Fouls and misconduct (association football)
In the sport of association football and misconduct are acts committed by players which are deemed by the referee to be unfair and are subsequently penalized. An offense may be a foul, misconduct or both depending on the nature of the offence and the circumstances in which it occurs. Fouls and misconduct are addressed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game. A foul is an unfair act by a player, deemed by the referee to contravene the game's laws, that interferes with the active play of the game. Fouls are punished by the award of a free kick to the opposing team. A list of specific offences that can be fouls are detailed in Law 12 of the Laws of the Game. An infringement is classified as a foul when the infringement meets ALL of conditions of: 1) It is committed by a player, 2) on the field of play, 3) while the ball is in play and 4) committed against an opponent. For example, a player striking the referee or a teammate is misconduct. Misconduct is any conduct by a player, deemed by the referee to warrant a disciplinary sanction.
Misconduct may include acts which are, fouls. Unlike fouls, misconduct may occur at any time, including when the ball is out of play, during half-time and before and after the game, both players and substitutes may be sanctioned for misconduct. Misconduct will result in the player either being dismissed from the field. A dismissed player cannot be replaced. A second caution results in the player being dismissed; the referee has considerable discretion in applying the Laws. The system of cautioning and dismissal has existed in the Laws since 1881. Association football was the first major sport to introduce penalty cards to indicate the referee's decisions; the first major use of the cards was in the 1970 FIFA World Cup, but they were not made mandatory at all levels until 1992. A direct free kick is awarded when a player commits any of the following in a manner considered by the referee to be careless, reckless or using excessive force: Kicks or attempts to kick an opponent Trips or attempts to trip an opponent Jumps at an opponent Charges an opponent Strikes or attempts to strike an opponent Pushes an opponent Tackles an opponentOr commits any the following offences: Holds an opponent Impeding the progress of an opponent with contact Spits at an opponent Handles the ball deliberately.
In determining whether or not a player deliberately handled the ball, the referee has several considerations: Movement of the hand towards the ball Distance between the opponent and the ball Position of the hand does not mean that there is an infringement Touching the ball with an object held in the hand counts as an infringement Hitting the ball with a thrown object counts as an infringement If a player commits a direct free kick offence within their own penalty area, a penalty kick is awarded irrespective of the position of the ball, provided the ball is in play. Infringements punishable by an indirect free kick are: When a goalkeeper, inside their own penalty area: controls the ball with their hands for more than six seconds before releasing it from possession touches the ball again with their hands after releasing it from possession and before it has touched another player touches the ball with their hands after it has been deliberately kicked to them by a teammate, or thrown to them from a throw-in When any player in the opinion of the referee: plays in a dangerous manner impedes the progress of an opponent when the ball is not within playing distance of either player prevents the goalkeeper from releasing the ball from their hands commits any other offence, not mentioned in Law 12, for which play is stopped to caution or send off a playerSome technical breaches of the rules, such as the offside offence, result in play being restarted with an indirect free kick, though these are not considered fouls and will never be punished by a caution or dismissal.
Not all infractions of the Laws are fouls. Non-foul infractions may be dealt with as technical infractions or misconduct. Note that persistent infringement of the Laws is an offence for which the player may be cautioned; the referee may consider serious and/or persistent offences to be misconduct worthy of an official caution or dismissal from the game. Association football was the first sport to use coloured cards to indicate these actions. A yellow card is shown by the referee to indicate that a player has been cautioned; the player's details are recorded by the referee in a small notebook. A player, cautioned may continue playing in the game.
Dundee United F.C.
Dundee United Football Club is a Scottish professional football club based in the city of Dundee. Formed in 1909 as Dundee Hibernian, the club changed to the present name in 1923. United are nicknamed The Terrors or The Tangerines and the supporters are known as Arabs; the club has played in tangerine kits since the 1960s and have played at the present ground, Tannadice Park, since their foundation in 1909. United were founder members of the Scottish Premier League in 1998 and were ever-present in the competition until it was abolished in 2013 to make way for the SPFL structure. United were relegated in 2016 to the Scottish Championship, the second tier of the SPFL. Domestically, the club has won the Scottish Premier Division on one occasion, the Scottish Cup twice and the Scottish League Cup twice. United appeared in European competition for the first time in the 1966–67 season, going on to appear in Europe in 14 successive seasons from 1976, they reached the European Cup semi-finals in 1983–84 season and the UEFA Cup final in 1987.
