Eastern Shore of Virginia
The Eastern Shore of Virginia consists of two counties on the Atlantic coast detached from the mainland of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The 70-mile-long region is part of the Delmarva Peninsula and is separated from the rest of Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay, its population was 45,553 as of 2010. The terrain is overall flat, ranging from sea level to just 50 feet above sea level, it is characterized by deep soil. The weather in the area has temperate summers and winters affected by the Chesapeake Bay and the Atlantic Ocean; the rural area has long been devoted to cotton, soybean and truck farming, large-scale chicken farms. Since the late 20th century, vineyards have been developed in both counties, the Eastern Shore has received recognition as an American Viticultural Area; the region has more than 78,000 acres of preserved parks, preserves and a national seashore and is a popular outdoor recreation destination for fishing, boating and kayaking. It is an important birding hotspot along the Atlantic Flyway at the southernmost tip of the Delmarva Peninsula.
There are public beaches at Cape Charles, Kiptopeke State Park, Savage Neck Preserve, Tangier Island and the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge abutting the Assateague Island National Seashore. The area includes 70 miles of barrier islands, the longest chain of undeveloped barrier islands in the global temperate zone and a [. At the northern end of the Atlantic side is the beach community of Chincoteague, famous for its annual wild pony roundup, gathered from Assateague Island. Wallops Flight Facility, a NASA space launch base, is located near Chincoteague. At the southern end of the Chesapeake Bay coast, the beach community of Cape Charles, a historic railroad town, is home to the Cape Charles Yacht Center, a super yacht service center; the town of Wachapreague on the Atlantic coast is a popular destination for fishing and guided trips out to the wild barrier islands. Onancock, a harbor town on the Chesapeake Bay, has a ferry service to Tangier Island, off the western shore in the Chesapeake Bay, during spring and fall.
The Eastern Shore, geographically removed from the rest of Virginia, has had a unique history of settlement and development influenced by agriculture, fishing and the Pennsylvania Railroad. William G. Thomas describes the Eastern Shore during the late 19th and early 20th century as "a complex and interdependent landscape", he continues: It was a liminal place, a zone of interpenetration, where the settlement patterns, speech and political outcomes defined its place in the South but its engagement with technology and rapid transformation of the landscape betrayed other allegiances, motives and effects. The 23-mile-long Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel, part of U. S. Route 13, spans the mouth of the Bay and connects the Eastern Shore to South Hampton Roads and the rest of Virginia. Before the Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel was built in 1964, the Little Creek-Cape Charles Ferry provided the continuation of U. S. 13 across this stretch of water. Accomac Shire was established in the Virginia Colony by the House of Burgesses in 1634 under the direction of King Charles I.
It was one of the original eight shires of Virginia, consisted of the whole of Virginia's Delmarva territory. The shire's name comes from the Native American word Accawmack, which means, "the other shore". In 1642, the name was changed to Northampton County by the English.. In 1663, Northampton County was split into two counties; the northern two thirds took the original Accomac name, while the southern third remained as Northampton. In 1670, the Virginia Colony's Royal Governor William Berkeley abolished Accomac County, but the Virginia General Assembly re-created it in 1671. In 1940, the General Assembly added a "k" to the end of the county's name to arrive at its current spelling, Accomack. US 13 SR 126 SR 175 SR 176 SR 178 SR 179 SR 180 SR 182 SR 183 SR 184 SR 187 SR 316 Delmarva Central Railroad Accomack County Airport Campbell Field Airport Tangier Island Airport Battle of Kedges Strait - the last naval engagement of the American Revolution Debedeavon Delmarva Peninsula Eastern Shore of Maryland William G. Thomas "The Countryside Transformed:The Eastern Shore of Virginia, the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Creation of a Modern Landscape" Southern Spaces, 31 July 2007.
