José E. Serrano
José Enrique Serrano is an American politician, a member of the United States House of Representatives since 1990. Serrano, a Democrat from New York, represents a district, one of the smallest in the country geographically, consisting of a few square miles of the populated South Bronx in New York City, his district is one of the most densely populated and one of the few majority Hispanic districts in the country. The district was numbered the 18th from 1990 to 1993 and the 16th from 1993 to 2013, he is the longest-serving Hispanic-American in the House. Serrano was born in Puerto Rico. At the age of seven, Serrano was taken by his family to The Bronx, where he was raised in the Millbrook Houses. Serrano went to Grace Dodge Vocational High School in the Bronx and attended Lehman College, he served in the United States Army medical corps from 1964 to 1966. He was a member of the New York State Assembly from 1975 to 1990, sitting in the 181st, 182nd, 183rd, 184th, 185th, 186th, 187th and 188th New York State Legislatures.
His district was numbered the 75th until 1982, the 73rd from 1983 on. He was Chairman of the Committee on Consumer Affairs, of the Committee on Education. In 1990, Serrano won a special election for the seat vacated by resigning U. S. Congressman Robert García with 92% of the vote, he has never won re-election with less than 92% of the vote, in what is considered one of the safest seats in Congress. In 2004, Congressman Serrano faced an electoral challenge from Jose Serrano, an unemployed former loading dockworker with the same name who dropped out of the race in July. A member of the Progressive Caucus, he is regarded as one of the most progressive members of Congress, he has been questioned about his pork barrel spending by some fiscal conservative members of Congress. Arizona Congressman Jeff Flake once said of Serrano's $150,000 earmark to repair the roof at the city-owned Arthur Avenue Market, "I would argue this is one cannoli the taxpayer doesn't want to take a bite of." Serrano replied to Flake, "The more you get up on these, the more I realize that you do not know what you are talking about.
I make no excuses about the fact that I earmark dollars to go in the poorest congressional district in the nation, situated in the richest city on earth."On November 18, 2005, he was one of three votes in favor of immediate withdrawal of American troops from Iraq. The other two votes were from Robert Wexler of Florida. In 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, Serrano introduced a joint resolution proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States to repeal the 22nd Amendment, thereby removing the limitation on the number of terms an individual may be elected to as president; each resolution died without getting past the committee. Serrano has paid attention to local environmental issues in New York, with a particular focus on constructing greenways, acquiring parklands, cleaning up the Bronx River, which runs through his district. A beaver was discovered swimming in the river for the first time in 200 years, something seen as a testament to his efforts. In 2007, he engineered the purchase of the last owned island in New York harbor—South Brother Island—for preservation in perpetuity by the City of New York as a wildlife refuge for rare shorebirds.
Serrano is one of three New York-area congressmen on the House Appropriations Committee, the others being Nita Lowey of the 18th district and Grace Meng of 6th district. He is the ranking member of the Appropriations Subcommittee on Financial Services, having served as the chair; as chairman, he engineered the inclusion of language in the 2007 omnibus spending bill that guarantees the extension of the 50 State Quarters program to include the minting of 6 additional quarters to honor the District of Columbia and the 5 United States territories, including Serrano's native Puerto Rico. Serrano has been an advocate for Puerto Ricans under FBI prosecution. In May 2000, he brokered an agreement with then-FBI Director Louis Freeh Puerto Rican Independence Party Electoral Commissioner Manuel Rodríguez Orellana and Puerto Rico Senate Federal Affairs Committee chairman Kenneth McClintock, that has resulted in the release of nearly 100,000 pages of secret FBI files on Puerto Rican political activists.
Serrano was a critic of the Bush administration's approach to handling President Hugo Chávez of Venezuela. In 2005, while the Venezuelan President was in New York City speaking before the United Nations, the congressman invited him to his district to speak to his constituency. After Chávez' death, Serrano published condolences via Twitter describing him as a leader who "understood the needs of the poor, he was committed to empowering the powerless. R. I. P. Mr. President." His statements prompted a response from the Republican National Committee that described Serrano's tweet as "simply insulting that a Democrat Congressman would praise the authoritarian ruler Hugo Chávez."In March 2019, Serrano announced that he had been diagnosed with Parkinson's disease and would not seek re-election in 2020. Committee on Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice and Related Agencies Subcommittee on Financial Services and General Government Subcommittee on Interior and Related Agencies Congressional Hispanic Caucus Congressional Progressive Caucus.
