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Asset protection

Asset protection is a set of legal techniques and a body of statutory and common law dealing with protecting assets of individuals and business entities from civil money judgments. The goal of asset protection planning is to insulate assets from claims of creditors without perjury or tax evasion. Asset protection consists of methods available to protect assets from liabilities arising elsewhere, it should not be confused with limiting liability, which concerns the ability to stop or constrain liability to the asset or activity from which it arises. Assets that are shielded from creditors by law are few: common examples include some home equity, certain retirement plans and interests in LLCs and limited partnerships. Assets that are always unreachable are those to which one does not hold legal title. In many cases it is possible to vest legal title to personal assets in a trust, an agent or a nominee, while retaining all the control of the assets; the goal of asset protection is similar to bankruptcy, the two practice areas go hand-in-hand.

When a debtor has none to few assets, the bankruptcy route is preferable. When the debtor has significant assets, asset protection may be the solution; the four threshold factors that are either expressly or implicitly analyzed in each asset protection case are: The identity of the person engaging in asset protection planning If the debtor is an individual, does he or she have a spouse, is the spouse liable? If the spouse is not liable, is it possible to enter into a transmutation agreement? Are the spouses engaged in activities that are likely to result in lawsuits or is one spouse more to be sued than the other? If the debtor is an entity, did an individual guarantee the entity's debt? How is it that the creditor will be able to pierce the corporate veil or otherwise get the assets of the individual owners? Is there a statute that renders the individual liable for the obligations of the entity? The nature of the claim Are there specific claims or the asset protection is taken as a result of a desire to insulate from lawsuits?

If the claim has been reduced to a judgement, what assets does the judgement encumber? Is the claim dischargeable? What is the statute of limitations for bringing the claim? The identity of the creditor How aggressive is the creditor? Is the creditor a government agency? Taxing authority? Some government agencies possess powers of seizure; the nature of the assets To what extent are the assets exempt from the claims of the creditors? For example, the degree of protection offered by the homestead exemption, the exemption of the assets in a qualified plan, i.e. assets in a plan under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act etc. Whilst the aforementioned use of Trusts will be of benefit in a number of cases the question of ownership can still arise, as although legal ownership may have been transferred to the trustees, beneficial ownership may still in many cases lie with the settler of the Trust. A Private Placement Life Insurance contract, can provide a greater degree of protection and privacy than most Trusts, can be integrated with an existing trust if necessary.

Whilst Trusts may not be recognised in many Jurisdictions, Life insurance has the advantage of being Multi jurisdictional. United States federal bankruptcy laws and ERISA laws exempt certain assets from creditors, including certain retirement plans. All fifty states have laws that exempt certain assets from creditors; these vary from state to state, but they include exemptions for a certain amount of equity in a personal residence, individual retirement accounts, clothing, or other personal property. All fifty U. S. states have laws that protect the owners of a corporation, limited partnership, or limited liability company from the liabilities of the entity. Many states limit the remedies of a creditor of a limited partner or a member in an LLC, thereby providing some protection for the assets of the entity from the creditors of a member. All fifty U. S. states provide some protection for the assets of a trust against the creditors of the beneficiaries. Some states allow asset protection for a self-settled trust and some states do not.

Creditors have several tools to overcome the laws. First, there state fraudulent transfer laws. Today there are two bodies of fraudulent transfer law: the Bankruptcy Code and state fraudulent transfer statutes. Most states have adopted Uniform Fraudulent Transfer Act which defines what constitutes a fraudulent transfer; the UFTA and the Bankruptcy Code both provide that a transfer made by a debtor is fraudulent as to a creditor if the debtor made the transfer with the "actual intention to hinder, delay or defraud" any creditor of the debtor. While UFTA applies to present creditors, the distinction between a future creditor and a future potential creditor is not as clear; the UFTA is held to apply only to future creditors and not to future potential creditors. There are laws which allow a creditor to pierce the corporate veil of an entity and go after the owners for the debts of the entity, it may be possible for a creditor of a member to reach the assets of an entity through a constructive trust claim, or a claim for a reverse piercing of a corporate veil.

The anti-alienation provision of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 exempts from claims of creditor

Bill Conner

F. William "Bill" Conner is an American business executive. Conner was reared in West Helena, Arkansas. In his early years, he displayed "an interest in energy conversion". In 1981, he received his bachelor's degree from Princeton University in mechanical engineering and earned an MBA from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1987, he lives in Dallas, Texas with his wife. From 1981 to 1992, Conner held positions at AT&T including senior engineer, operations manager and strategic planner. Conner held executive positions at Nortel Networks from 1992 to 2001; as the President of Enterprise Data Networks for Nortel, he managed its $9.1 billion acquisition of Bay Networks. He served as the first Chief Marketing Officer of Nortel, launching the global marketing campaigns "Come Together" and "What Do You Want the Internet to Be?" From 2001 to 2013, Conner was the Chief Executive Officer and President of Entrust, a private software company that specializes in identity-based security.

