Edward Fenwick Boyd
Edward Fenwick Boyd was an English industrialist who became the fourth President of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers. He held a leading role in the Mining Institute from its inauguration in 1852 as Treasurer and a member of the council before becoming the fourth president in 1869; as president, Boyd oversaw the installation of the Nicholas Wood Memorial Hall and the Newcastle College of Physical Science. Edward Fenwick Boyd was born on 30 August 1810 at Leamside Durham, he was the third son of William, a banker and partner in the Newcastle Old Bank, Esther Boyd. His earliest experience of education was with Henry Atkinson at the High Bridge, before attending Witton-le- Wear Grammar School in 1821 for the subsequent five years, it was here he found a talent for art. Upon leaving school he ‘served his time’, firstly, at Cocken White House Pit before moving to Bowes’ House Pit where he met Thomas Crawford, manager of Lord Durham’s extensive collieries, it was believed that Boyd’s connection with Crawford provided him with his initial understanding of the business.
Between October 1830 and May 1831, Boyd attended Edinburgh University however he maintained a connection with the mining industry at Towneley Main Colliery. Upon his return from University, he accompanied Mr Matthias Dunn, a mine Inspector, on visitations to various collieries in Scotland including Prestongrange, Kilmarnock and Dalmellington in Ayrshire. Through this connection and work with Mr Dunn, Boyd obtained his first appointment as under viewer and surveyor at Hetton-le-Hole Colliery in 1832. Five years Boyd moved to Urpeth and became resident viewer of Urpeth Colliery. In addition to this, 1837 saw Boyd’s appointment as mineral agent to the Dean and Chapter of Durham, after the retirement of Mr T. Fenwick, as well as the opportunity of becoming manager of Wylam Colliery on behalf of the Blackett family; as his professional life was beginning to kick start was his personal life. In 1841 he married Ann, daughter of George Anderson, soon began a family. Between 1846 and 1852 the couple went on to have four children.
He resigned his position as manager of the Urpeth Colliery and was'proposing to take life somewhat more easily'. However the fall of the Northumberland and Durham District Bank during the financial crisis of 1857 meant this was no longer possible; the bank engulfed his inheritance from his father as well as his private savings leaving him with a young family in need of education with minimal funds to do so hence he was forced to begin rebuilding his fortunes a fresh. He continued with his previous ventures and took on many new agencies making this time of his life the busiest to date. In 1858 he became Chief Mining Engineer of the Consett Iron Company and until 1872 he directly superintended the working of their various collieries. Disasters such as the explosion at St Hilda’s Colliery in 1839 brought about an awareness amongst miners and men working within this community of the need for a society with fixed rules and aims within the mining community in the hope of preventing such disasters.
As a result, the South Shields Committee recommended the introduction of the compulsory registration of mine plans, a system of government inspections, the prohibiting of the employment of women and children below ground and the need for a better scientific education of the Mining Engineers. However, it was not until 1850 that legislation was passed requiring collieries to appoint inspectors. Mine plans were expected to be kept and produced and all fatal accidents were to now be reported to the Home Office. Similar to the disaster at St Hilda’s, an explosion at Seaton Colliery on 9 June 1852 acted as a catalyst for the founding of the NEIMME. Leading figures such as Nicholas Wood, T. E. Forster, Sir George Elliot, 1st Baronet and Edward Sinclair joined forty four coal owners and subsequently founded ‘The North of England Society for the Prevention of Accidents and for other Purposes Connected with Mining’. At a second meeting the society changed its name to the more pointed ‘The North of England Institute of Mining Engineers’ and it was not until 1870 when it opened its doors to Engineers that its title was adapted again to ‘The North of England Institute of Mining & Mechanical Engineers’.
The aims of the society were to search for the causes of mining accidents exemplified at Seaton and St. Hilda’s, improve the ventilation of mines and to improve the safety and conditions of mines. Boyd played a significant role in the foundation of the North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers and his reliability led to his appointment as Treasurer from the inauguration of the NEIMME until 1869. In addition to this role, Boyd worked alongside the first President, Nicholas Wood, in his efforts towards creating a schooling system for Mining Engineers as well as projects such as ‘On a "wash" or "drift" through a portion of the coal- field of Durham’ which they presented to the members of the Mining Institute in December 1863, his dedication and hard working ethic resulted in his election as the fourth President of the NEIMME in 1869 following that of George Elliot. During his time in office he worked excessively on the opening of the Nicholas Wood Memorial Hall, to become the home of the Mining Institute, pursued the work of Nicholas Wood in the foundation of the College of Physical College.