Eastern Shore of Virginia - Official State Tourism Website & Map Eastern Shore Visitor Accomack-Northampton Planning District Commission Eastern Shore of Virginia Tourism Commission Northampton County Chamber of Commerce
Eastern Shore of Maryland
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U. S. state of Maryland that lies predominantly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay and consists of nine counties. As of the 2010 census, its population was 449,226, with just under 8 percent of Marylanders living in the region; the term "Eastern Shore" distinguishes a territorial part of the State of Maryland from the Western Shore of Maryland, land west of the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore consists of nine Maryland counties on the Chesapeake Bay's eastern side—or eastern side of the Susquehanna River, with Delaware to the east and north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Virginia's own Eastern Shore on the south. Maryland's and Virginia's Eastern Shore and all of Delaware form the Delmarva Peninsula; the counties comprising the Eastern Shore are Caroline, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Talbot and Worcester counties. To the south, the Calvert-Scarborough Line separates Maryland from Virginia. A modern Worcester County highway map shows this location.
While comprising different boundaries than in the 17th-18th century, the Eastern Shore's geographic definition was set once everyone agreed on where Watkins Point—on the western side of the peninsula—is and where the Bay's shoreline began. In 1668, Philip obtained Virginia recognition of Maryland's claims to present-day Somerset County, surveying a dividing line between the two colonies with Surveyor General of Virginia, Edmund Scarborough. Meanwhile, he negotiated treaties with Lower Eastern Shore Indian tribes harassing English settlers; these treaties defined standards of conduct for Indian-English relations, establishing an overall peace in the region. The northern limit is harder to locate; some dispute Cecil County as a true Shore territory due to I-95's presence with its surrounding developments, proximity to and influence from nearby urban areas like Philadelphia and Wilmington, a position straddling the Elk River–leaving 50% west of the Shore. Like New Castle County, Cecil County is crossed by the fall line, a geologic division where the rockier highlands of the Piedmont region meet the Atlantic coastal plain, a flat, sandy area that forms the coast.
The coastal plain includes the Delmarva Peninsula and hence the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The geology of Delmarva is an inseparable part of the Eastern Shore, which has few rocky outcrops south of Kent County; the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal crosses from Back Creek on the Elk River to Delaware. While it was a shallow canal with locks after its construction in 1829, it was deepened in the early 20th century to sea level, physically separates the Delmarva Peninsula from the rest of the United States. Maryland south of the canal is considered the Eastern Shore by residents; the term Western Shore is used by Eastern Shore residents to describe all the counties of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay, but those of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area and Southern Maryland. The north-south section of the Mason–Dixon line forms the border between Maryland and Delaware; the border was marked every mile by a stone, every five miles by a "crownstone". The line is not quite due north and south, but is as straight as survey methods of the 1760s could make it.
It was surveyed as a compromise solution to a century-long wrangle between the Penn and Calvert families of England. If the Chesapeake Bay/Delaware Bay watershed divide had been taken as the borderline, Delaware would be about half its current size. Although this has received less attention than other parts of Eastern Shore culture, commercial east-west ties between Delaware towns and Maryland towns were culturally significant in Colonial and Early American periods despite the border line. Trade with Philadelphia was conducted by overland routes to Delaware towns like Smyrna. Agricultural products and milled grain were taken up the Delaware River by "shallop men" in small vessels called shallops; these cultural connections continue to this day. Ocean City is a modern resort on what was once called the "seaside" or "seaboard side." It is on a long north-south sandspit, a barrier island. William Claiborne was granted land in 1629 and named the land "Kent County". In 1631, he sailed north up the Chesapeake Bay from its south and west side to the area known today as Kent Island.
There he made a fortified settlement, considered to be the first English settlement within the Province of Maryland. Talbot County was formed in 1662. Cecil County was formed in 1674, by proclamation of the Governor, from eastern portions of Baltimore County and the northern portion of Kent County. Wicomico County was formed in 1867, as the 9th and last county, created from Somerset and Worcester counties. 1642 Kent County-In 1642, the governor and council appointed commissioners for the Isle and County of Kent. This act appears to have led to the establishment of Kent County, name after England. 1661 Talbot County- named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Irish statesman, the sister of Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. 1666 Somerset County-named for Mary, Lady Somerset, the wife of Sir John Somerset and daughter of Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour. 1669 Dorchester County-Named for the Earl of Dorset, a family friend of the Calverts. 1674 Cecil County. 1706 Queen Anne's County- formed from northern parts of Talbot and southern portions of Kent.
