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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Assembly of First Nations

The Assembly of First Nations is an assembly, modelled on the United Nations General Assembly, of First Nations represented by their chiefs. It replaced the Canadian National Indian Brotherhood in the early 1980s; the aims of the organization are to protect and advance the aboriginal and treaty rights and interests of First Nations in Canada, including health, education and language. The self-formation of political organizations of Indigenous peoples of North America has been a constant process over many centuries—the Iroquois Confederacy and the Blackfoot Confederacy are two prominent pre-colonial examples. Other groups formed to enter into Treaties with colonial governments. During the late 19th and early 20th century, a number of regional organizations, like the Grand Indian Council of Ontario and Quebec and the Allied Tribes of B. C. were formed. After the second world war, the provincial and territorial organizations continued to grow in number and strength; the National Indian Council was created in 1961 to represent Indigenous people of Canada, including treaty/status Indians, non-status Indians, the Métis people, though not the Inuit.

This organization, collapsed in 1967 as the three groups failed to act as one. In response to the collapse of the NIC and the 1969 White Paper, George Manuel, Noel Doucette, Andrew Delisle, Omer Peters, Jack Sark, Dave Courchene, Roy Sam, Harold Sappier, Dave Ahenakew, Harold Cardinal and Roy Daniels incorporated the National Indian Brotherhood in 1970, an umbrella organization for the various provincial and territorial organizations, like the Indian Association of Alberta; the NIB was a national political body made up of the leadership of the various provincial and territorial organizations which lobbied for changes to federal and provincial policies. The following year, the NIB launched its first major campaign in opposition to the 1969 White Paper, in which the Minister of Indian Affairs, Jean Chrétien, proposed the abolition of the Indian Act, the rejection of land claims, the assimilation of First Nations people into the Canadian population with the status of other ethnic minorities rather than a distinct group.

Supported by a churches and other citizen groups, the NIB mounted massive opposition to the government plan. On June 3, 1970, the NIB presented the response by Harold Cardinal and the Indian Chiefs of Alberta to Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and ministers of his Cabinet. Startled by the strong opposition to the White Paper, the Prime Minister told the delegation the White Paper would not be imposed against their will. In 1972, the NIB's policy paper "Indian Control of Indian Education" was accepted by federal government and the NIB gained national recognition for the issue of Indigenous education in Canada. Undoubtedly, this was one of the last steps in ending the Canadian Residential School System, long opposed by Indigenous people, but a first step in the push for Indigenous self-governance. In 1973, the Calder case decision was issued. "You have more rights than I thought you did," Prime Minister Trudeau told the NIB leaders. The NIB gained consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council in 1974, until such time as an international Indigenous organization could be formed.

When the World Council of Indigenous Peoples was formed on Nuu-chah-nulth territory the following year with the leadership of George Manuel, it took the place of the NIB at the United Nations. However, the NIB was not without its problems. Individual chiefs and regional groupings begin to chafe because their only access to the national scene was through their respective PTOs; the chiefs complained. In 1978, in an effort to let the chiefs be heard, NIB President Noel Starblanket organized an "All Chiefs Conference" on "Indian Self-Government"; the Chiefs were delighted with the opportunity, at a second All Chief Conference, announced that hereafter, the All Chief Conference would be "the one and only voice of Indian people in Canada." This move coincided with Prime Minister Trudeau's announcement that Canada would patriate its constitution. The question arose as to what would happen with the Treaty and aboriginal rights, guaranteed by the Imperial Crown if Canada took over its own governance. Strong national leadership from the Chiefs became essential.

The Chiefs formalized their governance structure, compromised by incorporating a "Confederacy" composed of the NIB leadership, made the NIB, an incorporated body, its administrative secretariat. They used the United Nations General Assembly as a model in conceiving what the new Assembly of First Nations would become; the Chiefs held their first assembly as "the Assembly of First Nations" in Penticton, British Columbia, in April 1982. The new structure, which gave membership and voting rights to individual First Nations chiefs rather than provincial/territorial organizations, was adopted in July 1985, as part of the Charter of the Assembly of First Nations. On September 1, 1994, Ovide Mercredi, Chief of the AFN, advised federal government leaders that it must guarantee the rights of Aboriginal people in Quebec in the event of disunion. In early 2013, documents revealed that the AFN had been operating in conjunction with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to provide information and conduct surveillance on members of the First Nations community.