Conner was responsible for the creation and delivery of identity-based security software and services. Entrust grew to profitability and reached annual sales of well over $100m by the time of arrival of Conner to the firm in 2001. Conner shortly thereafter launched a restructuring effort and began to trim workforce annually in an effort to return the company to profitability, he launched a new business model focusing on product portfolios targeted to key verticals and geographies. Conner engineered the company's acquisition by private equity firm Thoma Bravo in 2009, transitioned Entrust into a private firm. In December 2013, it was announced that Datacard Group had entered into an agreement to purchase Entrust for a reported $500 Million. Conner took on a consultant role during the transition. On January 5, 2015, Silent Circle announced that its Board of Directors appointed Conner as Chief Executive Officer and member of the Board of Directors; as CEO of Silent Circle, Conner joined the Board of Directors of Blackphone.

On June 17, 2016, Silent Circle blogged that Conner had resigned as CEO and would remain only as an "advisor," implying he had resigned his seat on the Board. A division of Dell Software Inc. SonicWall was spun off and acquired by Francisco Partners and Elliott Management in June 2016. On Nov. 1, 2016, SonicWall announced that it had commenced standalone operations, named Conner its President and CEO. SonicWall states it is the North American market share leader in internet security appliances among small and medium-sized enterprises. In August 2016, SonicWall launched its Capture Advanced Threat Prevention Service, has analyzed more than 4 million suspicious files for its clients as of Nov. 1, 2016. The cloud-based service uses multiple engines to help prevent attacks, automates remediation techniques. Conner stated publicly that SonicWall will continue its relationship with Dell, as a reseller partner, will continue its service areas focused on network security, secure mobile access, email security and encryption, management and reporting.

In a public statement to employees, Conner stated he wants to focus SonicWall on four areas of growth: Next-generation firewall features The user interface, user experience and application program interface of its cloud-based globalization management system The SonicOS software operating system and hardware platforms Growing core market segmentsIn September, 2018 at a SonicWall Channel Partner conference, Conner outlined the rapid growth in non-standard port threats, explained a business reorganization to serve both the SME and enterprise business markets focusing on the enterprise verticals of retail and government. In October 2017, Francisco Partners acquired Comodo Certification Authority and named Bill Conner Chairman of the Board; this marks a transition in ownership from the Comodo organization as Comodo CA, an industry leader in SSL security with more than 200,000 customers across 150 countries, focuses on the significant market opportunity associated with SSL certificates and the massive growth in online and IoT traffic.

In November 2018, Comodo CA rebranded itself as Sectigo, to avoid confusion with its former parent entity Comodo Group. Conner has been active in various public-private partnerships on cybersecurity and infrastructure security, he helped unveil the INTERPOL Global Smart eID Card and addressed the United Nations on global challenges in cybercrime in June 2010 He co-chaired the Corporate Governance Task Force of the U. S. Department of Homeland Security National Cybersecurity Partnership He has been a member of the Business Software Alliance and the Cyber Security Industry Alliance He created and co-chaired the Information Security Governance Task Force of the Business Software Alliance He is a member of the Enterprise Software Roundtable In a September 2018 article on Cybersecurity Trends, Conner describes innovative next-generation security techniques in the cloud and the deep web; the article references RTDMI, a new patent-pending technology created by SonicWall. In February 2018, Former Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff and Bill Conner collaborated on an opinion article written for The Hill.

In it, they detail some of the recent actions taken by the U. S. Congress and the SEC regarding cyber accountability and transparency. In 2017, Conner became a Forbes Community Voice Contributor, as a member of the Forbes Technology Council, his articles have featured topics such as cybersecurity and policy trends, cyber threat intelligence, how human predictability factors in cyberattacks. He has penned articles and contributed

Spherical wedge

In geometry, a spherical wedge or ungula is a portion of a ball bounded by two plane semidisks and a spherical lune. The angle between the radii lying within the bounding semidisks is the dihedral angle of the wedge α. If AB is a semidisk that forms a ball when revolved about the z-axis, revolving AB only through a given α produces a spherical wedge of the same angle α. Beman remarks that "a spherical wedge is to the sphere of which it is a part as the angle of the wedge is to a perigon." A spherical wedge of α = π radians is called a hemisphere, while a spherical wedge of α = 2π radians constitutes a complete ball. The volume of a spherical wedge can be intuitively related to the AB definition in that while the volume of a ball of radius r is given by 4/3πr3, the volume a spherical wedge of the same radius r is given by V = α 2 π ⋅ 4 3 π r 3 = 2 3 α r 3. Extrapolating the same principle and considering that the surface area of a sphere is given by 4πr2, it can be seen that the surface area of the lune corresponding to the same wedge is given by A = α 2 π ⋅ 4 π r 2 = 2 α r 2.

Hart states that the "volume of a spherical wedge is to the volume of the sphere as the number of degrees in the is to 360". Hence, through derivation of the spherical wedge volume formula, it can be concluded that, if Vs is the volume of the sphere and Vw is the volume of a given spherical wedge, V w V s = α 2 π. If Sl is the area of a given wedge's lune, Ss is the area of the wedge's sphere, S l S s = α 2 π. Spherical cap Spherical segment Ungula A. ^ A distinction is sometimes drawn between the terms "sphere" and "ball", where a sphere is regarded as being the outer surface of a solid ball. It is common to use the terms interchangeably, as the commentaries of both Beman and Hart do

Electroencephalography functional magnetic resonance imaging

EEG-fMRI is a multimodal neuroimaging technique whereby EEG and fMRI data are recorded synchronously for the study of electrical brain activity in correlation with haemodynamic changes in brain during the electrical activity, be it normal function or associated with disorders. Scalp EEG reflects the brain's electrical activity, in particular post-synaptic potentials in the cerebral cortex, whereas fMRI is capable of detecting haemodynamic changes throughout the brain through the BOLD effect. EEG-fMRI therefore allows measuring both neuronal and haemodynamic activity which comprise two important components of the neurovascular coupling mechanism; the simultaneous acquisition of EEG and fMRI data of sufficient quality requires solutions to problems linked to potential health risks and EEG and fMRI data quality. There are two degrees of integration of the data acquisition, reflecting technical limitations associated with the interference between the EEG and MR instruments; these are: interleaved acquisitions, in which each acquisition modality is interrupted in turn to allow data of adequate quality to be recorded by the other modality.

The latter can be achieved using post-processing EEG artifact reduction software. EEG was first recorded in an MR environment around 1993. Several groups have found independent means to solve the problems of mutual contamination of the EEG and fMRI signals; the first continuous EEG-fMRI experiment was performed in 1999 using a numerical filtering approach. A predominantly software-based method was implemented shortly thereafter. An addition to EEG-fMRI set up is the simultaneous and synchronized video recording without affecting the EEG and fMRI data quality. For the most part, the combined EEG-fMRI data collection is now treated as a solved problem, commercial devices are available from major manufacturers, but issues remain. There are significant residual artifacts in the EEG; the traces in the EEG that record this are referred to as a, "Ballistocardiogram," because of their presumed origin in the motion of the EEG leads in the magnetic field that occurs with each heartbeat. In practice, the causes of this artifact are not well proven and may be the results of factors such as induced electrical fields with the movement of blood, etc.

In principle, the technique combines the EEG’s well documented ability to characterise certain brain states with high temporal resolution and to reveal pathological patterns, with fMRI’s ability to image blood dynamics through the entire brain with high spatial resolution. Up to now, EEG-fMRI has been seen as an fMRI technique in which the synchronously acquired EEG is used to characterise brain activity across time allowing to map the associated haemodynamic changes; the initial motivation for EEG-fMRI was in the field of research into epilepsy, in particular the study of interictal epileptiform discharges, their generators, of seizures. IED are unpredictable and sub-clinical events in patients with epilepsy that can only be observed using EEG. Therefore, recording EEG during fMRI acquisition allows the study of their haemodynamic correlates; the method can reveal haemodynamic changes linked to IED and seizures, has proven a powerful scientific tool. The simultaneous and synchronized video recording identifies clinical seizure activity along with electophysiological activity on EEG, which helps to investigate, correlated haemodynamic changes in brain during seizures.

