The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into sections and shelves. It is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market; the supermarket has aisles for meat, fresh produce and baked goods. Shelf space is reserved for canned and packaged goods and for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies; some supermarkets sell other household products that are consumed such as alcohol and clothes, some sell a much wider range of non-food products: DVDs, sporting equipment, board games, seasonal items. A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, Mobile Phone services, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies or petrol stations. If the eatery in a supermarket is substantial enough, the facility may be called a "grocerant", a blend of "grocery" and "restaurant".
The traditional supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space on a single level. It is situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers; the basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and the convenience of shopping hours that extend into the evening or 24 hours of the day. Supermarkets allocate large budgets to advertising through newspapers, they present elaborate in-shop displays of products. Supermarkets are chain stores, supplied by the distribution centers of their parent companies thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale. Supermarkets offer products at low prices by using their buying power to buy goods from manufacturers at lower prices than smaller stores can, they minimise financing costs by paying for goods at least 30 days after receipt and some extract credit terms of 90 days or more from vendors. Certain products are occasionally sold as loss leaders so as to attract shoppers to their store.
Supermarkets make up for their low margins by a high volume of sales, with of higher-margin items bought by the attracted shoppers. Self-service with shopping carts or baskets reduces labor cost, many supermarket chains are attempting further reduction by shifting to self-service check-out. In the early days of retailing, products were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer; this offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature slow and labor-intensive and therefore quite expensive. The number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.
Shopping for groceries often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, bakery and dry goods store. Milk and other items of short shelf life were delivered by a milkman; the concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, creating, in effect, an open-air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit and flowers; the expectation was that customers would come from great distances, but in the end attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores, his first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas; the stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, became common in North American cities in the 1920s.
Early self-service grocery stores did not produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. There has been debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims. Other contenders included Henke & Pillot. To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H. J. Heinz, researched the issue, they defined the attributes of a supermarket as "self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing and volume selling."They determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City; the store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventee
Harps Food Stores
Harps Food Stores, Inc. based in Springdale, Arkansas, is a chain of 91 supermarkets located across Arkansas, Oklahoma and Kansas. The company sells both groceries and sporting goods in some larger stores, they operate stores under the Food4Less and 10-Box Banner. Harps Food Stores was founded in 1930 by Floy Harp. In 2001, Harps became employee-owned after buying company shares from the Harp family; the stores are supplied by Kansas based Associated Wholesale Grocers. The company is valued around $550 million, employed 4,450 people in 2017. De Soto Alton Dexter Doniphan Joplin Malden Noel Poplar Bluff Seligman Thayer Richmond Harps Food Stores Associated Wholesale Grocers
IGA is a U. S. brand of grocery stores that operates in more than 30 countries. Unlike the chain store business model, IGA operates as a franchise through stores that are owned separately from the brand. Many of these stores belong to families that manage them, it was founded in the United States as the Independent Grocers Alliance. The headquarters is in Illinois. IPA is owned by IGA in Ontario, Canada. IGA was started in May 1926 when a group of 100 independent retailers in Poughkeepsie, New York, Sharon, led by J. Frank Grimes, organized themselves into a single marketing system. Guidance from the IGA management came in the form of marketing and access to a consistent supply chain. After a few years, the company began making its own canned food brand. By the end of its first year, the group had expanded to include more than 150 retailers. In 1930, there were over 8,000 grocery stores using the IGA name. William Olsen was the company CEO until 1988. Haggai retired in 2016; the company uses the "Hometown Proud Supermarkets" slogan.
Today, many IGA grocery stores are still located in smaller cities and towns throughout the United States. The stores in the alliance remain independently operated; the alliance oversees several resources shared among the member stores. These include, most visibly, the IGA store brand products and the logistical network that distributes them; the alliance provides training and assessment programs and an online advertising platform. It coordinates promotional events and charity fundraising events that benefit store communities. In Canada, IGA is a group of independent grocers supplied by Sobeys. Acquired by Sobeys as part of its purchase of the Oshawa Group Ltd. it now operates in Quebec. The IGA operations in Atlantic Canada were sold to Loblaw Companies Limited and were restructured under its existing brands; the company-owned stores west of Quebec now operate under the Sobeys banner. In Ontario, Sobeys announced the closure of the IGA program in Ontario, forcing franchise-owned IGA stores to convert to the Foodland banner in order to remove control of independently-owned stores from their respective operators and impose Sobeys' own policies for their operation.
