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Assembly language

In computer programming, assembly language abbreviated asm, is any low-level programming language in which there is a strong correspondence between the instructions in the language and the architecture's machine code instructions. Because assembly depends on the machine code instructions, every assembler has its own assembly language, designed for one specific computer architecture. Assembly language may be called symbolic machine code. Assembly code is converted into executable machine code by a utility program referred to as an assembler; the conversion process is referred to as in assembling the source code. Assembly language has one statement per machine instruction, but comments and statements that are assembler directives and symbolic labels of program and memory locations are also supported; each assembly language is specific to a particular computer architecture and sometimes to an operating system. However, some assembly languages do not provide specific syntax for operating system calls, most assembly languages can be used universally with any operating system, as the language provides access to all the real capabilities of the processor, upon which all system call mechanisms rest.

In contrast to assembly languages, most high-level programming languages are portable across multiple architectures but require interpreting or compiling, a much more complicated task than assembling. Assembly language uses a mnemonic to represent each low-level machine instruction or opcode also each architectural register, etc. Many operations require one or more operands in order to form a complete instruction. Most assemblers permit named constants and labels for program and memory locations, can calculate expressions for operands. Thus, the programmers are freed from tedious repetitive calculations and assembler programs are much more readable than machine code. Depending on the architecture, these elements may be combined for specific instructions or addressing modes using offsets or other data as well as fixed addresses. Many assemblers offer additional mechanisms to facilitate program development, to control the assembly process, to aid debugging. A macro assembler includes a macroinstruction facility so that assembly language text can be represented by a name, that name can be used to insert the expanded text into other code.

A cross assembler is an assembler, run on a computer or operating system of a different type from the system on which the resulting code is to run. Cross-assembling facilitates the development of programs for systems that do not have the resources to support software development, such as an embedded system or a microcontroller. In such a case, the resulting object code must be transferred to the target system, via read-only memory, a programmer, or a data link using either an exact bit-by-bit copy of the object code or a text-based representation of that code. A high-level assembler is a program that provides language abstractions more associated with high-level languages, such as advanced control structures and high-level abstract data types, including structures/records, unions and sets. A microassembler is a program that helps prepare a microprogram, called firmware, to control the low level operation of a computer. A meta-assembler is a term used in some circles for "a program that accepts the syntactic and semantic description of an assembly language, generates an assembler for that language."

Assembly time is the computational step. An assembler program creates object code by translating combinations of mnemonics and syntax for operations and addressing modes into their numerical equivalents; this representation includes an operation code as well as other control bits and data. The assembler calculates constant expressions and resolves symbolic names for memory locations and other entities; the use of symbolic references is a key feature of assemblers, saving tedious calculations and manual address updates after program modifications. Most assemblers include macro facilities for performing textual substitution – e.g. to generate common short sequences of instructions as inline, instead of called subroutines. Some assemblers may be able to perform some simple types of instruction set-specific optimizations. One concrete example of this may be the ubiquitous x86 assemblers from various vendors. Most of them are able to perform jump-instruction replacements on request. Others may do simple rearrangement or insertion of instructions, such as some assemblers for RISC architectures that can help optimize a sensible instruction scheduling to exploit the CPU pipeline as efficiently as possible.

Like early programming languages such as Fortran, Algol and Lisp, assemblers have been available since the 1950s and the first generations of text based computer interfaces. However, assemblers came first as they are far simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages; this is because each mnemonic along with the addressing modes and operands of an instruction translates rather directly into the numeric representations of that particular instruction, without much context or analysis. There have been several classes of translators and semi automatic code generators with properties similar to both assembly and high level languages, with Speedcode as one of the better known examp