The foundation of the College of Physical Science in 1871, the fore-runner of Newcastle Uni
Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. Today, the humanities are more contrasted with natural, sometimes social, sciences as well as professional training; the humanities use methods that are critical, or speculative, have a significant historical element—as distinguished from the empirical approaches of the natural sciences, unlike the sciences, it has no central discipline. The humanities include ancient and modern languages, philosophy, human geography, politics and art. Scholars in the humanities are humanists; the term "humanist" describes the philosophical position of humanism, which some "antihumanist" scholars in the humanities reject. The Renaissance scholars and artists were called humanists; some secondary schools offer humanities classes consisting of literature, global studies and art.
Human disciplines like history and cultural anthropology study subject matters that the manipulative experimental method does not apply to—and instead use the comparative method and comparative research. Anthropology is a science of the totality of human existence; the discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have been institutionally divided into three broad domains; the natural sciences seek to derive general laws through verifiable experiments. The humanities study local traditions, through their history, literature and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras; the social sciences have attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences. The anthropological social sciences develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology.
Anthropology does not fit into one of these categories, different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, cultural anthropology, it is an area, offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos is from the Greek for "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, the most humanistic of the sciences"; the goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of human nature. This means that, though anthropologists specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".
Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies, or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist", to discuss humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk remaining of great interest within anthropology. The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard, it is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, linguistic or archaeological.
Archaeology is the study of human activity through the analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities, it has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. Archaeology is thought of as a branch of anthropology in the United States, while in Europe, it is viewed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under other related disciplines such as history. Classics, in the Western academic tradition, refers to the studies of the cultures of classical antiquity, namely Ancient Greek and Latin and the Ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Classical studies is considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities; the influence of classical ideas on many humanities disciplines, such as philosophy and literature, remains strong. History is systematically collected information about the past.
When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of humans, societies and any to
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 11th Baronet
Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 11th Baronet, FRS was a British educational reformer and a politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1837 and 1886 as a Tory and after an eighteen-year gap, as a Liberal. Acland was the eldest son of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 10th Baronet, his wife Lydia Elizabeth Hoare, daughter of Henry Hoare, a partner in the banking firm of C. Hoare & Co. Sir Henry Wentworth Acland was his younger brother, he was educated at Harrow and Christ Church, where he was friends with William Ewart Gladstone and Lord Elgin among others. He was a major in the Royal 1st Devonshire Yeomanry Cavalry. In 1839 he was made a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1837, Acland entered Parliament for Somerset West as a Tory. During the tensions within the Tory party in the 1840s over the Corn Laws, Acland supported Sir Robert Peel's free trade policy, he did not stand for Parliament in the 1847 general election and was to remain out of the House of Commons for nearly twenty years. Acland commitment to educational reform.
He promoted the maintenance and defence of church schools and the establishment of diocesan theological colleges. However, he became a supporter of educational projects of a more Liberal character and played a leading role in the establishment of the Oxford local examinations system in 1858, he was involved in agricultural issues and was a Trustee of the Royal Agricultural Society. Acland was influential on recruiting Augustus Voelcker as consultant agricultural chemist to the Royal Bath and West of England Society around 1849. Acland was Honorary Colonel 3rd Volunteer Bn Devonshire Regiment and a J. P. for Devon and Somerset. He was defeated by John Bright. In 1865, Acland returned to the House of Commons as a Liberal when he was elected as one of two representatives for Devonshire North. Between 1869 and 1874, he served as a Church Estates Commissioner, he never held ministerial office but was sworn of the Privy Council in 1883. The Devonshire North constituency was abolished by the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885 and Acland was instead returned to Parliament for Wellington.