The club has a 100% record in four matches against Barcelona in competitive European ties. The club's main rivals are Dundee; the two teams contest the Dundee derby, with the local rivals' Dens Park stadium being located next door to Tannadice Park. The club was formed as Dundee Hibernian in 1909, they were voted into the Scottish Football League in 1910. After being saved from going out of business in October 1923, the club changed their name to Dundee United in order to widen their appeal. Between 1925 and 1932 United were promoted and relegated three times, winning the Second Division title in 1925 and 1929; the club took significant strides forward when Jerry Kerr became manager in 1959. Kerr's team won promotion in his first season in charge and became an established team in the top flight, where they remained until 1995. A key characteristic of Kerr's reign was the strengthening of the playing squad with Scandinavian imports, most notably with the signings of Lennart Wing, Finn Dossing, Mogens Berg, Finn Seemann and Orjan Persson.
It was during this period that United qualified for European competition for the first time, eliminating Inter-Cities Fairs Cup holders Barcelona on their European debut in 1966. Jim McLean took over from Kerr in 1971 and under his management the club enjoyed the most successful era in its history. McLean's era became known for his youth policy and the offering of long term contracts that would see future Scotland international players such as Dave Narey, Paul Sturrock, Paul Hegarty, Davie Dodds, Eamonn Bannon and Maurice Malpas spend the majority of their careers at the club. United won its first major honour under McLean, capturing the Scottish League Cup first in 1979 and again in 1980, they were crowned Premier Division champions in 1982–83. The club were successful in Europe, reaching the European Cup semi-finals in 1984 and the UEFA cup Final in 1987, the latter campaign involving another elimination of Barcelona during the earlier rounds. Despite losing to IFK Gothenburg in the final, the club was awarded a FIFA Fair Play Award.
McLean remained as club chairman. United won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1994 under McLean's successor Ivan Golac, but were relegated in 1995, before returning to the Premier Division a year later. Following a number of board changes, the club was purchased from McLean in 2002 by former Morning Noon and Night co-founder and chief executive Eddie Thompson. A life long United fan, Thompson invested in the team in a bid to compete with significant spending which had developed following the formation of the Scottish Premier League, however little progress was made until Craig Levein became manager in 2006. Levein established United as a Top Six club achieving European qualification before he left the club to take the post as Scotland manager in 2009. With the foundations of the side in place, United won the Scottish Cup for a second time in 2010 under the management of Peter Houston. After several successful seasons, a series of poor results in the Premiership led to United being relegated in 2016.
Dundee United's first season in the Championship was under the management of Ray McKinnon. United won the Challenge Cup by beating St Mirren 2–1 in the final and they reached the play-off final for the Premiership; however they lost narrowly 1–0 to Hamilton. The second season in the second tier was less successful, as manager McKinnon was sacked and replaced with Csaba László. After a poor start to the 2018–19 season the manager was once again sacked and replaced with Robbie Neilson. For a complete pictorial history of playing kit, see the Historical Football Kits site. United's playing kit consists of tangerine shirts and black shorts, first used when the team played under the Dallas Tornado moniker in the United Soccer Association competition of 1967, which they were invited to participate in after their first European excursion had created many headlines in the football world. After persuasion by the wife of manager Jerry Kerr, the colour would soon be adopted as the club's own in 1969 to give the club a brighter, more modern image.
The new colour was paraded for the first time in a pre-season friendly against Everton in August. When founded as Dundee Hibernian, they had followed the example of other clubs of similar heritage by adopting the traditionally Irish colours of green shirts and white shorts. By the time the club became Dundee United in 1923, the colours had been changed to white shirts and black shorts as they sought to appeal to a wider cross-section of the community. Th
Substitute (association football)
In association football, a substitute is a player, brought on to the pitch during a match in exchange for an existing player. Substitutions are made to replace a player who has become tired or injured, or, performing poorly, or for tactical reasons. Unlike some sports, a player, substituted during a match may take no further part in it. Most competitions only allow each team to make a maximum of three substitutions during a game and a fourth substitute during extra time, although more substitutions are permitted in non-competitive fixtures such as friendlies. A fourth substitution in extra time was first implemented in recent tournaments, including the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup and the 2017 CONCACAF Gold Cup final. A fourth substitute in extra time has been approved for use in the elimination rounds at the 2018 FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League; each team nominates a number of players. When the substitute enters the field of play it is said they have come on or have been brought on, while the player they are substituting is coming off or being brought off.
