Pohang University of Science and Technology
Pohang University of Science and Technology is a private research university in Pohang, South Korea dedicated to research and education in science and technology. In 2012-2014, the Times Higher Education ranked POSTECH 1st in its "100 Under 50 Young Universities" rankings. Since its establishment, POSTECH has been maintaining its prestige and reputation as one of the most prominent young research universities in the world, being 83rd overall in the QS World University Rankings 2019 and 12th best in QS Asia University Ranking 2017-2018. POSTECH was established in 1986 in Pohang, Korea by POSCO, one of the world's leading steel companies, for the purpose of providing advanced education for budding engineers and laying the groundwork for future technological development; the founder of POSCO and the founding chairman of POSTECH, Park Tae-joon realized the need for Korea to educate their youth in science and technology to ensure Korea's position in the high technology arena. Park wanted to use the California Institute of Technology as a model for POSTECH and visited the university on a business trip to Los Angeles in 1985.
He noted characteristics of Caltech and requested to the POSTECH founding team to establish a contemporary research university that had: a low student-faculty ratio, a greater proportion of graduate students to undergraduates, a low net education cost, student on-campus housing, a high-quality campus environment. These features represented a drastic departure from the Korean universities of the 1980s. POSCO organized a task force on February 21, 1984 made up of POSCO employees selected by the company. Construction work began on August 17, 1985. On May 4, 1986, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visited POSTECH and donated an Inmos transputer, one of the leading edge computer parts at the time; the first matriculation ceremony was held on March 5, 1987. A group of 249 freshmen were selected from the top one percent of all graduating seniors in Korea to be taught by an international faculty recruited by POSTECH founding president Hogil Kim and POSTECH task force head manager Dai Kong Lee.
The first degree awarding ceremony was on February 20, 1991. Diplomas were awarded to 146 graduating seniors; the remaining 23 graduates were employed by the nation's major corporations including POSCO, Samsung, LG, Hyundai. To facilitate translational research and active academia-industry collaboration, POSTECH hosted POSCO's Research Institute of Science and Technology on campus. In 1994, POSTECH set up the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, a 3rd-generation synchrotron light source and now a national facility; the 4th-generation light source X-ray free electron laser is under construction at the cost of US$400 million, which will be the third one in the world and will open up new frontiers and research areas in life sciences, materials and physics. In 1998, POSTECH was ranked by Asiaweek as the best technology university in Asia. From 2002 to 2006, one of Korea's most circulated daily newspapers, JoongAng Ilbo, ranked POSTECH as the leading university in Korea. In 2010, the Times Higher Education ranked POSTECH 28th in the world.
In 2011, the Times Higher Education ranked the university as the 53rd best university in the world, the 6th best in Asia, the best in South Korea. In 2017-2018, QS World University Rankings ranked POSTECH 71st overall in the world, it remains third best ranked in Korea, after Seoul National University and KAIST, in the QS Asian University Rankings. However, in the Times Higher Education rankings, it scored after compilers placed less emphasis on "reputation and heritage" and gave more weight to objective measures including the influence of universities' research, placing 53rd. In 2012 and 2013, the Times Higher Education ranked POSTECH 1st in its "100 Under 50 Young Universities" rankings; the New York Times and the International Herald Tribune cited POSTECH's rapid ascent as a young university to top the world rankings in less than 50 years. POSTECH is a 400-acre campus located twenty minutes by car from downtown Pohang, an hour by bus from Busan, two and half hours by train from Seoul. Completed in 2003, the Tae-Joon Park Library is 24,420 square meters with 352,977 volumes and 8,324 digital and paper journals.
As of 2005, the library collection consists of 320,000 books, 3,500 journals, 7,000 e-journals 25 databases, 4,400 multimedia materials. The Library shares materials with industrial-educational-research cooperation and is part of an intercollegiate data exchange program with 150 other research and educational institutions throughout the nation. POSTECH operates a Smart Campus where the scientific and technological information of the world is accessible anywhere on campus using different types of smart phones and mobile devices as well as laptops. In 2010, for the first time among Korean universities, POSTECH implemented a Desktop Cloud Service, providing a convenient and secure computing environment. However, as of 2018, many of the implemented technological services are defective as they have not been since updated, are only accessible through Internet Explorer. POSTECH offers students living on-campus in affordable dormitories and apartments for married graduate students; the student housing complex is composed of 23 five-story student dormitories, one 13-story undergraduate student dormitory, 4 graduate student apartments.
