. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah, yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was an arabized Hebrew word. One of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah, Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr.
Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar, Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region, which includes neighboring Jeddah. The provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007, on 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor. The early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam. The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 AD, ruling cities such as Hegra, even though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca. The first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 AD in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, claims have been made this could be a reference to the Kaaba in Mecca
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, a philosophical language of Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language and lingua franca of ancient and medieval South Asia. As a result of transmission of Hindu and Buddhist culture to Southeast Asia and parts of Central Asia, as one of the oldest Indo-European languages for which substantial written documentation exists, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. The body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, philosophical, the compositions of Sanskrit were orally transmitted for much of its early history by methods of memorization of exceptional complexity and fidelity. Thereafter and derivatives of the Brahmi script came to be used, Sanskrit is today one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India, which mandates the Indian government to develop the language. It continues to be used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns.
The Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- may be translated as refined, elaborated, as a term for refined or elaborated speech, the adjective appears only in Epic and Classical Sanskrit in the Manusmṛti and the Mahabharata. The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the fourth century BCE. Sanskrit, as defined by Pāṇini, evolved out of the earlier Vedic form, the present form of Vedic Sanskrit can be traced back to as early as the second millennium BCE. Scholars often distinguish Vedic Sanskrit and Classical or Pāṇinian Sanskrit as separate dialects, although they are quite similar, they differ in a number of essential points of phonology, vocabulary and syntax. Vedic Sanskrit is the language of the Vedas, a collection of hymns and theological and religio-philosophical discussions in the Brahmanas. Modern linguists consider the metrical hymns of the Rigveda Samhita to be the earliest, for nearly 2000 years, Sanskrit was the language of a cultural order that exerted influence across South Asia, Inner Asia, Southeast Asia, and to a certain extent East Asia.
A significant form of post-Vedic Sanskrit is found in the Sanskrit of Indian epic poetry—the Ramayana, the deviations from Pāṇini in the epics are generally considered to be on account of interference from Prakrits, or innovations, and not because they are pre-Paninian. Traditional Sanskrit scholars call such deviations ārṣa, meaning of the ṛṣis, in some contexts, there are more prakritisms than in Classical Sanskrit proper. There were four principal dialects of classical Sanskrit, paścimottarī, madhyadeśī, pūrvi, the predecessors of the first three dialects are attested in Vedic Brāhmaṇas, of which the first one was regarded as the purest. In the 2001 Census of India,14,035 Indians reported Sanskrit to be their first language, in India, Sanskrit is among the 14 original languages of the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution. The state of Uttarakhand in India has ruled Sanskrit as its official language. In October 2012 social activist Hemant Goswami filed a petition in the Punjab. More than 3,000 Sanskrit works have been composed since Indias independence in 1947, much of this work has been judged of high quality, in comparison to both classical Sanskrit literature and modern literature in other Indian languages
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that was first spoken in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. Arabic is the language of 1.7 billion Muslims. It is one of six languages of the United Nations. The modern written language is derived from the language of the Quran and it is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, which is the language of 26 states. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the standards of Quranic Arabic. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-Quranic era, Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics. As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Many words of Arabic origin are found in ancient languages like Latin.
Balkan languages, including Greek, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has borrowed words from languages including Greek and Persian in medieval times. Arabic is a Central Semitic language, closely related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages, particularly in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include, The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense, the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense. The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms, the development of an internal passive. These features are evidence of descent from a hypothetical ancestor. In the southwest, various Central Semitic languages both belonging to and outside of the Ancient South Arabian family were spoken and it is believed that the ancestors of the Modern South Arabian languages were spoken in southern Arabia at this time.
To the north, in the oases of northern Hijaz and Taymanitic held some prestige as inscriptional languages, in Najd and parts of western Arabia, a language known to scholars as Thamudic C is attested