International Conservation Caucus C
Iris Chacón Tapia is a Puerto Rican dancer and entertainer. She enjoys great popularity in Puerto Rico and in other Latin American countries, as well as such U. S. locales as New York and Los Angeles. Chacon has been known by various nicknames, such as "La Bomba de Puerto Rico", "La Vedette de América". During her heyday in the 1970s and early 1980s, she toured most of Latin America, the United States and Japan, she starred in two movies and many telenovelas, such as Yo Sé Que Mentía. In 1982, AMCAR, Inc. hired her for a television commercial about Amalie Oil Company automobile coolant products, which became one of the most famous television commercials in Puerto Rico's history. The publicity surrounding the commercial landed her in a front-page article in The Wall Street Journal in June 1983 entitled "A Onetime Choirgirl Rules as Sex Goddess On Puerto Rican TV"; the ad employed a play on words between the English word coolant and Spanish culón which means large derrière. From 1984 through the early 1990s, Iris Chacón appeared on such American TV shows as America Onstage, The Joan Rivers Show, The Merv Griffin Show, Geraldo Rivera Show, David Letterman.
Letterman described her as the Dolly Parton and Loni Anderson of Puerto Rico and joked about proposing to her. Griffin said of her that "she was the answer to'Where's the beef?'", a reference to the Wendy's commercial of that time period. However, by 1984, Chacón reached her peak, not being able to reach an "Anglo" market, ended her show in Puerto Rico by mid-1985 at the age of 35, her show aired in syndication until the end of the 1980s. Outside of the U. S. Chacón appeared on various Spanish-language programs, including Anabel, Siempre en Domingo, Mala Noche No, Al Ritmo de la Noche which were all Televisa productions. Chacón was married Latin musician Junno Faria, from 1977 to 2017, they have a daughter Katiria. Iris divide their time between residences in both Puerto Rico. Iris Chacón on IMDb
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Catalina Margarita López Ramos, better known as Marga López, was an Argentine-born Mexican actress. Born in Argentina, she acquired Mexican nationality, her parents were Dolores Ramos Nava. She had six siblings: Juan, Dolores, María and Manuel, she debuted in show business in her home country as a child, with her siblings, in the group known as Los Hermanitos López. In 1936, they journeyed through Latin America including Mexico. There she met her future husband Carlos Amador, a cinema producer, whom she married twice, in 1941 and in 1961, they had two children and Manuel. In 1964, she married actor Arturo de Córdova, who died in 1973, they acted together in Sinful. She appeared in more than 80 movies in the Golden Age of the Cinema of Mexico, sharing credits with Pedro Infante, Luis Aguilar, Ernesto Alonso, Tin Tan and Amparo Rivelles, she appeared in many telenovelas, her last one being Bajo la misma piel. By 2005, she had acute episodes of bronchitis, she was a chain smoker and did not give up tobacco until 2004.
On Tuesday, 19 April 2005, she suffered a heart attack while undergoing a health check-up test at a hospital in Mexico City. She died on July 2005, from cardiac arrhythmia; the Disobedient Son Los tres García Vuelven los García Cartas marcadas Music Inside Salón México Midnight Love for Love Arrabalera Girls in Uniform A Place Near Heaven Now I Am Rich A Divorce My Darling Clementine Los gavilanes La tercera palabra Del brazo y por la calle Nazarín Alfonso XII and María Cristina My Mother Is Guilty Peaches in Syrup Atrás de las nubes Hasta el viento tiene miedo El libro de piedra Marga López on IMDb
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
José Rómulo Sosa Ortiz, known by his stage name José José, is a Mexican singer and occasional actor. Born into a family of musicians and raised in Mexico City, José began his musical career in his early teens playing guitar and singing in serenades, he joined a jazz and bossa nova trio where he sang and played bass and double bass. José found success as a solo artist in the early 1970s. Demonstrating his tenor vocal ability with a stunning performance of the song "El Triste" at a Latin music festival held in Mexico City in 1970, he climbed the Latin charts during that decade. Having achieved recognition as a balladeer, his singing garnered universal critical acclaim from musical peers and media. In the 1980s, after signing with Ariola Records, José rose to international prominence as one of the most popular and talented Latin performers, his 1983 album Secretos has sold over 7 million units. With a large number of international hits, he received several Grammy nominations and recognition worldwide.