List of The Skull Man anime characters

This is the list of characters in the 2007 anime series The Skull Man. Where appropriate, English names are on the left. Skull Man Voiced by: Hiroshi Tsuchida A mysterious man in skull shaped mask making appearances in Ōtomo City and rumored to have been killing numerous victims in the city those roaming at night, he is believed to be the missing Tatsuo Kagura at first, but late in the series, Father Yoshio Kanzaki, a close friend of Hayato's, reveals himself as the true Skull Man and explains that the only people he has been killing are those who are members of a new cult who transform into monsters. After Yoshio's death, Hayato becomes Skull Man himself and saves Maya from the ritual, for Yoshio's sake; the Skull Man is not a person, but an ancient helmet that grants the user supernatural abilities and deadly weapons. At one point, Kiriko's brother Jin dresses up in a fake Skull Man suit and uses it to commit murders, however he uses a gun, not swords. Hayato Mikogami Voiced by: Makoto Yasumura Hayato Mikogami once lived in the orphanage in Ōtomo City.

After being adopted and raised, he left Ōtomo to move to Tokyo so he can work for a famous newspaper. Years at 23 years old, he is working for a second rate newspaper and with permission leaves to go back to Ōtomo City to search for the legendary figure, Skull Man who by rumors had killed an actress. While on the train trip, he meets young Kiriko who doesn't have the correct passport to get into the city and he helps her in by presenting a business card of Gōzō. After getting comfortable into his old house, he gets locked outside due to Kiriko's tantrum. Without realizing, he breaks the midnight curfew and witnesses a man, running away from someone; the man injures Hayato after he tries to help him but the man is killed by the Skull Man. Hayato collapses on scene, pinning him to the murder but is let off due to this ties with Gōzō. Hayato is a care-free guy who smokes and is annoyed by Kiriko, he develops a close friendship with her. At the end of the series, Hayato takes up the mantle of the Skull Man against the original's warning, mortally wounding himself when he overuses the mask's powers.

For reasons unexplained, the white mask turns black in the rising sunlight before a mysterious group revealed to be Black Ghost, picks him up and converts him into a cyborg. It is revealed at the end of the series that Hayato himself is the mysterious Tatsuo Kagura - his father unearthed the helmet and researched it built a religion around it realizing its power; the Otomo Concern had him and his wife killed by the corrupt police chief, but the son survived and was smuggled to an orphanage, growing up but not remembering anything due to the shock. Masaki Kumashiro Voiced by: Toshiyuki Morikawa Secretary of the Australian branch, he is an illegitimate child of chairman Gōzō, but his father does not respect or accept him in public. As a result, he is envious of Maya and betrays his father, kills his stepmother, uses the device to evolve into a mutated creature, he fights the Skull Man and mortally wounds him, but he is further mutated against his will and destroyed by him. Akira Usami Voiced by: Hiroyuki Yoshino Researcher from Ōtomo Pharmaceutical, he was engaged in several mysterious acts, contacted Hayato to reveal important information to him.

He was murdered by the fake Skull man along with his accomplice Masaki Kumashiro in the fifth night. Gōzō Kuroshio Voiced by: Osamu Saka A 58-year-old acquaintance of Hayato and leader of the Ōtomo Concern. While he pretends to be a philanthropist on the outside, he is directly involved with the incident from ten years ago, is not below using dirty means such as assassination to advance his own agenda, he knew the helmet was an evil force, but did not want to destroy or hide it, rather he had it researched, once the scientist tasked with it turned it into a religion and refused to be manipulated, he had him killed. At the end he confesses all this to the old detective, helps Hayato in confronting his illegitimate son, who kills him. Eimei Fumakoshi Voiced by: Yousuke Akimoto Gōzō's assistant and a secretary of the Ōtomo Concern. Taekumi Kusaka Voiced by: Katsuhisa Houki The 53-year-old Mayor of Ōtomo City. One of the spokesperson of the Ōtomo Concern. During the plot of assassination and the fatal car mishap, he was killed by the fake Skull Man on the sixth night.