Documents acquired through access to information requests, reveal that heads of the RCMP, the Ontario and Quebec provincial police met in the summer of 2007 with AFN national chief Phil Fontaine to "facilitate a consistent and effective approach to managing Aboriginal protests and occupations."The AFN, which depends upon the f

White Goat Wilderness Area

The White Goat Wilderness Area is a provincially designated wilderness area in the Canadian Rockies of Alberta. It was established in 1961 and it, as one of the three wilderness areas of Alberta, has the strictest form of government protection available in Canada. All development is forbidden and only travel by foot is permitted. Hunting and fishing are not allowed; the other two wilderness areas are Ghost River Wilderness Area and Siffleur Wilderness Area and together the three areas total 249,548.80 acres. White Goat is located near the west end and north side of Canadian Highway 11 and north of the Siffleur Wilderness area, it is near the north end of Banff National Park, the south end of Jasper National Park, east of the Columbia Icefield. Mountains rise to over 3,300 metres; the area has rugged mountains, glacier-carved valleys, mountain lakes and alpine meadows. There are two distinct vegetation zones. Above 2,100 metres, the tree line, are grasses and wildflowers. Below that are spruce and lodgepole pine.

Animals in the lower regions include woodland caribou, elk, white-tailed deer, mule deer, grizzly bear, black bear, coyote, timber wolf, wolverine. Animals in the upper regions include golden-mantled ground squirrels, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, hoary marmot, white-tailed ptarmigan, grey-crowned rosy finch, water pipit and horned lark. Eagles are seen in upper regions. Alberta Parks

List of stars in Chamaeleon

This is the list of notable stars in the constellation Chamaeleon, sorted by decreasing brightness. List of stars by constellation DI Cha, a star system where 4 stars orbit each other ESA. "The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues". Retrieved 2006-12-26. Kostjuk, N. D.. "HD-DM-GC-HR-HIP-Bayer-Flamsteed Cross Index". Retrieved 2006-12-26. Roman, N. G.. "Identification of a Constellation from a Position". Retrieved 2006-12-26. "SIMBAD Astronomical Database". Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2007-01-02. Gould, B. A. "Uranometria Argentina". Reprinted and updated by Pilcher, F. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2010-07-19. Samus, N. N.. "General Catalog of Variable Stars". Retrieved 2013-03-24. "AAVSO Website". American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 9 March 2014

Draped Bust

"Draped Bust" was the name given to a design of United States coins. It appeared on much of the regular-issue copper and silver United States coinage, 1796–1807, it was designed by engraver Robert Scot. In 1796, Congress responded to the universal dissatisfaction of the first coins and decreed a new design; as was the custom of the time, all denominations bore the same design or, in this case, the same obverse. By Congressional decree, certain features were required: the eagle, the word Liberty and United States of America, it was not considered necessary to include the value of the coin since it could be discerned from its size based on the precious metal content. Thus, the half dime was the smallest silver coin and each denomination was larger up to the silver dollar. All coins bore the same obverse. Robert Scot, Chief Engraver of the U. S. Mint, 1793–1823, transformed a portrait of a society lady by Gilbert Stuart into a rather buxom Ms. Liberty; some accounts identify the woman as Philadelphia socialite Ann Willing Bingham.

She remained unchanged for several years with the exception of an extra curl added to her flowing locks in 1798. There are three basic reverse designs; the first, for copper coins, features the value of the coin surrounded by a vine. The words "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" encircle the wreath. In 1795-1797, a scrawny, naturalistic bald eagle was depicted on the reverse side of all silver coins; this design is known as Draped Bust, Small Eagle and commands a high price due to the low mintage at the time. In 1798, the small eagle was replaced by the Heraldic eagle; this design is known as Heraldic Eagle. The famous 1804 silver dollar has this design as well the reverse of the Kennedy half dollar in 1964. Three denominations bore the appropriate fraction: half cent, large cent and half dollar; the half dollar rim bore the words FIFTY CENTS OR HALF A DOLLAR. The decision was made to add a star to the obverse of a coin for each new state that joined the union. By 1796, the nation had grown to 15 states with the additions of Kentucky.

Each denomination was minted with 15 stars. That year Tennessee was admitted and a 16th star was added. Director of the Mint Elias Boudinot realized that the situation could not continue indefinitely and decreed that all coins would contain the original 13 stars; the half dime of 1797 exemplifies the confusion at the time. The Heraldic Eagle introduced a national motto – E pluribus unum, it is held in the talon of the eagle. In 1956, the national motto was replaced and is now In God We Trust, a phrase that first appeared on American coins in 1864 at the height of the American Civil War. Due to primitive working conditions and poorly constructed dies numerous errors and variations appeared; these include letters and numbers shaped differently, cracks appearing on the surface of the coins and overstrikes, the size of stars or numbers varied from one die to the next and dates overpunched previous dates. Incongruities persisted: In 1796 the half dollar appeared with 15 stars 16 stars. Mysteriously it portrayed 15 stars in 1797 despite the presence of 16 states.