The clinical value of these findings is the subject of ongoing investigations, but recent researches suggest an acceptable reliability for EEG-fMRI studies and better sensitivity in higher field scanner. Outside the field of epilepsy, EEG-fMRI has been used to study event-related brain responses and provided important new insights into baseline brain activity during resting wakefulness and sleep. Ritter P, Villringer A. "Simultaneous EEG-fMRI". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. 30: 823–38. Doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.06.008. PMID 16911826. Laufs H, Duncan JS. "Electroencephalography/functional MRI in human epilepsy: what it can and cannot do". Current Opinion in Neurology. 20: 417–23. Doi:10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282202b92. PMID 17620876

McMaster Faculty of Science

The Faculty of Science is the largest of six faculties at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. There are 7 departments and 2 interdisciplinary schools in the Faculty of Science: Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences Department of Biology Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology School of Geography and Earth Sciences School of Interdisciplinary Science Department of Kinesiology Department of Mathematics & Statistics Department of Physics & Astronomy Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour The Faculty of Science offers 7 first-year programs and 39 upper-year undergraduate programs ranging from astrophysics, biochemistry and environmental sciences, to life sciences, human behaviour and medical and radiation sciences. A co-op option is offered in 14 undergraduate science programs: Actuarial & Financial Mathematics, Biology & Pharmacology, BioPhysics, Chemical Biology, Earth & Environmental Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Geography & Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences, Mathematics & Statistics, Medical & Health Physics, Molecular Biology & Genetics and Physics.

The term "cooperative education" emphasizes the partnership between the employer, the student and university. Students taking the science co-op option have 4 work terms employed in their field in addition to the regular academic requirements; the co-op program is completed in 5 years. The Faculty of Science offers PhD degrees in 16 graduate programs; the research-intensive, student-centred Faculty of Science has enjoyed strong leadership through its deans. There are 5 Funded and Endowed Research Chairs, 13 Canada Research Chairs, 3 Faculty of Science Research Chairs and 1 Canada 150 Research Chair in the Faculty of Science. Many discoveries have been made at McMaster University such as the development of neutron spectroscopy by Bertram Brockhouse which earned him a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1994. Under the presidency of Dr. H. G. Thode in the 1960s, scientific research at McMaster was intensive and yielded important discoveries in the areas of science and engineering. In 1959, McMaster's Nuclear Reactor was built for the purpose of nuclear and medical radiation research.

McMaster is the only Canadian university. Scientific research at McMaster University earned the university high rankings in the areas of research and strength in science; the Faculty of Science hosts or supports several research-based centres and institutes that feature integrated, multi-disciplinary work. Biointerfaces Institute uses high-throughput methods to better understand the interface between biological and synthetic materials. By studying how biological systems respond to synthetic materials, vice versa, the Institute seeks to expand our ability to create better biosensors and medical implants, among other applications. Brockhouse Institute for Material Research is named after Nobel Prize winner Bertram Brockhouse and is dedicated to materials research and analysis. Facilities include the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Centre for Crystal Growth, McMaster Analytical X-ray Diffraction Facility, the Photonics Research Laboratories. McMaster Centre for Climate Change is a multidisciplinary research centre with the established goal of bringing together researchers to study and model climate processes, the effects of climate change, their possible mitigation.

McMaster Institute for Music and Mind, where scientists and musicians study questions about the physical structure, neural processing and perception of music and media arts. McMaster Institute for Transportation and Logistics was created to work with business and government partners to improve the efficiency of transportation systems and the competitiveness of the logistics/manufacturing sector. Nuclear Research Building, McMaster Nuclear Reactor Thode Library of Science and Engineering Origins Institute conducts transdisciplinary research to study fundamental questions in science. Areas of exploration include the origin of life and astrobiology, the origins of dark matter and dark energy in the universe, the beginnings of life. Physical Activity Centre of Excellence is an exercise training centre. Researchers study ways to improve health and well-being among older adults and people with chronic disease or disability

Aimee Richardson

Aimee Richardson is an Irish actress. She is best known for her role as Myrcella Baratheon in the first two seasons of the television series Game of Thrones. Richardson was born on 29 December 1997 in County Down, Northern Ireland. Richardson's first major acting role was her portrayal of Georgina in romantic comedy Miss Conception in 2008. In 2011, Richardson was cast to play princess Myrcella Baratheon in Game of Thrones. After the first two seasons, her character was exiled in-universe and therefore did not appear in the third or fourth seasons. At the 2014 San Diego Comic-Con, it was announced that the character was returning for the fifth season, however the official cast list showed that the role had been recast to Nell Tiger Free. HBO, the show's producers, offered no explanation for the decision. Richardson responded by uploading a video to Vine depicting her sitting on a pavement with a princess crown and a sign saying "PRINCESS FOR HIRE"; the humorous reaction was received well by media sources, with The Daily Dot and The Radio Times describing it as "hilarious", similar reactions from others.

Business Insider, HuffPost and Insider Culture have noted that it is not uncommon for characters to be recast in Game of Thrones. Free said Richardson handled it "brilliantly" and in a "humble" manner. Since appearing on Game of Thrones, Richardson has been cast for roles on several other television shows such as The Sparticle Mystery, Storyland and My Mother and Other Strangers