Norwich 12 was an initiative by Norwich Heritage Economic and Regeneration Trust to develop 12 of Norwich's most iconic buildings into an integrated family of heritage attractions to act as an international showcase of English urban and cultural development over the last 1,000 years. Norwich HEART secured £1 million from HM Treasury's Invest to Save Budget to run the pioneering heritage concept; the 12 buildings are a collection of architecture that encompasses the Norman, Georgian and modern eras. Norwich Castle is a Norman building built as a royal palace for William the Conqueror, at a time when most buildings were small, wooden structures; the huge stone keep. The Castle mound is the largest in the country, from the 14th to 19th century the keep was used as a county gaol; the Castle was converted into a museum in 1894. Most of Norwich Cathedral's Norman architecture is still intact and it forms one of the most complete examples of the Romanesque style in Europe. Like the Castle, the Cathedral's scale signified the permanence of the Norman invaders.
Caen stone was transported from Normandy and the immense building project required an army of masons, craftsmen and labourers. Some of the original Norman wall painting survives in the Cathedral's Jesus Chapel and the presbytery. Norwich Cathedral has the highest Norman tower and largest monastic cloisters in England, as well as a unique collection of medieval roof carvings. A new Hostry Visitor and Education Centre, built within the footprint of the medieval Hostry, opened in 2009. An exceptional set of medieval hospital buildings, in continuous use for more than 750 years. Norwich's Great Hospital has been in continuous use as a caring institution since it was founded for the care of poor chaplains in the 13th century; the six acre complex of buildings and extensive archives provide a living history of the last 750 years. The site includes the ancient parish church of St Helen and Eagle Ward with its lavishly decorated'eagle ceiling' the chancel of the church. There is a refectory, cloisters, 15th and 16th century wings, 19th century almshouses, the Birkbeck Hall, a fine example of Victorian/Edwardian Gothic revival architecture, St Helen's House, built by Thomas Ivory in the 18th century.
Today the hospital provides a residential care home. The most complete medieval friary complex surviving in England. St Andrew's Hall is the centrepiece of several magnificent flint buildings, known as The Halls, which form the most complete friary complex surviving in England; the first Dominican Black Friars' priory was destroyed by fire and St Andrew's Hall formed the nave of the new church, completed in 1449. During the Reformation, the site was saved by the City Corporation, which bought it from the king for use as a'common hall.' Since the complex has been used for worship, as a mint and as a workhouse. Today the two halls, crypt and cloisters host conferences, fairs and concerts. England's largest and most elaborate provincial medieval city hall The elaborate design and size of Norwich Guildhall reflect Norwich's status as one of the wealthiest provincial cities in England in medieval times; the building represents the growing economic and political power of the new ruling elite, emerging – wealthy freemen who were merchants and traders.
Norwich was given more self-governing powers in 1404 and the Guildhall was built to house the various civic assemblies and courts that regulated its citizens' lives. Evidence if these historic functions, which continues until the 20th century, can still be seen. Other parts of the building are in commercial use. Dragon Hall is a medieval trading hall, built by Robert Toppes, a wealthy local merchant, for his business; the first floor of the 27-metre timber-framed hall has an crown post roof with a carved dragon, which gives the building its name. After Toppes' death, the building was converted for domestic use and in the 19th century, subdivided into shops, a pub and tenements; the great crown post roof was only rediscovered in the 1980s. Dragon Hall became a heritage attraction open to visitors and a venue for weddings and corporate functions, performances; the Assembly House is a Georgian building designed by the architect Thomas Ivory. It incorporates the original layout of a previous building, the medieval college of St Mary in the Fields.
When it opened, the Assembly House was used as a centre for entertainment and assemblies for the local gentry. During its long history it has hosted a waxworks exhibition by Madame Tussaud, a concert by the composer Franz Liszt, many balls. Today the rooms appear exactly as they did at the height of the Regency period, are used for exhibitions, concerts and weddings; the quintessential English Industrial Revolution mill St James Mill is the archetypal English Industrial Revolution mill in an unexpected part of the UK. It was built on a site occupied by the White Friars in the 13th century, an original arch and undercroft survive; when the local textile trade went into decline, St James Mill was bought by Jarrold & Sons Ltd for use by its printing department in 1902. The building was subsequently leased to Caley's, the chocolate manufacturer, sold to the government as a training factory for war veterans in 1920. Jarrolds bought back the mill in 1933 and today it is a private office complex; the John Jarrold Printing Museum, open most Wednesdays is situated behind the mill.
The Cathedral of St John the Baptist is an example of 19th-century Gothic revival architecture. By the 19th century Catholics were once again free to worship in public and the Ca
John Hobart, 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire
John Hobart, 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1715 to 1728, when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Hobart. Hobart was the son of Sir Henry Hobart, 4th Baronet of Blickling and his wife Elizabeth Maynard, he inherited his father's title when the latter was killed in a duel in 1698, he was admitted at Clare College, Cambridge in 1710. He married firstly Judith Britiffe in 1717 and secondly Elizabeth Bristow in 1728. Hobart was returned unopposed as Member of Parliament for St Ives at the 1715 general election, he became Vice Admiral of Norfolk in 1719. In 1721 he became Lord of Trade, he was elected MP for St Ives in a contest in 1722. At the 1727 general election he was returned for Norfolk, he chose to sit for Norfolk but vacated his seat in 1728 when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Hobart at the coronation of King George II. His sister, the Countess of Suffolk, was a longtime mistress of the King. In 1727, he became assay master of the stannaries.
He was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk in 1739, captain of the Gentleman Pensioners in 1744 and Privy Councillor in 1745. In 1746 he was created Earl of Buckinghamshire. Hobart died aged 61 on 22 September 1756, he was succeeded by his sons John by his first marriage and George by his second marriage. Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Hobart, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Burke's Peerage & Gentry
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
Oliver Hilary Sambourne Messel was an English artist and one of the foremost stage designers of the 20th century. Messel was Jewish and was born in London, the second son of Lieutenant-Colonel Leonard Messel and Maud, the only daughter of Linley Sambourne, the eminent illustrator and contributor to Punch magazine, he was educated at Hawtreys, a boarding preparatory school in Kent, Westminster School and Eton — where his classmates included Harold Acton, Eric Blair, Brian Howard and the great Robert Byron— and at the Slade School of Fine Art, University College. After completing his studies, he became a portrait painter and commissions for theatre work soon followed, beginning with his designing the masks for a London production of Serge Diaghilev's ballet Zephyr et Flore. Subsequently, he created masks and sets – many of which have been preserved by the Theatre Museum, London – for various works staged by C. B. Cochran's revues through early 1930s, his work as a set designer was featured in the US in such Broadway shows as The Country Wife.
He designed the costumes for Romeo and Juliet. For film his costume designs include The Private Life of Don Juan. For Romeo and Juliet he served as Set Decorator, he was Art Director on Caesar and Cleopatra, On Such a Night and Production Designer on Suddenly Last Summer, for which he was nominated for the Academy Award. During the Second World War Messel served as a camouflage officer, disguising pillboxes in Somerset. According to his fellow officer Julian Trevelyan, he revelled in the opportunity to give his talents free rein; the disguises of his pillboxes included haystacks, castles and roadside cafes. In 1946, Messel designed the sets and costumes for the Royal Ballet's new and successful production of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty, a production which famously starred Margot Fonteyn, it became the first production of the ballet shown on American television, on the program Producers' Showcase. That production, the first televised in color, survives on black-and-white kinescope and has been released on DVD.
In 2006, it was revived by the Royal Ballet, starring Alina Cojocaru, with some new additions to the scenic design by Peter Farmer, released on DVD. In 1953, he was commissioned to design the decor for a suite at London's elegant Dorchester Hotel, one in which he would be happy to live himself; the lavishly ornate Oliver Messel Suite, which the hotel advertises as Elizabeth Taylor's favourite place to stay in London, combines baroque and rococo styles with modernist sensibility and a considerable dose of fantasy. The suite, along with other suites that he designed in the Dorchester, are preserved as part of Britain's national heritage, it was restored in the 1980s by many of the original craftsmen, overseen by Messel's nephew, Lord Snowdon, the former husband of Princess Margaret. Messel contributed to retail design, creating the new Delman shoe store for H. & M. Rayne in Old Bond Street in 1960. Whereas upmarket shoe stores had been discreet enclaves dressed with curtains and pot plants, while shoes were consigned to underground stores, this radical refit incorporated display stands and cases, some of them illuminated, to show off hundreds of pairs of shoes.
An article in The Observer noted that: "Mr Messel and Mr Rayne are at one in thinking that shoes to buy should be as easy to see and handle as books in a library". Oliver Messel came from a wealthy, well-connected family, when his nephew, Antony Armstrong-Jones, married HRH Princess Margaret, a lifelong relationship with the British royalty began. Messel was to design Les Jolies Eaux, Princess Margaret’s home on Mustique Island in The Grenadines, "Point Lookout" an extraordinary stone beach house on the northern tip of Mustique. In 1959, exhausted by a demanding theatre season and recurring arthritis, retreated to Barbados and the lush beauty of the eastern Caribbean, he was 55 and at the peak of a career in which he had dazzled three decades of theatre-goers with his fantastic and inspired stage sets and costumes. The warmth and vibrancy of the tropics seemed to liberate new sources of energy and imagination, leading him to what would become a whole new career in designing and transforming homes.