He voted for the First Home Rule Bill in June 1885 and this led to him being defeated at the 1886 general election. Apart from his public career Acland was a patron of art, he was an early admirer of John Everett Millais. Acland married firstly Mary Mordaunt, daughter of Sir Charles Mordaunt, 8th Baronet, in 1841, they had two daughters. After her death in 1851 he married secondly Mary Erskine, only surviving child of John Erskine, in 1856; this marriage was childless. Lady Acland died in May 1892. Acland survived her by six years and died in May 1898, aged 89, he was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son Thomas, a politician. Acland's second son Arthur, who succeeded in the baronetcy in 1919 had a successful political career. "Acland, Thomas Dyke". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1901. Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's list of baronets Lundy, Darryl. "FAQ". The Peerage. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Sir Thomas Acland "Archival material relating to Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, 11th Baronet".
UK National Archives. "Historic People". Plymouth Athenaeum. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014
High school diploma
A high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation. The high school diploma is studied for over the course of four years, from Grade 9 to Grade 12; the diploma is awarded by the school in accordance with the requirements of the local state or provincial government. Requirements for earning the diploma vary by jurisdiction, there may be different requirements for different streams or levels of high school graduation, they include a combination of selected coursework meeting specified criteria for a particular stream and acceptable passing grades earned on the state exit examination. In British Columbia, the diploma is known as the British Columbia Certificate of Graduation; the province of BC has two distinct graduation programs: the BC Certificate of Graduation and the BC Adult Graduation Diploma. Students have the opportunity to meet their educational goals through the BC School Completion Certificate; the current Dogwood requirements have been in place since July 1, 2004.
Under current regulations, students must earn a minimum of 80 credits to graduate, which must include 48 credits for required courses, a minimum of 28 elective credits, 4 credits for "graduation transitions", a standards-based assessment evaluated by schools under BC Ministry of Education guidelines. Required courses include, among other things, language arts, social studies and science courses in grades 10, 11, 12. Part of the evaluation of students includes standardized provincial examinations in a number of the required courses in grades 10 and 12; as part of the 80 credits for the Dogwood, 16 credits must be at the Grade 12 level, must include English 12 or Communications 12. In Ontario, the high school diploma is known as the Ontario Secondary School Diploma; the diploma is awarded to all students. The requirements for the diploma include compulsory credits in English or French, Science, Canadian History, Canadian Geography, Arts and Physical Education, a second language; those who leave school after completing 14 credits but prior to obtaining the diploma can obtain the Ontario Secondary School Certificate.
Quebec issued the D. E. S. Formerly Quebec Certificate of Education before it changed into HS Diploma/Diplôme D. E. S. at the end of secondary V, for graduation from secondary school, a five-year school spanning secondary I to secondary V. To earn a high school diploma, Saskatchewan students are required to earn a total of 24 credits from grades 10 to 12. For a regular English program diploma, they must earn 5 credits in English Language Arts, 3 credits in Social Studies, 2 credits in mathematics, 2 credits in science, 1 credit in Physical Education/Health Education, 2 credits in Arts Education/Practical and Applied Arts, 9 elective credits. A United States high school diploma refers to the satisfactory completion of grade schooling including kindergarten through the 12th grade and is issued by the school district and the high school after a student's graduation. In Alabama, all students are required to earn 24 credits; the required credits are: English, Science, History, PE/JROTC, Career Prep, CTE/arts education/Foreign language, Electives.
County schools offer Honors, AP classes. In California, students are required to take, complete the following minimum requirements to earn a high school diploma: 3 years of English, 2 years of Math including Algebra I, 3 years of History/Social Studies including one year of U. S. history and geography. Most schools' individual graduation requirements far outweigh the state's minimum standards; the California exit exam was suspended until 2018. This information is taken from the California Department of Education. In Illinois, students are required to take English, science, social science, world language, fine arts, physical education, elective classes meeting selected criteria as part of the program of study for the High School Diploma. Electives may include advanced courses and technical education, Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps, dual-enrollment, or additional classes in the required subjects that meet school board requirements. Driver's Education is required for all students. An additional requirement is a passing grade on the Prairie State Achievement Examination, taken in Grade 11.