There are, many IGA stores still operating in Manitoba and Alberta, with one opening in Emerald Park, Saskatchewan in 2016. IGA Extra locations are larger and carry a wider variety of general merchandise, more akin to the hypermarket model, they include a pharmacy, large bakery, a bank, a bistro, a post office and a larger selection of food items. IGA Extra launched in the early 2000s to take the place of Sobeys locations in the Quebec City and Montreal areas. In 2015, several COOP Atlantic stores became IGA stores supplied by Sobeys Quebec after COOP decided to exit the grocery store business. In addition, IGA in Quebec operates smaller supermarkets, such as Bonichoix and Tradition. In British Columbia, IGA stores are, for the most part, independently owned and are operated by Georgia Main Food Group The Independent Grocers of Australia brand is owned by Metcash, an Australian retailer and wholesaler; this company supplies groceries, promotional materials and other things to a large number of locally owned Australian supermarkets, a few smaller chains.
Collectively, they are the third biggest competitor in major Australian supermarkets, after Coles and Woolworths. In Western Australia On May 1, 2006, IGA grew to include Dewsons, Advantage, Four Square and SupaValu after Western Australia's largest independent retailer Foodland Associated Limited had sold all of its supermarkets and distribution networks to Metcash IGA Distribution Pty Ltd and Woolworths Limited. Subsequent rebranding by Metcash and Woolworths has eliminated any previous links with Western Australian retail heritage. Walter Mart Supermarket is the first and only alliance member in the Philippines with 21 locations in Metro Manila and Luzon - from Gapan, Nueva Ecija in the north to Tanauan, Batangas in the south. List of supermarket chains List of supermarket chains in Canada List of supermarket chains in Oceania List of supermarket chains in the United States IGA USA IGA Quebec IGA British Columbia IGA Australia Burlington Retro Meet the town's first supermarket
Reasor Llc is an Employee-owned, full-service, regional grocery store chain based in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Reasor's has nineteen locations in northeastern Oklahoma. One source has stated that the company has 2500 employees, while the Reasor's home page has indicated that the company has "over 2000 employees." Reasor's offers services typical of large grocery stores: meat and deli products, fresh produce and cheese products, canned goods, etc. Most locations offer in-store banking services, pharmacies. Reasor's has begun the service of allowing customers to shop for groceries online. Reasor's was founded in 1963 with a single store located in Tahlequah by Larry Reasor, his fundamental business philosophy was to "sell the customers items they want to buy." Reasor's current CEO is Jeff Reasor. He has stated that "customer service" and "putting customers needs first" continue to be the primary business philosophy of Reasor's. Grocery store Chain store Reasor's homepage History and mission statement from Jeff Reasor, CEO Reasor's Llc profile at Hoovers.com
Houchens Industries is an American employee-owned company, in business since 1918 when it began as a small grocery operated by founder Ervin Houchens in rural Barren County, Kentucky. The company is headquartered in Kentucky; the company runs about 425 convenience stores. Sales in 2006 were just under $2 billion, with 10,500 employees; the company is best known as a grocer and operating convenience stores and supermarkets. In 2004, Houchens acquired Food Giant supermarkets, which operates stores under the Food Giant, Market Place and Piggly Wiggly name. In recent years, Houchens Industries has diversified with acquisitions of a Bowling Green-based construction company, as well as recycling, cigarette manufacturing, warehousing. Price Less Foods/Price Less IGA is the newest brand of stores to join Houchens. Price Less Foods and Price Less IGA are a chain supermarkets located in Alabama, Illinois, Indiana and Virginia, they operate on a cost-plus format. They price their products at the cost and add 10 percent to the final cost at the checkout.
They do not have weekly sales ads. The only difference between Price Less Foods and Price Less IGA is that "Foods" does not sell IGA brand products, they sell Best Choice and Always Save brands as well as other top national brands. They have 28 locations, are expanding; the company traces its beginnings to 1917, when founder Ervin Houchens opened his first store at the age of 19 in a shed in southern Kentucky. This shed, along with other historical structures, has been well preserved and is open to the public, he sold the company in 1983. The current CEO, Jimmie Gipson, started as an accountant. In 2004, Houchens acquired Hitcents, an Internet marketing and development company founded by two high school students from Bowling Green, now headquartered at Hitcents Park Plaza in Downtown Bowling Green. In 2007, the company sold its Commonwealth Brands subsidiary, the fourth-largest cigarette producer in the United States, to the British company Imperial Tobacco Group PLC for $1.9 billion. It had acquired the company from its founder Brad Kelley in 2001.
Diversification continued in 2007 when Houchens announced that it would acquire Hilliard Lyons, a full-service stock broker and investment firm based in Louisville, from PNC Financial Services. The sale was completed in March 2008. In January 2008, Houchens announced that it would acquire 14 convenience stores which sell Shell Oil products from Bowling Green businessman Jerry Browning; the stores are located in surrounding towns. In April 2008, Buehler Foods of Jasper, signed a letter of intent to sell the company to Houchens. In July 2008, Houchens acquired juice maker Tampico Beverages. In January 2010, White's Fresh Foods, in the Tri-Cities, Tennessee area sold their local grocery chain to Houchens; the company has been owned by its employee stock ownership plan since 1988. Employees select members of the board of directors and vote on the sale of any substantial assets. Houchens Industries sponsors the annual Kentucky High School Athletic Association's Girls' "Sweet 16" Basketball Championship Tournament, held annually at WKU's E.