Tsuyoshi Shinjou Voiced by: Tomokazu Seki A detective in the Ōtomo City Police, he's assigned to watch and keep tabs on Hayato Mikogami, but he becomes involved in the Skull Man affair as he comes across several suspicious events and crime scenes of the Skull Man's victims. He falls in love with Nami, is devastated when she is revealed to be a beast as well and killed by the Skull Man. On the twelfth night, he manages to rescue the children of Kanzaki's orphanage from the Cyborgs, escaping from Ōtomo along with those citizens that have not been converted into beasts. With Reina Shingyoji's help, he survives a attack by his old partner who turns out to be a member of the church and a mutant beast. At the end of the series, it is revealed he and Reina opened a detective agency in Tokyo. Gisuke Haniwa Voiced by: Shinpachi Tsuji Ōtomo City police chief, he is a corrupt cop, doing whatever Gōzō or the mayor tells him. We learn that he was the one responsible for the murders of the Kagura family, acting on Gōzō's orders, but taking it too far and killing his son and burning the building too.

It is revealed at th

Tiny Broadwick

Georgia Ann "Tiny" Thompson Broadwick, or Georgia Broadwick known as Georgia Jacobs, known as Georgia Brown, was an American pioneering parachutist who invented the ripcord. Born to parents George and Emma Ross on April 8, 1893, Georgia Ann Thompson weighed only 3 pounds; the last of seven daughters, Georgia was given the nickname "Tiny" due to her small size, as she weighed only 85 pounds and was 5 feet tall. She invented the ripcord. At age 12, Tiny had married and, at 13, had Verla Jacobs, she was an abandoned mother working in a cotton mill, aged 15, when she saw Charles Broadwick's World Famous Aeronauts parachute from a hot air balloon and decided to join the travelling troupe, leaving her daughter in the care of her parents. She became Broadwick's adopted daughter, to ease travel arrangements, though has been referenced as his wife. Although she would make her jumps from an airplane, in her earlier career she was jumping from balloons. Billed as "the doll girl," Tiny began performing aerial skydives and stunts while wearing a "life preserver" designed by her adopted father.

On December 28, 1908, Tiny made her first jump out of a hot air balloon. The skydiving family traveled around and performed at fairs and parks; the appeal of the Broadwick Flying troupe, according to Tiny, was that "it was a neat and fast act." Among her many other achievements, she was the first woman to parachute from an airplane, which she is credited with accomplishing on June 21, 1913, over Los Angeles, with aviator Glenn L. Martin as the pilot. However, she made at least two jumps from Martin's plane during an exhibition in Chicago's Grant Park the week of September 16, 1912; these early jumps included a well-publicized jump on January 9, 1914, from a plane built and piloted by Martin, 1,000 feet over Griffith Park in Los Angeles, California. She was the first woman to parachute into water. In 1914, she demonstrated parachutes to the U. S. Army, which at the time had a hazard-prone fleet of aircraft; the Army, reluctant at first to adopt the parachute, watched. On one of her demonstration jumps, the static line became entangled in the tail assembly of the aircraft, so for her next jump she cut off the static line and deployed her chute manually, thus becoming the first person to jump free-fall.

This demonstrated that pilots could escape aircraft by using what was called a ripcord. In 1912, Tiny married Andrew Olsen, divorced in 1916, married Harry Brown, stopped parachuting for four years, that marriage ended in divorce, she severed relations with Charles Broadwick, considered Broadwick to be her stage name. She returned to jumping again in 1920 for two more years, retiring from jumping in 1922. Although she was not a pilot, she was one of the few female members of the Early Birds of Aviation. Tiny appeared on You Bet Your Life episode 55-07 on November 10, 1955, on To Tell the Truth on March 30, 1964 and on Mysteries at the Museum season 11, episode 33, she was buried in Sunset Gardens in Henderson, North Carolina. In February 2006, Vance County, North Carolina, commissioners decided to name a portion of the Henderson Outer Loop highway after her. Additionally, Broadwick Street in Rancho Dominguez, California, is named for her. Roberson, Elizabeth Whitley. Tiny Broadwick: The First Lady of Parachuting.