Name after Queen Anne o
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
Province of Pennsylvania
The Province of Pennsylvania known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1681 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates as "Penn's Woods", was created by combining the Penn surname with the Latin word sylvania, meaning "forest land"; the Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major Restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. "The lower counties on Delaware", a separate colony within the province, would breakaway during the American Revolution as "the Delaware State" and be one of the original thirteen states. The colonial government, established in 1682 by Penn's Frame of Government, consisted of an appointed Governor, the proprietor, a 72-member Provincial Council, a larger General Assembly.
The General Assembly known as the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly, was the largest and most representative branch of government, but had little power. Succeeding Frames of Government were produced in 1683, 1696 and 1701; the fourth Frame was known as the Charter of Privileges and remained in effect until the American Revolution. At that time, the Provincial Assembly was deemed too moderate by the revolutionaries, who ignored the Assembly and held a convention which produced the Constitution of 1776 for the newly established commonwealth, creating a new General Assembly in the process. William Penn was an English real estate entrepreneur, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, he was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Le nape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. Penn, despite having the land grant from the King, embarked on an effort to purchase the lands from Native Americans.
Much of the land near present-day Philadelphia was held by the Delaware who would expect payment in exchange for a quitclaim to vacate the territory. Penn and his representatives negotiated a series of treaties with the Delaware and other tribes that had an interest in the land in his royal grant; the initial treaties were conducted between 1682 and 1684 for tracts between New Jersey and the former Swedish / Dutch colonies in present-day Delaware. The province was thus divided first into three counties, plus the three "lower counties on Delaware Bay"; the easternmost, Bucks County, Philadelphia County and Chester County, the westernmost. "The lower counties on Delaware," a separate colony within the province, constituted the same three counties that constitute the present State of Delaware: New Castle, the northernmost, the southernmost, Kent, which fell between New Castle and Sussex County. Their borders remain unchanged to this day, it was not until several decades into the next century that additional treaties with the Native Americans were concluded.
The Proprietors of the colony made treaties in 1718, 1732, 1737, 1749, 1754 and 1754 pushing the boundaries of the colony north and west. By the time the French and Indian War began in 1754, the Assembly had established the additional counties of Lancaster, Cumberland and Northampton. After the war was concluded, an additional treaty was made in 1768, that abided by the limits of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; this proclamation line was not intended to be a permanent boundary between the colonists and native American lands, but rather a temporary boundary which could be extended further west in an orderly manner but only by the royal government and not private individuals such as the Proprietors. This altered the original royal land grant to Penn; the next acquisitions by Pennsylvania were to take place as an independent commonwealth or state and no longer as a colony. The Assembly establish additional counties from the land prior to the War for American Independence; these counties were Bedford and Westmoreland.
William Penn and his fellow Quakers imprinted their religious values on the early Pennsylvanian government. The Charter of Privileges extended religious freedom to all monotheists and government was open to all Christians; until the French and Indian War Pennsylvania had no public debt. It encouraged the rapid growth of Philadelphia into America's most important city, of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country hinterlands, where German religions and political refugees prospered on the fertile soil and spirit of cultural creativeness. Among the first groups were the Mennonites, who founded Germantown in 1683. 1751 was an auspicious year for the colony. Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the British American colonies, The Academy and College of Philadelphia, the predecessor to the private University of Pennsylvania, both opened. Benjamin Franklin founded both of these institutions along with Philadelphia's Union Fire Company fifteen years earlier in 1736. In 1751, the Pennsylvania State House ordered a new bell which would become known as the Liberty Bell for the new bell tower being built in the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia.
William Penn had mandated fair dealings with Native Americans. This led to better r
Charles Calvert (governor)
Captain Charles Calvert was the 14th Proprietary Governor of Maryland in 1720, at a time when the Calvert family had regained control of their proprietary colony. He was appointed governor by his cousin Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, who in 1721 came into his inheritance. Calvert worked to reassert the Proprietary interest against the privileges of the colonists as set out in the Maryland Charter, to ease tensions between the Lords Baltimore and their subjects. Religious tension, a source of great division in the colony, was much reduced under his governorship. Captain Calvert was replaced as governor in 1727 by his cousin Benedict Leonard Calvert, though he continued to occupy other colonial offices, he suffered from early senility and died in 1734. Calvert was born Charles Calvert Lazenby in England in 1688. Neither of his parents has been positively identified but it may that his father was Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore, 2nd Proprietor Governor of Maryland, or another member of the Calvert family.
His mother's identity in unknown but, judging by the Calvert family papers, she may have been the "Countess Henrietta" known as "Mother Calvert", who died circa 1728. However, in Douglas Richardson's Plantagenet Ancestry: A Study In Colonial And Medieval Families, 2nd Edition, no illegitimate children are listed under Charles Calvert, 3rd Baron Baltimore. There is no mention of Calvert. Calvert served in England's wars against France and Spain, most reaching the rank of ensign by around 1709. In 1718 Calvert purchased further commissions in the army, becoming at aged 30 first a lieutenant and a captain in the Grenadier Guards, promotions which most were financed by his wealthy Calvert patrons. Guards Regiments were among the most prestigious in the army and commissions were comparatively expensive. Calvert was appointed Governor of Maryland in around 1720, sent to advance the interests of his Calvert relatives, who had regained control of the colony of Maryland, confiscated by the Crown following the events of the Glorious Revolution in 1688.
Among the reasons for his appointment were his loyalty to the Crown, his desire to live permanently in Maryland, above all else his presumed loyalty to the family interest. Calvert was a pragmatic man not given to ostentation, his opening speech to the Assembly was brief, inviting the delegates "to let time and my actions show" that his governorship would serve the interests of the colony. According to Aubrey Land, his mission was "soothing tempers and making peace", he laboured to strike an acceptable balance between the interests of the Maryland colonists and those of the Lord Proprietor, in addition to manage relations with the local Algonquian tribes. To this end Calvert entered into negotiations with the tribal chiefs of the Seneca and Shawnee Indians. Calvert replaced as Governor the Protestant Thomas Brooke, whose "malicious designs" he had been sent to bring to an end. Early on he worked to reassert the Proprietary interest and prerogative against the privileges of the colonists as set out in the Maryland Charter.
He worked to ease tensions between the propriety government and its subjects. In a speech in 1725 he suggested that their differences might be of a devilish nature: I am afraid some Evil Spirits walk among us and it would be a matter of Great pleasure to such, to have your house and mine att Variance, but for my own part, I defy the Devill and his Works to do it; as governor of the Province, Calvert was an eligible bachelor. He took as his wife Rebecca Gerard a landed heiress from Maryland, just sixteen when the couple were married on November 21, 1722 by the rector of Queen Anne's parish, a marriage which "enlivened the whole winter season with entertainments for the new first lady", wrote Aubrey Land, she was an only child and on her marriage her property, a plantation near Queen Anne's Town in Prince George's County, passed to Captain Calvert. Calvert promoted horse racing during his tenure as governor; when he died he left behind a considerable sum at the time. The religious disputes which had characterized Maryland politics in earlier years were subdued under Calvert's rule.
Rules forbidding the practice of Roman Catholicism were relaxed and, in general, religious conflict was much reduced. Captain Calvert was replaced as governor when his cousin Benedict Leonard Calvert, brother of Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, arrived in Maryland in 1727; the handover of power to his cousin was not smooth. Captain Calvert insisted on retaining fifty percent of the 3 pence tobacco duty, his due under legislation passed in 1727. Benedict was not impressed, his younger brother Cecilius wrote to him that family opinion in England was appalled at Captain Calvert's behaviour, "thinks him mad". Lord Baltimore himself wrote. From 1726 to c. 1733 Calvert served as Surveyor General to the Western Shore. The Calverts had three children: Charles, died in infancy. Anne, died in childhood. Elizabeth Calvert, who married her cousin Benedict Swingate Calvert, on April 21, 1748, in St Ann's Church, Annapolis; the couple were married by the Reverend John Gordon. Benedict Swingate Calvert was the illegitimate son of Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, the third Proprietor Governor of Maryland, a wealthy planter.