All POSTECH undergraduate students are required to live in one of the on-campus dormitories and many graduate students prefer to stay on campus, either in the student dormitories or in one of the f
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology is a public research university in Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong. Founded in 1991, it is the territory's third institution being granted university status along with establishment. HKUST is regarded as one of the fastest growing universities in the world; as of 2019, the university was ranked seventh in Asia by QS and fifth by Times, around top 40 internationally. It ranked first in Times Higher Education Young University Rankings in 2018 and second by QS world's under-50 universities in 2019. Today, the university consists of four main academic schools, offering programs in science, engineering and management, humanities and social science, along with the Interdisciplinary Programs Office, Fok Ying Tung Graduate School and Institute for Public Policy. In the late 1980s the Hong Kong Government anticipated a strong demand for university graduates to fuel an economy based on services. Sir Sze-Yuen Chung and Sir Edward Youde, the Governor of Hong Kong, conceived the idea of another university in addition to the pre-existing two universities, The University of Hong Kong and The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Planning for the "Third University", named The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology began in 1986. Construction began at the Kohima Camp site in Tai Po Tsai on the Clear Water Bay Peninsula; the site was earmarked for the construction of a new British Army garrison, but plans for the construction of the garrison were shelved after the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed in 1984. Scheduled to finish in 1994, the death of Sir Edward in 1986 led to increased effort and allowed UST to open its doors early – in 1991. Several leading scientists and researchers took up positions at the new university in its early years, including physicist Leroy Chang who arrived in 1993 as Dean of Science and went on to become Vice-President for Academic Affairs. Thomas E. Stelson was a founding member of the administration; the project was criticised for surpassing the budget set forth by the Hong Kong Government and the Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club. However, under the fund-raising efforts of its President, Woo Chia-wei, the first students enrolled in October 1991.
By 1992, accommodation and athletic facilities were expanded to support about 7,000 students. Several more expansion projects such as the construction of the Hong Kong Jockey Club Enterprise Center have since been completed; the library extension building, Lee Shau Kee Business Building, Lo Ka Chung Building, South Bus Station, Undergraduate Halls VIII and IX, Cheng Yu Tung Building and the Conference Lodge, are the latest additions to the campus. Established in 1991 under Chapter 1141 of the Laws of Hong Kong, HKUST is one of the eight statutory universities in Hong Kong, it is an institution funded by the University Grants Committee. As with all other statutory universities in Hong Kong, the Chief Executive of HKSAR acts as the Chancellor of HKUST. Prior to the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, this was a ceremonial title bestowed upon the Governor of Hong Kong; the supreme governing body of the university is its Council, formed by a total of 27 members. Council members include university administrators, the chairperson of the alumni Convocation, an elected staff member, an elected full-time student representative, as well as 17 "lay members" not being employees or students at the university.
Under the HKUST Ordinance, The Chief Executive of HKSAR possesses the power of directly appointing the chairman and vice-chairman of the Council, the Treasurer of the University, not more than 9 of the lay members. The Senate acts as the university's supreme academic body, responsible for making and reviewing the academic policies of the university, it is composed of academic staff members but includes the Students' Union president, an elected representative of the undergraduates as well as an elected representative of the postgraduates. Being the supreme advisory body of the university, the Court is responsible for promoting the university's interests and to raise funds; the university is a campus university, occupying a 60-hectare site at the northern part of Clear Water Bay Peninsula in Sai Kung District, New Territories, Hong Kong, overlooking Port Shelter in Tai Po Tsai. The campus layout and architecture is based on a master plan submitted jointly by Simon Kwan & Associates and Percy Thomas Partnership, the runner-up entry in an architectural competition held before the university was founded.
As the campus has a sloped terrain and facilities are built on separate terraces carved out of the hillside, with the academic facilities occupying the top-level terraces, undergraduate halls of residence and sporting facilities at the seafront. The terraces are connected by motor roads as well as a network of footbridges and elevators known as Bridge Link; the countryside setting of the university contributed to the fact that HKUST was once the only public university in Hong Kong not being directly served by an MTR station, prior to the re-titling of the Education University of Hong Kong. The university is connected to the metro network through public bus routes including 91, 91M and 792M, complemented by a handful of minibus services, with Choi Hung and Hang Hau stations being the major feeder points. Academic activities are conducted in the Academic Building, which contains 10 lecture theatres, a multitude of classrooms and administrative offices; the lecture theatres can offer audiovisual equipment.
In addition, an information center and a souvenir shop can be found at the Piazza. Prior to 2013, offices a
East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea; the region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China influenced East Asia as it was principally the leading civilization in the region exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, East Asian vocabulary and scripts are derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script; the Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from.
Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism and Neo-Confucianism, Ancestral worship, Chinese folk religion in Greater China and Shintoism in Japan, Christianity and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus. East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state; the overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre, about three times the world average of 45/km2. In comparison with the profound influence of the Ancient Greeks and Romans on Europe and the Western World, China would possess an advanced civilization nearly half a millennia before Japan and Korea.
As Chinese civilization existed for about 1500 years before other East Asian civilizations emerged into history, Imperial China would exert much of its cultural, economic and political muscle onto its neighbors. Succeeding Chinese dynasties exerted enormous influence across East Asia culturally, economically and militarily for over two millennia. Imperial China's cultural preeminence not only led the country to become East Asia's first literate nation in the entire region, it supplied Japan and Korea with Chinese loanwords and linguistic influences rooted in their writing systems. In addition, the Chinese Han dynasty hosted the largest unified population in East Asia, the most literate and urbanized as well as being the most technologically and culturally advanced civilization in the region. Cultural and religious interaction between the Chinese and other regional East Asian dynasties and kingdoms occurred. China's impact and influence on Korea began with the Han dynasty's northeastern expansion in 108 BC when the Han Chinese conquered the northern part of the Korean peninsula and established a province called Lelang.
Chinese influence would soon take root in Korea through the inclusion of the Chinese writing system, monetary system, rice culture, Confucian political institutions. Jōmon society in ancient Japan incorporated wet-rice cultivation and metallurgy through its contact with Korea. Vietnamese society was impacted by Chinese influence, the northern part of Vietnam was occupied by Chinese empires and states for all of the period from 111 BC to 938 AD. In addition to administration, making Chinese the language of administration, the long period of Chinese domination introduced Chinese techniques of dike construction, rice cultivation, animal husbandry. Chinese culture, having been established among the elite mandarin class, remained the dominant current among that elite for most of the next 1,000 years until the loss of independence under French Indochina; this cultural affiliation to China remained true when militarily defending Vietnam against attempted invasion, such as against the Mongol Kublai Khan.
The only significant exceptions to this were the 7 years of the anti-Chinese Hồ dynasty which banned the use of Chinese, but after the expulsion of the Ming the rise in vernacular chữ nôm literature. Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and political independence; as full-fledged medieval East Asian states were established, Korea by the fourth century AD and Japan by the seventh century AD, Korea and Vietnam began to incorporate Chinese influences such as Confucianism, the use of written Han characters, Chinese style architecture, state institutions, political philosophies, urban planning, various scientific and technological methods into their culture and society through direct contacts with succeeding Chinese dynasties. For many centuries, most notably from the 7th to the 14th centuries, China stood as East Asia's most advanced civilization, commanding influence across the region up until the early modern period.
The Imperial Chinese tributary system shaped much of East Asia's history for over two millennia due to Imperial China's economic and cultural influence over the region, thus played a huge role in the history of East Asia in particular. The trans
University of Science and Technology of China
The University of Science and Technology of China is a national research university in Hefei, China, under the direct leadership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is a member of China's equivalent of the Ivy League, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. Founded in Beijing by the CAS in September 1958, it was moved to Hefei in the beginning of 1970 during the Cultural Revolution. USTC was founded with the mission of addressing urgent needs to improve China's economy, defense infrastructure, science and technology education, its core strength is scientific and technological research, more has expanded into humanities and management with a strong scientific and engineering emphasis. USTC has 12 schools, 30 departments, the Special Class for the Gifted Young, the Experimental Class for Teaching Reform, Graduate Schools, a Software School, a School of Network Education, a School of Continuing Education. In 2012 the Institute of Advanced Technology, University of Science and Technology of China was founded.
USTC was founded in Beijing by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in September 1958. The Director of CAS, Mr. Guo Moruo was appointed the first president of USTC. USTC's founding mission was to develop a high-level science and technology workforce, as deemed critical for development of China's economy and science and technology education; the establishment was hailed as "A Major Event in the History of Chinese Education and Science." CAS has supported USTC by combining most of its institutes with the departments of the university. USTC is listed in the top 16 national key universities, becoming the youngest national key university. In 1969, USTC was moved to Anhui province and settled in Hefei in 1970. USTC set up the Special Class for the Gifted Young and the first graduate school in China in 1978; the campus for graduate study in Hefei was established in 1986. Original campus for graduate study in Beijing was renamed the Graduate School of the CAS in 2001 and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2012.