Pelican Publishing. ISBN 1-56554-780-2. Tiny Broadwick at Find a Grave North Carolina Historical Marker ParachuteHistory.com Photos of Tiny Broadwick from the North Carolina State Archives

Gustav Kunze

Gustav Kunze was a German professor of zoology, an entomologist and botanist with an interest in ferns and orchids. Kunze joined the Wernerian Natural History Society in Edinburgh in 1817, he became Zoology Professor at Leipzig University and in 1837 was appointed director of the Botanical Gardens in Leipzig. In 1851 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; the plant genus. Beiträge zur Monographie der Rohrkäfer. Neue Schrift. Naturf. Ges. Halle, 2: 1-56.. Die Farrnkrauter in Kolorirten Abbildungen: Naturgetreu Erläutert und Beschrieben. 2 volumes. Index Filicum in Hortis Europæis Cultarum Synonymis Interpositis Auctus, cura A. Baumanni. Orig. in Linnaea XXXIII. Pub. as book. Zeugophora eine neue Käfergattung. Neue Schrift. Naturf. Ges. Halle, 2:. 71-76.. with Philipp Wilbrand Jacob Müller 1822. Monographie der Ameisenkäfer. Schriften der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft zu Leipzig 1: 175–204, his collection is in Naturkundemuseum Leipzig

Carlos FlorenciaƱez

Carlos Augusto Junior Florenciañez Vera, abbreviated to Carlos Florenciañez, is a Paraguayan football midfielder playing for Ponte Preta. Born in Ciudad del Este, Carlos Florenciañez started playing in 2010 with Club Nacional from capital Asunción; that sae year he joined Sportivo Luqueño and made his senior debut at the 2010 Paraguayan Primera División season. The following two seasons, 2011 and 2012 he played with Sportivo Luqueño in the Primera División. In the season 2012 -- 13 he played only for their B team, he returned to Paraguay and was Club Nacional player until 2014. In 2015, he played in the 2015 Paraguayan Primera División season, the first half season with Club Rubio Ñu, second with Club Sol de América. In January 2016 he played till December that year. In January 2017 he went on trials to Serbia, to SuperLiga club FK Napredak Kruševac. Florenciañez played with Paraguay team at the 2011 South American Under-17 Football Championship having played in 6 games and scored 2 goals

Killyhevlin Hotel

Killyhevlin Hotel is a hotel situated 1 km from Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, just off the main A4 Dublin Road. It is a four star 70-bedroom hotel, with restaurant, swimming pool and health club, on the shores of Lough Erne, surrounded by private grounds and gardens; the Hotel was owned by Raymond B McCartney, the entrepreneur who began the Lough Erne Hotel and the Belmore Court & Motel, Enniskillen. It has been owned and managed by the Watson family since 1976, who began a major expansion and rebranding initiative in 2004; the hotel possesses a four star Quality Standard rating from both the AA and Northern Ireland Tourist Board. In July 2008 the hotel was voted as "Northern Ireland's No.2 Best Place to Stay" by Ulster Television viewers on the Ultimate Ulster show. In 2008, Rodney Watson, managing director of the hotel was made a Member of the Order of the British Empire in recognition for services to tourism over the past 30 years, he had been president of the Northern Ireland Hotels Federation and chairman of Fermanagh Lakeland Tourism.

In June 2011 the hotel won the award for best marketing and sales excellence throughout the provence in the 2011 Northern Ireland Tourism Awards. The Continuity IRA was blamed for a bomb attack in July 1996 on the hotel during the first IRA ceasefire, although it did not admit the attack. Over 250 people were evacuated from the hotel, but the explosion injured 17 people, including members of a wedding party, destroyed much of the refurbished hotel. Over 1,000 lbs of homemade explosives had been left at the hotel; the front of the Killyhevlin Hotel collapsed, scores of parked cars were burned and a 12-foot-wide bomb crater was left near the front door. Killyhevlin Hotel and area images Geograph