A player, noted for making appearances, or scoring important goals, as a substitute is informally known as a "super sub". The origin of football substitutes goes back to at least the early 1860s as part of English public school football games; the original use of the term "substitute" in football was to describe the replacement of players who failed to turn up for matches. For example, in 1863, a match reports states: "The Charterhouse eleven played a match in cloisters against some old Carthusians but in consequence of the non-appearance of some of those who were expected it was necessary to provide three substitutes." The substitution of absent players happened as early as the 1850s, for example from Eton College where the term "emergencies" is used. Numerous references to players acting as a "substitute" occur in matches in the mid-1860s where it is not indicated whether these were replacements of absent players or of players injured during the match; the first use of a substitute in international football was on 15 April 1889, in the match between Wales and Scotland at Wrexham.
Wales's original goalkeeper, Jim Trainer, failed to arrive. Substitution during games was first permitted in 1958; the use of substitutes in World Cup Finals matches was not allowed until the 1970 tournament. The number of substitutes usable in a competitive match has increased from zero—meaning teams were reduced if players' injuries could not allow them to play on—to one in 1958. With the increases in substitutions allowed, the number of potential substitute players increased to seven; the number of substitutes increased to two plus one in 1994, to three in 1995. Substitutions during matches in the English Football League were first permitted in the 1965–66 season. During the first two seasons after the law was introduced, each side was permitted only one substitution during a game. Moreover, the substitute could only replace an injured player. From the 1967–68 season, this rule was relaxed to allow substitutions for tactical reasons. On 21 August 1965, Keith Peacock of Charlton Athletic became the first substitute used in the Football League when he replaced injured goalkeeper Mike Rose eleven minutes into their away match against Bolton Wanderers.
On the same day, Bobby Knox became the first substitute to score a goal when he scored for Barrow against Wrexham. Archie Gemmill of St Mirren was the first substitute to come on in a Scottish first-class match, on 13 August 1966 in a League Cup tie against Clyde when he replaced Jim Clunie after 23 minutes; the first official substitute in a Scottish League match was Paul Conn for Queen's Park vs Albion Rovers in a Division 2 match on 24 August 1966. On 20 January 1917, a player called Morgan came on for the injured Morrison of Partick Thistle after 5 minutes against Rangers at Firhill, but this was an isolated case and the Scottish League did not authorise substitutes until 1966. In years, the number of substitutes permitted in Football League matches has increased. In England, the Premier League increased the number of players on the bench to five in 1996, it was announced that the number available on the bench would be seven for the 2008–09 season. Substitutions are governed under Law 3 of the Laws of the Game in the Substitution Procedure section.
A player may only be substituted with the permission of the referee. The player to be substituted must have left the field of play before the substitute may enter the field of play; the incoming player may only enter the field at the half-way line. Failure to comply with th
2006 FIFA World Cup Final
The 2006 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 9 July 2006 at the Olympiastadion, Germany, to determine the winner of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Italy beat France 5 -- 3 on penalties. France's Zinedine Zidane was sent off in his last-ever match, for headbutting Italy's Marco Materazzi's chest in retaliation to Materazzi's verbal provocation, it was the first final since 1978 in which neither Brazil competed. It was Italy's first world title in 24 years, their fourth overall, putting them one ahead of Germany and only one behind Brazil; the penalty shoot-out victory for Italy was that country's first in the World Cup Finals: Italy's three previous penalty shoot-out competitions had all been lost. The victory led to Italy topping the FIFA World Rankings in February 2007 for the first time since November 1993; the opening performance was by singers Shakira and Wyclef Jean, who performed a special version of "Hips Don't Lie" called The Bamboo Version. The final started with each side scoring within the first 20 minutes.
Zinedine Zidane opened the scoring by converting a seventh-minute penalty kick, conceded by Marco Materazzi, which glanced off the underside of the crossbar and into the goal. Materazzi levelled the scores in the 19th minute, a header from six yards following an Andrea Pirlo corner from the right. Both teams had chances to score the winning goal in normal time: Luca Toni hit the crossbar in the 35th minute for Italy having a header disallowed for offside, while France were not granted a possible second penalty in the 53rd minute when Florent Malouda went down in the box after a cover tackle from Gianluca Zambrotta. France appeared to be the side with better chances to win because of the higher number of shots on goal, they were unable to capitalise and the score remained at one goal each. At the end of the regulation 90 minutes, the score was still level at 1–1, the match was forced into extra time. Italian keeper Gianluigi Buffon made a game-saving save in extra time when he tipped a Zidane header over the crossbar.