Accommodations are made for select students with unique needs. English Language Learner students may substitute English as a Second Language for English to meet the graduation requirements. Students receiving special education services may complete modified requirements accord
An undergraduate degree is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is an oxymoron, since one cannot hold a degree as an undergraduate. In the United States, it is offered at an institution of higher education, such as a college or university; the most common type of these undergraduate degrees are bachelor's degree. Bachelor's degree takes at least three or four years to complete; these degrees can be categorised as basic degrees. In the United Kingdom, a bachelor's degree is the most common type of "undergraduate degree"; some master's degrees can be undertaken after finishing secondary education. Most bachelor's degrees take three years to complete, with some notable exceptions, such as Medicine taking five years. Students can enroll in a 4-year program leave after three years and be awarded a bachelor's degree. First professional degrees sometimes contain the word Doctor, but are still considered undergraduate degrees in most countries, including Canada.
For example, the Doctor of Medicine program in Canada is considered an "undergraduate degree." However, in the United States, most first professional degrees are considered graduate programs by the U. S. Department of Education and require students to possess an "undergraduate degree" before admission; these degrees are not research doctorates and are therefore not equivalent to the Doctor of Philosophy Many countries offer bachelor's degrees that are equivalent to American graduate degrees. For example, the Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine degrees offered in the U. S. are equivalent to the Bachelor of Surgery degree. In the United States and sometimes in Canada, an Associate's Degree is a two-year degree, it is undertaken as the beginning of a four-year degree. Some two-year institutions have articulation agreements with four-year institutions, which specify which courses transfer without problems; the Arizona General Education Curriculum certification, awarded for the completion of an Associate of Arts, Associate of Science, or Associate of Business degree indicates the completion of all bachelor's degree lower level course work and permits the student to block transfer to any of the three state universities and several private universities as a third-year student or "Junior."To obtain an AGEC certification, one must: Complete all associate degree credits at regionally accredited colleges.
Associates degrees with an AGEC certification are custom tailored with electives to meet the prerequisite requirements for the program and university the student wishes to transfer to. Virginia’s community college has signed system-wide agreements, allowing students who graduate from one of the 23 community colleges with a transfer associate degree and a minimum grade point average to obtain guaranteed admission to more than 20 of the Commonwealth's four-year colleges and universities. Argentine higher education system is based, since its conception during the colonial period, on the old and dogmatic Spanish higher education system, a Continental education system. A historic event took place in the University Reform of 1918, a popular series of reforms that took place in the oldest university of the country, the Universidad de Córdoba that paved the way to the modernization of the Argentinian higher university systems as it is known nowadays. Since its foundation, it was focused on the teaching of Professions offering Professional degrees.
It is divided into three levels. Tertiary Education level: 1- to 4-years degrees related to education or technical professions like Teachers, Technicians. University level: 4- to 6-years Professional education taught at Universities offering many different degrees Licentiate, Engineering degree, Medic Title, Attorney Title, Translation degrees, etc. Post-graduate level: This is a specialized and research-oriented education level, it is divided in a first sub-level where a Specialist degree can be obtained in a 12–18 months period or Master degree, requiring 24–30 months and an original research work and a higher sub-level where a Doctorate degree could be achieved. The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria.
Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school.
Newcastle University is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. The university can trace its origins to a School of Medicine and Surgery, established in 1834, to the College of Physical Science, founded in 1871; these two colleges came to form one division of the federal University of Durham, with the Durham Colleges forming the other. The Newcastle colleges merged to form King's College in 1937. In 1963, following an Act of Parliament, King's College became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle University is a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of prestigious research-intensive UK universities; the university has one of the largest EU research portfolios in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £495.7 million of which £109.4 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £483.3 million. Teaching and research are delivered in 24 academic schools and 40 research institutes and research centres, spread across three Faculties: the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.
The university offers around 175 full-time undergraduate degree programmes in a wide range of subject areas spanning arts, sciences and medicine, together with 340 postgraduate taught and research programmes across a range of disciplines. The university has its origins in the School of Medicine and Surgery, established in Newcastle upon Tyne in October 1834, when it provided basic lectures and practical demonstrations to around 26 students. In June 1851, following a dispute among the teaching staff, the School split into two rival institutions; the majority formed the Newcastle College of Medicine, the others established themselves as the Newcastle upon Tyne College of Medicine and Practical Science. By 1852, the majority college was formally linked to the University of Durham, it awarded its first'Licence in Medicine' in 1856, its teaching certificates were recognised by the University of London for graduation in medicine. The two colleges amalgamated in 1857 and were renamed the University of Durham College of Medicine in 1870.