Not content to rest there, he designed many furnishings for these homes for outdoor use. Messel bought an existing house called Maddox, a simple bay house perched above a small beach on the St. James coast. With the help of his companion Vagn Riis-Hansen, with whom he had a 30-year relationship, a Barbadian staff, Messel transformed it using all the trademarks of his theatrical design: slender Greek columns, flattened arches, white-on-white interiors splashed with bright spots of colour, elaborate plaster mouldings – an easy mix of baroque and classical, it was his use of the materials and traditions of island architecture, innovative. Wealthy friends clamoured for Messel to design houses for them, both on Barbados and Mustique, thus began what architect Barbara Hill described as “his work … of converting quite ordinary houses into wonderlands.” As well as his own home, Maddox, he re-designed and supervised the renovations of Leamington House an
Sir Henry Hobart, 1st Baronet
Sir Henry Hobart, 1st Baronet, of Blickling Hall, was an English politician who succeeded Sir Edward Coke to become Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. The son of Thomas Hobart and Audrey Hare, great-grandson of Sir James Hobart of Monks Eleigh, who served as Attorney General during the reign of King Henry VII, he would further this lineal occupation and was admitted to Lincoln's Inn on 10 August 1575, was called to the Bar in 1584, subsequently became governor of Lincoln's Inn in 1591. Between 1588 and 1589, Hobart was Member of Parliament for St Ives, for Great Yarmouth in 1597 and 1601, for Norwich from 1604 to 1611, he was Steward of Norwich in 1595, made Serjeant from 1603 to 1606, served as Attorney for the Court of Wards in 1605 and Attorney General for England and Wales between 1606 and 1613 while Bacon was Solicitor-General. While in that post, they argued Calvin's Case, by which the Rights of Englishmen were bestowed on the postnati Scots. From 1613 to 1625, his abilities were further recognized and he was elevated to Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas.
Hobart was knighted in 1603 and made Baronet, of Intwood in the County of Norfolk on 11 May 1611. He was respected for his sophistication in matters of estate management, he acquired a fair amount of Norfolk property, including the estates of Intwood in 1596 and Blickling in 1616, where he was buried on 4 January 1625. On 21 April 1590, he married the daughter of Sir Robert Bell, in Blickling, Norfolk, they had twelve sons including John Hobart, Sir Robert Hobart, four daughters. Earl of Buckinghamshire Handley, Stuart. "Hobart, Sir Henry, first baronet". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13391. John Andrew Hamilton. "Hobart, Henry". In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co. "thePeerage". Retrieved 2007-01-02. Blickling Hall, Norfolk, The National Trust, nationaltrust.org.uk
Octagon Chapel, Norwich
The Octagon Chapel is a Unitarian Chapel located in Colegate in Norwich, England. It is home to a growing liberal religious community, welcoming people of all religious faiths and none; the congregation is a member of the General Assembly of Free Christian Churches. The chapel is a grade II* listed building. Completed in 1756 by the architect Thomas Ivory, it is octagonal, an example of English Neo-Palladian architecture. Built as a Presbyterian Chapel, the building now serves the Unitarian Community. Theophilus Browne was paid to leave the following year. William Taylor and novelist, Lord Mayor R. H. Mottram and Susannah Taylor, Peter Finch Martineau all worshipped here. Composer Edward Taylor was organist for a while, in 1812 published a collection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes for the chapel. Unitarians have no dogma or creed, take inspiration from all religious teachings, as well as from science and the arts. A sense of community is what the Octagon is all about and there are a variety of groups and activities.
Bring and share lunches Women’s Group Men's Group Craft Group Social Responsibility Group The Octagon hosts special ceremonies to mark life's big transitions. Unitarians believe that everyone has the right to seek truth and meaning for themselves, so these ceremonies should be relevant and unique to the people at the centre of them. Services are not bound by tradition but are free to express the personal truths of the people concerned; the Octagon is proud of its musical heritage. As well as a vibrant musical aspect to worship, the chapel hosts the successful Octagon Concert Series, somewhat unusual inasmuch that no performers receives a fee or expenses so that all money raised can be donated to charity or good cause both local and national. Media related to Octagon Unitarian Chapel, Norwich at Wikimedia Commons Official website The Octagon Chapel on the Norfolk Churches website Unitarians in Britain Octagon Music Series & Octagon Singers