As Zidane and Materazzi were jogging up the pitch close to each other, they exchanged words after Materazzi was seen tugging at Zidane's jersey before Zidane began to walk away from him. Moments Zidane stopped, turned around and head-butted Materazzi's chest, knocking him to the ground. Although play was halted, referee Horacio Elizondo did not appear to have seen the confrontation. According to match officials' reports, fourth official Luis Medina Cantalejo informed Elizondo of the incident through his headset. After consulting his assistants, Elizondo issued Zidane a red card in the 110th minute, it marked the 14th overall expulsion of Zidane's career, joined him with Cameroon's Rigobert Song as the only players to be sent off during two separate World Cup tournaments. He became the fourth player red-carded in a World Cup final, in addition to being the first sent off in extra time. Extra time produced no further goals and a penalty shoot-out followed, which Italy won 5–3. France's David Trezeguet, the man who scored the golden goal against Italy in the Euro 2000 final, was the only player not to score his penalty.
German President Horst Köhler, UEFA president Lennart Johansson, the local organizing committee president Franz Beckenbauer were among those present on the pitch stage during the awards ceremony. President Köhler handed the trophy to Italian captain Fabio Cannavaro without FIFA president Sepp Blatter's presence; as Cannavaro raised the trophy, a short version of Patrizio Buanne's "Stand Up" was played. After video evidence suggested that Materazzi had verbally provoked Zidane, three British media newspapers claimed to have hired lip readers to determine what Materazzi had said, with The Times, The Sun and Daily Star claiming that Materazzi called Zidane "the son of a terrorist whore". Materazzi disputed this claim winning public apologies from The Sun and Daily Star in 2008, as well as libel damages from all three British newspapers. Zidane only explained that repeated harsh insults about his mother had caused him to react. Materazzi admitted talking trash to Zidane, but argued that Zidane's behaviour had been arrogant and that the remarks were trivial.
Materazzi insisted that he did not insult Zidane's mother, claiming, "I didn't talk about his mother, either. I lost my mother when I was fifteen, now I still get emotional talking about it". Zidane apologised but added that he did not regret his offence because he felt that this would condone Materazzi's actions. Two months Materazzi offered his version of events, claiming that after he had grabbed Zidane's jersey, Zidane remarked, "If you want my shirt, I will give it to you afterwards", he replied to Zidane that he would prefer his sister, but claimed during the interview that he was unaware Zidane had a sister. Over a year after the incident, Materazzi confirmed that his precise words to Zidane were: "I prefer the whore, your sister". After the final, then-President of France Jacques Chirac hailed Zidane as a "man of heart and conviction". Chirac added that he found the offence to be unacceptable, but he understood that Zidane had been provoked. However, French newspaper Le Figaro called the headbutt "odious" and "unacceptab
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean and South America. Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship.
In 2017, FIFA had revenues of over US $734 million, for a net loss of $189 million, had cash reserves of over US$930 million. Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively; these allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U. S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups; those among these officials who were indicted in the U. S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.
On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed; the need for a single body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association was founded in the rear of the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques at the Rue Saint Honoré 229 in Paris on 21 May 1904; the French name and acronym are used outside French-speaking countries. The founding members were the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland; that same day, the German Football Association declared its intention of affiliating through a telegram. The first president of FIFA was Robert Guérin. Guérin was replaced in 1906 by Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by a member of the association; the first tournament FIFA staged, the association football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more successful than its Olympic predecessors, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.
Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina in 1912, Canada and Chile in 1913, the United States in 1914. During World War II, with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures limited, the organization's survival was in doubt. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann, it was saved from extinction but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations, who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations resumed their membership; the FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum at Urbis in England. The first World Cup was held in 1930 in Uruguay. FIFA is headquartered in Zürich, is an association established under the law of Switzerland. FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made up of representatives from each affiliated member association; each national football association has one vote, regardless of footballing strength.