In 1995, USTC was amongst the first batch of universities obtaining support through the National 9th Five-Year Plan and the "Project 211". In 1999, USTC was singled out as one of the 9 universities enjoying priority support from the nation's "Plan of Vitalizing Education Action Geared to the 21st Century". Since September 2002, USTC has been implementing its "Project 211" construction during the 10th National Development Plan. Bao Xinhe, Physical chemist, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Shu Gequn, Party Secretary. Zhou Guangzhao, Honorary President Bai Chunli, Honorary PresidentPresidents: Guo Moruo, September 1958 – June 1978 Yan Jici, February 1980 – September 1984 Guan Weiyan, April 1985 – January 1987 Teng Teng, January 1987 – February 1988 Gu Chaohao, February 1988 – July 1993 Tang Honggao, July 1993 – June 1998 Zhu Qingshi, June 1998 – September 2008 Hou Jianguo, September 2008 – January 2015 Wan Lijun, March 2015 – June 2017 Bao Xinhe, June 2017 – present USTC adheres to the school-running principle of pursuing the national interest and innovative pioneering.
It upholds the combination of science with technology, teaching with research, theory with practice. In a short period, USTC has turned into a comprehensive national key university with a focus on science and technology. USTC offers management studies involved with science and technology and the humanities. With the motto, "Studying diligently, making progress both in study and development of moral character", USTC has made distinguished achievements in talent fostering, scientific research and technology transfer, turning into an important base of high-qualified talent training and high-level scientific research for the nation. USTC is regarded by the Ministry of Science and Technology as one of the 4 universities with best scientific research performance in China, it ranks among the best in the review of Chinese top universities by the US journal "Science" and the French journal "Research". There are 13 schools, 27 departments, the Special Class for the Gifted Young, the Experimental Class for the Teaching Reform, the Graduate School, School of Management, the Software School, School of Network Education, School of Continuing Education and Institute of Advanced Technology.
USTC offers 43 undergraduate specialties, 17 first-category Ph. D. degree programs, 89 second-category Ph. D. degree programs, 105 second-category master's degree specialties. It becomes the key base for the education of the Ph. D. students within the CAS. USTC has three national research institutions and 6 key laboratories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, it has some key scientific research institutions such as the CAS Research Center for Thermal Safety Engineering and Technology. 16 academic societies are affiliated with the University, including the Synchrotron Radiation Committee under the China Society of Physics, the System Simulation Committee under the China Society of Automation, the Quantum Optics Committee under the China Society of Physics. The University publishes some important academic journals, such as "Journal of the University of Science and Technology", "Fire Science", "Journal of Low Temperature Physics", "Journal of Chemical Physics", "Experimental Mechanics", "Education and Modernization".
There are more than 3600 faculty and staff numbers, 46 CAS and CAE academicians, 528 professors. The number of students accepting normal higher education at USTC totals around 13794, 8243 undergraduate students, 3873 master's degree students, 1498 Ph. D. students among them. Besides, it has 1575 professional master's degree students, 110 post-doctoral fellows and 134 guest profess
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou and its surrounding area in Southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety and standard form of Yue Chinese, one of the major subgroups of Chinese. In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi, it is the official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Cantonese is widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia and throughout the Western world. While the term Cantonese refers to the prestige variety, it is used in a broader sense for the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese; when Cantonese and the related Yuehai dialects are classified together, there are about 80 million total speakers. Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
Although Cantonese shares a lot of vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation and lexicon. Sentence structure, in particular the placement of verbs, sometimes differs between the two varieties. A notable difference between Cantonese and Mandarin is; this results in the situation in which a Cantonese and a Mandarin text may look similar but are pronounced differently. In English, the term "Cantonese" can be ambiguous. Cantonese proper is the variety native to the city of Canton, the traditional English name of Guangzhou; this narrow sense may be specified as "Canton language" or "Guangzhou language". However, "Cantonese" may refer to the primary branch of Chinese that contains Cantonese proper as well as Taishanese and Gaoyang. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Speakers called this variety "Canton speech" or "Guangzhou speech", although this term is now used outside Guangzhou. In Guangdong and Guangxi, people call it "provincial capital speech" or "plain speech".
Academically called "Canton prefecture speech". In Hong Kong and Macau, as well as among overseas Chinese communities, the language is referred to as "Guangdong speech" or "Canton Province speech", or as "Chinese". In mainland China, the term "Guangdong speech" is increasingly being used amongst both native and non-native speakers. Given the history of the development of the Yue languages and dialects during the Tang dynasty migrations to the region, in overseas Chinese communities, it is referred to as "Tang speech", given that the Cantonese people refer to themselves as "people of Tang". Due to its status as a prestige dialect among all the dialects of the Yue branch of Chinese varieties, it is called "Standard Cantonese"; the official languages of Hong Kong are English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law. The Chinese language has many different varieties. Given the traditional predominance of Cantonese within Hong Kong, it is the de facto official spoken form of the Chinese language used in the Hong Kong Government and all courts and tribunals.