Many of these faults demand a high premium due to their scarcity. The Greatest 100 U. S. Coins selected the 1804 silver dollar as the number one coin, it bears a heraldic eagle on the reverse and the price is prohibitive. Eight were minted in 1834 and the rest minted about 1858 The 1802 half dime ranks number 61. Only 3,000 were minted and the vast majority of these were either lost, melted or wore out. Most 1802 half dimes that do exist are in poor condition; the 1797 half dollar has the "small eagle" design. This design is rare due to the low mintage and the inferior equipment and procedures. Fewer than 3,000 were minted, its companion, the rarer 1796 half dollar had a mintage of only 934. The pair constitute the sole mintage of the half dollar "small eagle" design. One is required for a complete type set, thus there are always more buyers than sellers; the 1796 quarter ranked 71. It is the "small eagle" design and is the only representative in this denomination of that design. Since it too is required for a complete type set, its price continues to rise.

Only 6,000 quarters were minted that year. By comparison, the Tennessee State Quarter, one of five struck in 2002, had a mintage of 650,000,000. Half cent Large cent Half dime Dime Quarter Half dollar Dollar coin Thomas Jefferson's Liberty, obverse bust only, new reverse design. Garnet and Guth, Ron The Greatest 100 U. S. Coins Atlanta, Ga: Harris, L. L. C. 2003 Yeoman, R. S. A Guide Book of United States Coins Atlanta: Whitman Publishing, 2006 Draped Bust Coin Pictures

Thyas coronata

Thyas coronata is a species of moth of the family Noctuidae first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1775. It is found from the Indo-Australian tropics of southern China, Japan, India, Sri Lanka to Micronesia and the Society Islands; the wingspan is about 82–96 mm. The head and thorax are a pale reddish brown. Abdomen orange, with black segments. Forewings irrorated with dark specks. A short sub-basal dark line is present. There is an outwardly oblique sinuous antemedial line and small round greyish orbicular can be seen. Renifrom large and chocolate coloured, ringed with grey or broken up into grey or chocolate grey-ringed spots. A inwardly-oblique postmedial line and a pale sub-marginal line, bent below the costa. Hindwings orange with broad medial and sub-marginal fuscous black bands not reaching inner margin. Sub-marginal lines widest towards costa. Ventral side orange. Costal and outer areas of both wings dark with a slight reddish suffusion. A black patch can be seen near the outer angle of the forewing.

Larva dull sienna longitudinally striped with blackish brown. A dorsal black spot found on eighth somite and paired black dorsal tubercles can be seen on tenth and eleventh somites. A lateral yellow-edged spot is found on the fifth somite. Ventral side dark and head black striped; the larvae feed on Combretum, Terminalia, Anamirta and Nephelium species. It is considered a pest on oranges and other Citrus species. Herbison-Evans, Don & Crossley, Stella. "Ophiusa coronata". Australian Caterpillars and their Butterflies and Moths. Retrieved 23 January 2019

Kyūjōmae Station (Kōchi)

Kyūjōmae Station is a railway station on the Asa Line in Aki, Kōchi Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by the third-sector Tosa Kuroshio Railway with the station number "GN28"; the station is served by the Asa Line and is located 26.2 km from the beginning of the line at Gomen. All Asa Line trains, both rapid and local, stop at the station; the station consists of a side platform serving a single track on an embankment. There is no station building and the station is unstaffed but a waiting room which comprises both open and enclosed compartments has been set up on the platform. Access to the platform is by means of a flight of steps. A timber waiting room in traditional Japanese architectural style has been set up at the base of the embankment together with a bike shed and parking lots for cars; each station on the Asa Line features a cartoon mascot character designed by Takashi Yanase, a local cartoonist from Kōchi Prefecture. The mascot for Kyūjōmae Station is a figure with a baseball for a head dressed in yellow baseball gear with vertical black stripes named Kyūjō Bōru-kun.

The baseball theme relates to the baseball stadium near to the station. The train station was opened on 1 July 2002 by the Tosa Kuroshio Railway as an intermediate station on its track from Gomen to Nahari. In fiscal 2011, the station was used by an average of 222 passengers daily. List of railway stations in Japan