A. Diddle Arena. Houchens contributes to the community, most notably Western Kentucky University having acquiring naming rights to WKU's football home, Houchens Industries-L. T. Smith Stadium in Bowling Green. Hoovers.com factsheet
Kansas City, Kansas
Kansas City is the third-largest city in the State of Kansas, the county seat of Wyandotte County, the third-largest city of the Kansas City metropolitan area. Kansas City, Kansas is abbreviated as "KCK" to differentiate it from Kansas City, after which it is named, it is part of a consolidated city-county government known as the "Unified Government". Wyandotte County includes the independent cities of Bonner Springs and Edwardsville; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 145,786 residents. It is situated at Kaw Point, the junction of the Missouri and Kansas rivers. In October 1872, "old" Kansas City, was incorporated; the first city election was held on October 22 of that year, by order of Judge Hiram Stevens of the Tenth Judicial District, resulted in the election of Mayor James Boyle. The mayors of the city after its organization were James Boyle, C. A. Eidemiller, A. S. Orbison, Eli Teed and Samuel McConnell. In June 1880, the Governor of Kansas proclaimed the city of Kansas City a city of the second class with Mayor McConnell present.
In March 1886, "new" Kansas City, was formed through the consolidation of five municipalities: "old" Kansas City, Armourdale, Wyandotte. The oldest city of the group was Wyandotte, formed in 1857 by Wyandot Native Americans and Methodist missionaries. In the 1890s, the city saw an explosive growth in population as a streetcar suburb of Kansas City, Missouri; this growth continued until the 1930s. It was one of the nation's 100 largest cities for many U. S. Census counts, from 1890 to 1960, including 1920, when it had a population of over 100,000 residents for the first time; as with adjacent Kansas City, the percentage of the city's most populous ethnic group, non-Hispanic whites, has declined from 76.3% in 1970 to 40.2% in 2010. In 1997, voters approved a proposition to unify the city and county governments creating the Unified Government of Wyandotte County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 128.38 square miles, of which, 124.81 square miles is land and 3.57 square miles is water.
Neighborhoods of Kansas City, include the following: Downtown Argentine − former home to the silver smelter for which it was named. Armourdale − a city, it was consolidated with the city of Kansas City in 1886. Armstrong − a town absorbed by Wyandotte. Bethel − a neighborhood located along Leavenworth Rd. between 72nd and 77th Streets. It was never incorporated as a municipality. Fairfax District − an industrial area along the Missouri River. Muncie Maywood − until the late 1990s, Maywood was a quiet, isolated residential area. Nearman Piper Polish Hill Pomeroy − a late-19th—early-20th-century Train Depot, Trading Post, Saw Mill, river landing for barges to load and unload. Riverview Rosedale − merged with Kansas City in 1922. Stony Point Strawberry Hill Turner − community around the Wyandotte-Johnson County border to the Kansas River north-south, from I-635 to I-435 east-west. Vinewood Wolcott Welborn City Park Wyandotte County Lake Park Kansas City lies in the Midwestern United States, as well as near the geographic center of the country, at the confluence of the longest river in the country, the Missouri River, the Kansas River.
The city lies in the Humid continental climate zone, with four distinct seasons, moderate precipitation, is part of USDA plant hardiness zones 5b and 6a Being located in the center of North America, far removed from a significant body of water, there is significant potential for extremes of hot and cold swings in temperature throughout the year. Unless otherwise stated, normal figures below are based on data from 1981 to 2010 at Downtown Airport; the warmest month of the year is July, with a 24-hour average temperature of 81.0 °F. The summer months are hot, but can get hot and moderately humid, with moist air riding up from the Gulf of Mexico. High temperatures surpass 100 °F on 5.6 days of the year, 90 °F on 47 days. The coldest month of the year is January, with an average temperature of 31.0 °F. Winters are cold, with 22 days where the high is at or below the freezing mark and 2.5 nights with a low at or below 0 °F. The official record maximum temperature is 113 °F, set on August 14, 1936, at Downtown Airport, while the official record minimum temperature is −23 °F, set on December 22 and 23, 1989.
Normal seasonal snowfall is 13.4 inches at Downtown Airport and 18.8 in at Kansas City International Airport. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 31 to April 4, while for measurable snowfall, it is November 27 to March 16 as measured at Kansas City International Airport. Precipitation, both in frequency and total accumulation, shows a marked uptick in late spring and summer. Kansas City is situated on the edge of the "Tornado Alley", a broad region where cold air from the Rocky Mountains in Canada collides with warm air from the Gulf of Mexico, leading to the formation of powerful storms during the spring. A few areas of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area have had some severe outbreaks of tornadoes at different points in the past, including the Ruskin Heights tornado in 1957, the May 2003 tornado outbreak sequence; the region can fall victim to the sporadic ice storm during the winter months, such as the 2002 ice