Attempts to realise a place for the teaching of sciences in the city were met with the foundation of the College of Physical Science in 1871. The college offered instruction in mathematics, physics and geology to meet the growing needs of the mining industry, becoming the Durham College of Physical Science in 1883 and renamed after William George Armstrong as Armstrong College in 1904. Both these separate and independent institutions became part of the University of Durham, whose 1908 Act formally recognised that the university consisted of two Divisions and Newcastle, on two different sites. By 1908, the Newcastle Division was teaching a full range of subjects in the Faculties of Medicine and Science, which included agriculture and engineering. Throughout the early 20th century, the medical and science colleges vastly outpaced the growth of their Durham counterparts and a Royal Commission in 1934 recommended the merger of the two colleges to form King's College, Durham. Growth of the Newcastle Division of the federal Durham University led to tensions within the structure and on 1 August 1963 an Act of Parliament separated the two, creating the University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
As the successor of King's College, the university at its founding in 1963, adopted the coat of arms granted to the Council of King's College in 1937. In the Letters Patent authorising the transfer, the arms are blazoned Azure, a Cross of St Cuthbert Argent and in chief of the last a lion passant guardant Gules. Above the portico of the Students' Union building are bas-relief carvings of the arms and mottoes of the University of Durham, Armstrong College and Durham University College of Medicine, the predecessor parts of Newcastle University. While a Latin motto, "mens agitat molem" appears in the Students' Union building, the university itself does not have an official motto; the university occupies a campus site close to Haymarket in central Newcastle upon Tyne. It is located to the northwest of the city centre between the open spaces of Leazes Park and the Town Moor; the Armstrong building is the oldest building on the campus and is the site of the original Armstrong College. The building was constructed in three stages.
The south-east wing, which includes the Jubilee Tower, south-west wings were opened in 1894. The Jubilee Tower was built with surplus funds raised from an Exhibition to mark Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887; the north-west front, forming the main entrance, was completed in 1906 and features two stone figures to represent science and the arts. Much of the construction work was financed by Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, the metallurgist and former Lord Mayor of Newcastle, after whom the main tower is named. In 1906 it was opened by King Edward VII; the building contains the King's Hall, which serves as the university's chief hall for ceremonial purposes where Congregation ceremonies are held. It can contain 500 seats. King Edward VII gave permission to call King's Hall; the building was used as a hospital during the First World War. Graduation photographs are taken in the University Quadrangle, next to the Armstrong building
Education Resources Information Center
The Education Resources Information Center is an online digital library of education research and information. ERIC is sponsored by the Institute of Education Sciences of the United States Department of Education; the mission of ERIC is to provide a comprehensive, easy-to-use, Internet-based bibliographic and full-text database of education research and information for educators and the general public. Education research and information are essential to improving teaching and educational decision-making. ERIC provides access to 1.5 million bibliographic records of journal articles and other education-related materials, with hundreds of new records added every week. A key component of ERIC is its collection of grey literature in education, available in full text in Adobe PDF format. One quarter of the complete ERIC Collection is available in full text. Materials with no full text available can be accessed using links to publisher websites and/or library holdings. ERIC includes education related articles in its database.
Sample articles include "The Economic and Administrative Pharmacy Discipline in US Schools and Colleges of Pharmacy", "Aesthetics in Young Children's Lives: From Music Technology Curriculum Perspective ", "Digital Game's Impacts on Students' Learning Effectiveness of Correct Medication ". The ERIC Collection, begun in 1966, contains records for a variety of publication types, including: journal articles books research syntheses conference papers technical reports dissertations policy papers, other education-related materialsERIC provides the public with a centralized Web site for searching the ERIC collection and submitting materials to be considered for inclusion in the collection. Users can access the collection through commercial database vendors and institutional networks, Internet search engines. To help users find the information they are seeking, ERIC produces a controlled vocabulary, the Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors; this is a selected list of education-related words and phrases used to tag materials by subject and make them easier to retrieve through a search.
Prior to January 2004, the ERIC network consisted of sixteen subject-specific clearinghouses, various adjunct and affiliate clearinghouses, three support components. The program was consolidated into a single entity, with upgraded systems, paper-based processes converted to electronic, thus streamlining operations and speeding delivery of content. ERIC website ERIC Digests, a repository for materials produced by the former ERIC Clearinghouse system up to 2003