The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. The congress makes decisions relating to FIFA's governing statutes and their method of implementation and application. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's statutes; the congress approves the annual report, decides on the acceptance of new national associations and holds elections. Congress elects the President of FIFA, its general secretary, the other members of the FIFA Council in the year following the FIFA World Cup. FIFA Council — called the FIFA Executive Committee and chaired by the president — is the main decision-making body of the organisation in the intervals of congress; the council is composed of 37 people: the president. The Executive Committee is the body that decides w
2011–12 UEFA Champions League
The 2011–12 UEFA Champions League was the 57th season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 20th season in its current Champions League format. As part of a trial that started in the 2009–10 UEFA Europa League, two extra officials – one behind each goal – were used in all matches of the competition from the play-off round; the final was held at the Allianz Arena in Germany. Chelsea's caretaker manager Roberto Di Matteo led the club to win their first Champions League title after beating Bayern Munich 4–3 on penalties in the final; as tenants of the Allianz Arena, this meant that Bayern were the first finalists to have home advantage since 1984. By winning the tournament, Chelsea earned a berth at the 2012 FIFA Club World Cup and 2012 UEFA Super Cup. Barcelona were the defending champions, but were eliminated by the eventual winners Chelsea in the semi-finals. A total of 76 teams participated in the 2011–12 Champions League from 52 UEFA associations. Associations are allocated places according to their 2010 UEFA country coefficients, which takes into account their performance in European competitions from 2005–06 to 2009–10.
Below is the qualification scheme for the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League: Associations 1–3 each have four teams qualify Associations 4–6 each have three teams qualify Associations 7–15 each have two teams qualify Associations 16–53 each have one team qualify Since the winners of the 2010–11 UEFA Champions League, obtained a place in the group stage through their domestic league placing, the reserved title holder spot in the group stage was vacated. To compensate: The champions of association 13 were promoted from the third qualifying round to the group stage; the champions of association 16 were promoted from the second qualifying round to the third qualifying round. The champions of associations 48 and 49 were promoted from the first qualifying round to the second qualifying round. League positions of the previous season shown in parentheses. Notesth Title Holder Romania: Because Politehnica Timișoara, the 2010–11 Liga I runners-up, were denied a domestic licence for the 2011–12 season, the third-placed team of the league, claimed the Champions League spot in the third qualifying round League Route.
Turkey: Fenerbahçe, the 2010–11 Süper Lig champions, was banned by the Turkish Football Federation on 24 August 2011 from participating in the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League due to the ongoing investigation into match-fixing. UEFA decided to replace them in the group stage with Trabzonspor, the league runners-up, who had lost in the Champions League third qualifying round and were participating in the Europa League play-off round at that time. All draws held at UEFA headquarters in Switzerland unless stated otherwise. In the qualifying rounds and the play-off round, teams were divided into seeded and unseeded teams based on their 2011 UEFA club coefficients, drawn into two-legged home-and-away ties. Teams from the same association cannot be drawn against each other; the draw for the first and second qualifying rounds was held on 20 June 2011. The first legs were played on 28 June, the second legs were played on 5 and 6 July 2011; the first legs were played on 12 and 13 July, the second legs were played on 19 and 20 July 2011.
NotesNote 1: Order of legs reversed after original draw. The draw for the third qualifying round was held on 15 July 2011; the first legs were played on 26 and 27 July, the second legs were played on 2 and 3 August 2011. The third qualifying round was split into two separate sections: one for champions and one for non-champions; the losing teams in both sections entered the play-off round of the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League. The draw for the play-off round was held on 5 August 2011; the first legs were played on 16 and 17 August, the second legs were played on 23 and 24 August 2011. The play-off round was split into two separate sections: one for champions and one for non-champions; the losing teams in both sections entered the group stage of the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League. The group stage features 32 teams, which were allocated into pots based on their 2011 UEFA club coefficients, drawn into eight groups of four. Teams from the same association cannot be drawn against each other; the draw was held on 25 August 2011 in Monaco.
In each group, teams play against each other home-and-away in a round-robin format. The matchdays are 13–14 September, 27–28 September, 18–19 October, 1–2 November, 22–23 November, 6–7 December 2011; the group winners and runners-up advanced to the round of 16, while the third-placed teams entered the round of 32 of the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League. If two or more teams are equal on points on completion of the group matches, the following criteria are applied to determine the rankings: higher number of points obtained in the group matches played among the teams in question.
The Start and Restart of Play (association football)
The Start and Restart of Play is the 8th of the Laws of the Game of association football. It dropped ball. Other methods of restarting play are addressed in other laws