It is used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English. A similar situation exists in neighboring Macau, where Chinese is an official language alongside Portuguese; as in Hong Kong, Cantonese is the predominant spoken variety of Chinese used in everyday life and is thus the official form of Chinese used in the government. The Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong and Macau is mutually intelligible with the Cantonese spoken in the mainland city of Guangzhou, although there exist some minor differences in accent and vocabulary. Cantonese first developed around the port city of Guangzhou in the Pearl River Delta region of southeastern China. Due to the city's long standing as an important cultural center, Cantonese emerged as the prestige dialect of the Yue varieties of Chinese in the Southern Song dynasty and its usage spread around most of what is now the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite the cession of Macau to Portugal in 1557 and Hong Kong to Britain in 1842, the ethnic Chinese population of the two territories originated from the 19th and 20th century immigration from Guangzhou and surrounding areas, making Cantonese the predominant Chinese language in the territories.
On the mainland, Cantonese continued to serve as the lingua franca of Guangdong and Guangxi provinces after Mandarin was made the official language of the government by the Qing dynasty in the early 1900s. Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region. While the Chinese government vehemently discourages the official use of all forms of Chinese except Standard Chinese, Cantonese enjoys a higher standing than other Chinese langua
The Ryukyu Islands known as the Nansei Islands or the Ryukyu Arc, are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Amami and Sakishima Islands, with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are high islands and the smaller coral; the largest is Okinawa Island. The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate in the north to tropical rainforest climate in the south. Precipitation is high, is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait between the Tokara and Amami Islands, the Kerama Gap between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands; the islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs. The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the Amami, Okinawa and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them.
The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken; the outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language. Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture; the northern islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese. The Ryukyus are divided into two or three primary groups: either administratively, with the Northern Ryukyus being the islands in Kagoshima Prefecture and the Southern Ryukyus being the islands in Okinawa Prefecture, or geologically, with the islands north of the Tokara Strait being the Northern Ryukyus, those between the Tokara Strait and Kerama Gap being the Central Ryukyus, those south of the Kerama Gap being the Southern Ryukyus.
Following are the grouping and names used by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department of the Japan Coast Guard. The islands are listed from north to south. Nansei Islands Satsunan Islands Ōsumi Islands with: Tanegashima, Kuchinoerabu, Mageshima in the North-Eastern Group, Takeshima, Iōjima, Kuroshima in the North-Western Group. Tokara Islands: Kuchinoshima, Gajajima, Akusekijima, Kodakarajima, Takarajima Amami Islands: Amami Ōshima, Kakeromajima, Ukeshima, Okinoerabujima, Yoronjima Ryukyu Islands Okinawa Islands: Okinawa Island, Iheya, Aguni, Ie, Iwo Tori Shima Kerama Islands: Tokashiki, Aka, Geruma Sakishima Islands Miyako Islands: Miyakojima, Ikema, Ōgami, Shimoji, Minna, Tarama Yaeyama Islands: Iriomote, Taketomi, Kuroshima, Hatoma, Hateruma, Yonaguni Senkaku Islands: Uotsurijima, Kuba Jima, Taisho Jima, Kita Kojima, Minami Kojima Daitō Islands: Kita Daitō, Minami Daitō, Oki DaitōThe Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, another government organization, responsible for standardization of place names, disagrees with the Japan Coast Guard over some names and their extent, but the two are working on standardization.
They agreed on February 2010, to use Amami-guntō for the Amami Islands. The English and Japanese uses of the term "Ryukyu" differ. In English, the term Ryukyu may apply to the entire chain of islands, while in Japanese Ryukyu refers only to the islands that were part of the Ryūkyū Kingdom after 1624. Nansei-shotō is the official name for the whole island chain in Japanese. Japan has used the name on nautical charts since 1907. Based on the Japanese charts, the international chart series uses Nansei Shoto. Nansei means "southwest", the direction of the island chain from mainland Japan; some humanities scholars prefer the uncommon term Ryūkyū-ko for the entire island chain. In geology, the Ryukyu Arc includes subsurface structures such as the Okinawa Trough and extends to Kyushu. During the American occupation of Amami, the Japanese government objected to them being included under the name "Ryukyu" in English, because they worried that this might mean that the return of the Amami Islands to Japanese control would be delayed until the return of Okinawa.
However, the American occupational government on Amami continued to be called the "Provisional Government for th