They had thirteen children. Elizabeth's godfather was Captain Calvert's cousin, Benedict Leonard Calvert, second son of Benedict Calvert, 4th Baron Baltimore, who died of consumption in 1732. Captai
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
Assateague Island National Seashore
Assateague Island National Seashore is a unit of the National Park Service system of the U. S. Department of the Interior. Located on the East Coast along the Atlantic Ocean in Maryland and Virginia, Assateague Island is the largest natural barrier island ecosystem in the Middle Atlantic states region that remains predominantly unaffected by human development. Located within a three-hour drive to the east and south of the Richmond, Baltimore, Philadelphia major metropolitan areas plus north of the several clustered smaller cities around Hampton Roads harbor of Virginia with Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach; the National Seashore offers a setting in which to experience a dynamic barrier island and to pursue a multitude of recreational opportunities. The stated mission of the park is to preserve and protect “unique coastal resources and the natural ecosystem conditions and processes upon which they depend, provide high-quality resource-based recreational opportunities compatible with resource protection and educate the public as to the values and significance of the area”.
Assateague Island encompasses a 37-mile-long barrier island, adjacent marsh islands and waters in Maryland and Virginia, the Assateague Island Visitor Center on the Maryland mainland. 41,346 acres of land and water are within the seashore’s boundaries. The island consists of three public areas; the park is located on a barrier island shaped by the stormy seas and gentle winds along the coast of the Delmarva Peninsula. The island is 37 miles long, yet never more than a mile wide; the park is divided into the Virginia District in the south. It is not possible to drive down the island from one district to the other. All automobile traffic must travel through the mainland to access one end of the island from the other; the Maryland District of Assateague Island extends from the Ocean City Inlet to the Virginia state line. The Assateague Island National Seashore visitor center, three nature trails, lifeguarded beach, park headquarters and the smaller Assateague State Park sits within the borders of this district.
The only access to the Maryland District is via the Verrazano Bridge on Maryland Route 611. The Virginia District of Assateague Island extends from the Maryland state line south to the Chincoteague Inlet; this area of the island is designated as the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and is managed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. However, the National Park Service operates with a recreational beach, lifeguarded area and visitor center within a one-mile parking and visitor use section; this collaboration between the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service is defined in an agreement or Memorandum of Understanding. The Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge on the southern end of Assateague Island should not be confused with Chincoteague Island, the neighboring island to the west with a residential community on it. One must drive through Chincoteague Island. Assateague Island is part of a chain of barrier islands; the island is built from sand moving south via longshore drift building the island's length.
The source of the sand is run-off from the Appalachian Mountains. The island is moving westward as a result of natural barrier processes during storms. Water washes over the island; this barrier island “rollover” is accelerated as the climate changes and the sea level rises. This condition is most pronounced at the northern end of the island, where Ocean City's jetties have stabilized the islands north of the Ocean City Inlet and have starved Assateague of new sand; as a result, Assateague's beach is shifted several hundred meters westwards compared to Ocean City's. The inlet was formed during the 1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane, separating Fenwick and Assateague islands, a jetty was constructed to stabilize the inlet. After severe nor'easters in 1998, a sand replenishment program was undertaken to restore a sand supply to the north end of Assateague and to ensure a continuing supply. Before the national seashore was created in 1965, the island was going to be turned into a private resort community called Ocean Beach, Maryland.
Some 5,000 private lots comprising what is now NPS property were zoned and sold for resort development in the 1950s. However, the Ash Wednesday Storm of 1962 halted the plans for development; the nor'easter destroyed the few existing structures on the island, built and ripped the roads apart. Realizing that the island was too unstable to build upon, the housing development firm sold all of its land to the federal government. To this day, it is not possible to drive the entire length of the island. Since the park's creation, several improvements have been made to aid the public in recreation; the park maintains a 2-mile stretch of road on the island that travels through the state park in order for visitors to reach the National Seashore. A new visitor center was built in 2010, located on the mainland before visitors cross over the bridge to get to the island; the visitor center exhibits for the public. Many ranger-led programs are available in the fall; the park service opened a new visitor contact station