He sold out in venues such as Madison Square Garden and Radio City Music Hall. His music reached non-Spanish-speaking countries like Japan and Russia. José has forged a career as an actor, starring in movies such as Gavilán o Paloma and Perdóname Todo. Known in the entertainment world as El Príncipe de la Canción, his performance and vocal style have influenced many Latin pop artists in a career that has spanned more than four decades; because of his vocals and popularity, José José is considered by Latin audience and media as an icon of Latin pop music and one of the most emblematic Mexican singers of his time. José Rómulo Sosa Ortiz was born on 17 February 1948 in Azcapotzalco, Mexico City, he was raised in a Roman Catholic family of gifted musicians. His father, José Sosa Esquivel, was an operatic tenor and his mother, Margarita Ortiz, was a classical pianist; when José showed interest in singing, they tried to discourage him claiming that it was too difficult to be successful in show business.
In 1963, when he was fifteen years old, his mother gave him his first piano. In that time, his alcoholic father abandoned the family forcing José to work to help his mother and younger brother. In his early teens, José began his attempts to become a singer, he started his career with serenades. He co-founded a bossa nova and jazz trio called Los PEG, in which he sang and played bass and double bass; the band played at Mexico City's major jazz venues where musicians including Dizzy Gillespie, Erroll Garner, Antonio Carlos Jobim and João Gilberto used to play. In 1967, looking for a solo career, he signed a minor contract to produce two singles under the name "Pepe Sosa"; as Pepe Sosa he released the songs "El mundo" and "Ma Vie" without success. José returned to serenades and playing with Los PEG in night clubs, he left Los PEG, took the artistic name "José José" in honor of his father, who had died of alcoholism. He joined his first name "José" with his father's first name - José - from whom he says he inherited his voice.
He signed a contract with RCA Victor and recorded his first album: José José. The album featured songs by Rubén Fuentes and Armando Manzanero, it was arranged by Mario Patrón, considered the best jazz musician of Mexico, employed Brazilian percussionist Mayuto Correa, in Mexico City playing with bossa nova stars João Gilberto, Carlos Lira, Leny Andrade and Tamba Trio. The album's sound is a combination of boleros and romantic ballads with a jazz and bossa nova influence; the quality of his debut album garnered praise from critics but did not achieve much popular success. By the late 1960s his fame increased as he was featured on several TV shows performing his songs live. With songs such as "Una mañana" and "Cuidado", José started to get attention from the Mexican audience and media. In early 1970 he released the song "La nave del olvido" which became his first big hit in Mexico and Latin America, recorded his second album: La Nave Del Olvido. José's big break came on March 15, 1970, when he represented Mexico in the international song festival the II Festival de la Canción Latina with a performance of the song "El Triste".
He received standing ovations and cheers from Angélica María, Alberto Vázquez, Marco Antonio Muñiz, the judges and the audience in the Teatro Ferrocarrilero in Mexico City. José José finished in third place which shocked the audience. Thanks to "El Triste", his popular romantic ballad style mixed with a unique voice made him a major star in Mexico, his first international tour included Los Angeles, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica and Argentina. He played leading roles in such minor films as Sueño de amor and La carrera del millón. José performed concerts at the Hollywood Palladium and the Hollywood Bowl. During the early 1970s, José José became one of the best known romantic ballad singers in Latin America, he was featured on popular Mexican television shows, where he shared stage with icons of the Hispanic music scene such as Marco Antonio Muñiz, Pedro Vargas and Carlos Lico among others. In 1974, he performed at the Casino Royale & Hotel in Las Vegas, he had a large number of international hits and toured Latin America several times during the early to mid-1970s.
His main hits were: "Del altar a la tumba", "Buscando una sonrisa", "De pueblo en pueblo", "Soy como quieras tú", "Cuando tu me quieras", "Hasta que vuelvas", "Candilejas", "Paloma'Cada mañana que te vas'", "Sentimientos", "Vive", "Dejame conocerte", "Divina Ilusión" and "
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem